[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The inflammatory mediator high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the regulation of HMGB1 in NAFLD, particularly through sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of SIRT1-mediated inhibition of HMGB1 release in NAFLD and the effect of salvianolic acid B (SalB), which is a water-soluble phenolic acid extracted from Radix Salvia miltiorrhiza, on NAFLD through SIRT1/HMGB1 signaling. In vivo, SalB treatment significantly attenuated high-fat diet (HFD)-induced liver damage, hepatic steatosis, and inflammation. Importantly, SalB significantly inhibited HMGB1 nuclear translocation and release, accompanied by SIRT1 elevation. In HepG2 cells, palmitic acid (PA)-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines release were blocked by HMGB1 small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection. Moreover, pharmacological SIRT1 inhibition by Ex527 induced HMGB1 translocation and release, whereas SIRT1 activation by resveratrol or SalB reversed this trend. SIRT1 siRNA abrogated the SalB-mediated inhibition of HMGB1 acetylation and release, suggesting that SalB-mediated protection occurs by SIRT1 targeting HMGB1 for deacetylation. We are the first to demonstrate that the SIRT1/HMGB1 pathway is a key therapeutic target for controlling NAFLD inflammation and that SalB confers protection against HFD- and PA-induced hepatic steatosis and inflammation through SIRT1-mediated HMGB1 deacetylation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effect of curcumin on lung lesion induced by intestinal ischemia reperfusion injury (IIR).
Rats were divided into four groups: sham, intestinal IIR (IIR), 1 mg/kg of curcumin treatment group (1 mg/kg), and 5 mg/kg of curcumin treatment group (5 mg/kg). Curcumin was given respectively (1 mg/kg and 5 mg/kg) following the above doses. IIR was produced by 1 h of intestinal ischemia followed by 2 h of reperfusion. Rats were sacrificed at the end of reperfusion and lung tissues were collected for biochemical and histopathological examination in 4 groups. Lung tissues histology and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) protein were assayed. Serum IL-6, lung superoxide dismutase (SOD) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were measured. The expression level of NF-κB and ICAM-1 (including immunohistochemical analysis and western blot analysis) were also measured.
Lung tissue injury induced by IIR was obviously observed through pathology and BALF protein. MPO activity, IL-6 level and ICAM-1 expression were significantly increased with the elevation of NF-κB, simultaneously, SOD activity was decreased. With Treatment of curcumin, pathology and BALF protein of lung tissue were improved clearly. Inflammatory indexes (MPO activity, IL-6 level and ICAM-1) were improved and antioxidant index (SOD activity) was enhanced paralleled with NF-κB.
Using curcumin effectively prevented IIR-induced lung injury. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of curcumin could be observed by inhibiting the pathway of NF-κB.
No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · International journal of clinical and experimental pathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate protective effects of alisol B 23-acetate (AB23A) against hepatotoxity and cholestasis induced by 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE) in association with farnesoid X receptor (FXR) activation in vivo and in vitro.
The cholestatic liver injury model was established by subcutaneous injections of EE in C57BL/6 mice. Serum biomarkers, bile flow assay and H&E staining were used to identify the amelioration of cholestasis after AB23A treatment. Mice primary hepatocytes culture, gene silencing experiment, real-time PCR and Western blot assay were used to elucidate the mechanisms underlying AB23A hepatoprotection.
AB23A treatment protected against liver injury induced by EE through increasing hepatic efflux and reducing uptake of bile acid via an induction in efflux transporters (Bsep and Mrp2) and an inhibition in hepatic uptake transporter (Ntcp) expression. AB23A also reduced bile acid synthesis through repressing Cyp7a1 and Cyp8b1, and increased bile acid metabolism through an induction in gene expression of Sult2a1. We further demonstrated that the changes in transporters and enzymes, as well as ameliorative liver histology in AB23A-treated mice were abrogated by FXR antagonist guggulsterone in vivo and were abrogated after FXR was silenced in vitro.
AB23A produces protective effects against EE-induced cholestasis, due to FXR-mediated gene regulation.
No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Pharmaceutical Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) ameliorates ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in a number of organs, and the glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β)/β-catenin signaling pathway regulates I/R-induced proliferation and apoptosis in the central nervous system and heart. However, the function of this signaling pathway in IPC during liver I/R remains unclear. Thus, in this study, we aimed to investigte the role of the GSK-3β/β-catenin pathway during I/R and following ischemic preconditioning. For this purpose, 30 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into the sham-operated, the I/R and the IPC groups (n=10). Following reperfusion, liver pathology, as well as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), maleic dialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels were assessed. Western blot analysis was performed to quantify the GSK-3β, Ser9-phospho-GSK-3β (p-GSK-3β), cytosolic and nuclear β-catenin, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), Bcl-2 and survivin levels. In addition, the Bcl-2 and survivin mRNA levels were assessed by RT-qPCR. Compared with the sham-operated group, I/R increased serum ALT, AST and MDA activity and decreased SOD levels, while IPC significantly decreased serum ALT, AST and MDA activity and increased SOD levels, compared with the I/R group. Simultaneously, I/R increased p-GSK-3β protein expression, and decreased Bcl-2 and survivin protein and mRNA levels. IPC further increased the protein expression of p-GSK-3β, and also increased cytosolic and nuclear β-catenin and VEGF expression compared with the I/R group; the expression of Bcl-2 and survivin was also increased by IPC, both at the mRNA and protein level. The total GSK-3β expression remained unaltered in all the groups. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that IPC exerts protective effects against liver injury induced by I/R and activates the GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling pathway.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · International Journal of Molecular Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Carnosic acid (CA), found in rosemary, has been reported to have antioxidant and antiadipogenic properties. Here, we investigate the molecular mechanism by which CA inhibits hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced injury in HepG2 cells. Cells were pretreated with 2.5-10 μmol/L CA for 2 h and then exposed to 3 mmol/L H2O2 for an additional 4 h. CA dose-dependently increased cell viability and decreased lactate dehydrogenase activities. Pretreatment with CA completely attenuated the inhibited expression of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and the B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xL), and reduced glutathione activity caused by H2O2, whereas it reversed reactive oxygen species accumulation and the increase in cleaved caspase-3. Importantly, sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), a NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase, was significantly increased by CA. Considering the above results, we hypothesized that SIRT1 may play important roles in the protective effects of CA in injury induced by H2O2. As expected, SIRT1 suppression by Ex527 (6-chloro-2,3,4,9-tetrahydro-1H-carbazole-1-carboxamide) and siRNA-mediated SIRT1 silencing (si-SIRT1) significantly aggravated the H2O2-induced increased level of cleaved caspase-3 but greatly reduced the decreased expression of MnSOD and Bcl-xL. Furthermore, the positive regulatory effect of CA was inhibited by si-SIRT1. Collectively, the present study indicated that CA can alleviate H2O2-induced hepatocyte damage through the SIRT1 pathway.
No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Biotransformation of 11-keto-β-boswellic acid (KBA) and acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acid (AKBA) catalyzed by two fungal strains (Cunninghamella elegans AS 3.1207 and Penicillium janthinellum AS 3.510) was performed in the present investigation. Eleven transformed products (1–11) were isolated, and accurately identified by various spectral methods. Among them, eight products (1–4 and 8–11) are novel. Two microorganisms used in our experiments demonstrated the favourable capability of stereo- and regio-hydroxylation at the non-active position for boswellic acid skeletons (KBA and AKBA). P. janthinellum AS 3.510 preferred to catalyze hydroxylation reaction at the C-21α position, especially for AKBA with a yield of 35.7%. Meanwhile, C. elegans AS 3.1207 preferred to catalyze the hydroxylation reaction of C-21β, especially for KBA with a yield of 55.2%. The major metabolite 1 exhibited potent anti-inflammatory activity in the in vitro bioassay.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mechanisms of the natural product dioscin against non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are unclear. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to further confirm its effects of prevention and then to elucidate the potential mechanisms underlying its activity in mice. High-fat diet (HFD)-induced C57BL/6J mice and ob/ob mice were used as the experimental models. Serum and hepatic biochemical parameters were determined, and the mRNA and protein expression levels were detected. The results indicated that dioscin alleviated body weight and liver lipid accumulation symptoms, increased oxygen consumption and energy expenditure, and improved the levels of serum and hepatic biochemical parameters. Further investigations revealed that dioscin significantly attenuated oxidative damage, suppressed inflammation, inhibited triglyceride and cholesterol synthesis, promoted fatty acid β-oxidation, down-regulated MAPK phosphorylation levels, and induced autophagy to alleviate fatty liver conditions. Dioscin prevents diet induced obesity and NAFLD by increasing energy expenditure. This agent should be developed as a new candidate for obesity and NAFLD prevention.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
This study investigated the role of Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1)/FOXO3 pathway, and a possible protective function for Icariin (ICA), in intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury.
Materials and Methods
Male Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated with different doses of ICA (30 and 60 mg/kg) or olive oil as control 1 h before intestinal I/R. Caco-2 cells were pretreated with different concentrations of ICA (25, 50 and 100 μg/ml), then subjected to hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R)-induced injury.
The in vivo results demonstrated that ICA pretreatment significantly improved I/R-induced tissue damage and decreased serum tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 6 levels. Changes of MnSOD, Bcl-2 and Bim were also reversed by ICA, and apoptosis was reduced. Importantly, the protective effects of ICA were positively associated with SIRT1 activation. Increased SIRT1 expression, as well as decreased acetylated FOXO3 expression, was observed in Caco-2 cells pretreated with ICA. Additionally, the protective effects of ICA were abrogated in the presence of SIRT1 inhibitor nicotinamide (NAM). This suggests that ICA exerts a protective effect upon H/R injury through activation of SIRT1/FOXO3 signaling pathway. Accordingly, the SIRT1 activator resveratrol achieved a similar protective effect as ICA upon H/R injury, whereas cellular damage resulting from H/R was exacerbated by SIRT1 knockdown and NAM.
SIRT1, activated by ICA, protects intestinal epithelial cells from I/R injury by inducing FOXO3 deacetylation both in vivo and in vitro These findings suggest that the SIRT1/FOXO3 pathway can be a target for therapeutic approaches intended to minimize injury resulting from intestinal dysfunction.
No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Journal of Surgical Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
In this study, we investigated the protective effect and mechanism of curcumin on a rat model of intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), which induces an acute liver lesion.
Curcumin was injected into rats in the curcumin groups through left femoral vein. The same volume of vehicle (0.9% normal saline) was injected into sham and I/R groups. Blood and liver tissue were gathered for serological and histopathological determination.
Intestinal I/R led to severe liver injury manifested as a significant increase in serum AST and ALT levels; all of those were reduced by treatment with curcumin. Simultaneously, the activity of SOD in liver decreased after intestinal I/R, which was increased by curcumin treatment. On the other hand, curcumin reduced MPO activity of liver tissue, as well as serum IL-6 and TNF-α levels observably. This is in parallel with the decreased level of liver intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) expression.
Our findings suggest that curcumin treatment attenuates liver lesion induced by intestinal I/R, attributable to the antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effect via inhibition of the NF-κB pathway.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: High-mobility group protein box 1 (HMGB1) is essential in the response to injury during sepsis. We hypothesized that resveratrol (RESV) administration would inhibit nuclear-cytoplasmic HMGB1 translocation in hepatocytes, which is associated with sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) upregulation. We investigated the regulatory role of SIRT1 in HMGB1 nucleocytoplasmic translocation and its effect on sepsis-induced liver injury. Methods: Rats were randomly assigned to pretreatment with RESV (60 mg/kg per day), nicotinamide (60 mg/kg per day), or vehicle (olive oil), which was administered by gavage for 3 days directly before cecal ligation and puncture was performed to induce sepsis. Parallel control groups were established. Rats were killed 24 h after surgery, and cytokine production, histology, apoptosis, SIRT1, serum HMGB1, nuclear and cytoplasmic HMGB1/ac-HMGB1, and the interaction between SIRT1 and HMGB1 were evaluated. In vitro evaluations were performed in human liver L02 cells subjected to lipopolysaccharide-induced injury, and siRNA-mediated SIRT1 knockdown experiments were performed. Results: Sepsis-induced serum aminotransferase activities and proinflammatory chemokine levels were reduced by RESV pretreatment, which also improved liver histological parameters in association with SIRT1 upregulation. Resveratrol inhibited HMGB1 cytoplasmic translocation. Nicotinamide, an SIRT1 inhibitor, reduced the SIRT1-mediated suppression of HMGB1 translocation and aggravated cecal ligation and puncture-induced liver damage. Sirtuin 1 knockdown in vitro confirmed that RESV increased the SIRT1-mediated repression of HMGB1 translocation. In vivo, SIRT1 and HMGB1 physically interacted in the nucleus, and SIRT1 regulated HMGB1 acetylation in response to septic liver injury. Conclusions: Resveratrol protects against sepsis-induced liver injury through the SIRT1-mediated HMGB1 nucleocytoplasmic translocation pathway, a new potential therapeutic target in sepsis-induced liver injury.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Salvianolic acid B (SalB) is isolated from the traditional Chinese medical herb salvia miltiorrhiza. It has many biological and pharmaceutical activities. This study aimed to investigate the effect of SalB on acute ethanol-induced hepatic injury in rats and to explore the role of SIRT1 in this process. The results showed that pretreatment with SalB significantly reduced ethanol-induced elevation in aminotransferase activities, decreased hepatotoxic cytokine levels such as Interleukin-6 (IL-6), and increased the antioxidant enzyme activity. Moreover, SalB pretreatment reversed the increase in NF-κB, cleaved caspase-3 and decrease in B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xL) caused by ethanol exposure. Importantly, SalB pretreatment significantly increased the expression of SIRT1, a NAD+-dependent deacetylase, whereas the increase in SIRT1 was accompanied by decreased acetyl-p53 expression. In HepG2 cells, SalB pretreatment increased SIRT1 expression in a time and dose-dependent manner and such an increase was abrogated by siRNA knockdown of SIRT1. Additionally, inhibition of SIRT1 significantly increased the acetylation of p53, and blocked SalB-induced acetylation of p53 down-regulation. Collectively, this study indicated that SalB can alleviate acute ethanol-induced hepatocyte apoptosis through SIRT1-mediated deacetylation of p53 pathway.
No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Toxicology Letters
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) is a serious clinical dilemma with high morbidity and mortality. Remote organ damage, especially acute lung injury and liver injury are common complications that contribute to the high mortality rate. We previously demonstrated that activation of PKCβII is specifically involved in the primary injury of intestinal I/R. Considering the tissue-specific features of PKC activation, we hypothesized that some kind of PKC isoform may play important roles in the progression of secondary injury in the remote organ. Mice were studied in in vivo model of intestinal I/R. The activation of PKC isoforms were screened in the lung and liver. Interestingly, we found that PKCβII was also activated exclusively in the lung and liver after intestinal I/R. PKCβII suppression by a specific inhibitor, LY333531, significantly attenuated I/R-induced histologic damage, inflammatory cell infiltration, oxidative stress, and apoptosis in these organs, and also alleviated systemic inflammation. In addition, LY333531 markedly restrained p66shc activation, mitochondrial translocation, and binding to cytochrome-c. These resulted in the decrease of cytochrome-c release and caspase-3 cleavage, and an increase in glutathione and glutathione peroxidase. These data indicated that activated PKC isoform in the remote organ, specifically PKCβII, is the same as that in the intestine after intestinal I/R. PKCβII suppression protects against remote organ injury, which may be partially attributed to the p66shc-cytochrome-c axis. Combined with our previous study, the development of a specific inhibitor for prophylaxis against intestinal I/R is promising, to prevent multiple organ injury.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is a serious clinical pathophysiological process that may result in acute local intestine and remote liver injury. Protocatechuic acid (PCA), which has been widely studied as a polyphenolic compound, induces expression of antioxidative genes that combat oxidative stress and cell apoptosis. In this study, we investigated the effect of PCA pretreatment for protecting intestinal I/R-induced local intestine and remote liver injury in mice. Intestinal I/R was established by superior mesenteric artery occlusion for 45 min followed by reperfusion for 90 min. After the reperfusion period, PCA pretreatment markedly alleviated intestine and liver injury induced by intestinal I/R as indicated by histological alterations, decreases in serological damage parameters and nuclear factor-kappa B and phospho-foxo3a protein expression levels, and increases in glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, manganese superoxide dismutase protein expression, and Bcl-xL protein expression in the intestine and liver. These parameters were accompanied by PCA-induced adaptor protein p66shc suppression. These results suggest that PCA has a significant protective effect in the intestine and liver following injury induced by intestinal I/R. The protective effect of PCA may be attributed to the suppression of p66shc and the regulation of p66shc-related antioxidative and antiapoptotic factors.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · The Scientific World Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Activated macrophage infiltration into the lungs is paramount in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury (ALI) induced by intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R). Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (ω-3 PUFA) is a potent activator of the Adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase-sirtuin1 (AMPK/SIRT1) pathway against macrophage inflammation. We aimed to evaluate whether ω-3 PUFAs may protect against ALI induced by intestinal I/R via the AMPK/SIRT1 pathway.
Ischemia in male Wistar rats was induced by superior mesenteric artery occlusion for 60 min and reperfusion for 240 min. One milliliter per day of fish-oil emulsion (FO emulsion, containing major ingredients as ω-3 PUFAs) or normal saline (control) was administered by intraperitoneal injection for three consecutive days to each animal. All animals were sacrificed at the end of reperfusion. Blood and tissue samples were collected for analysis.
Intestinal I/R caused intestinal and lung injury, evidenced by severe lung tissue edema and macrophage infiltration. Pretreatment with FO emulsion improved the integrity of microscopic structures in the intestine and lungs. Intestinal I/R induced the expression of macrophage-derived mediators (macrophage migration inhibitory factor and macrophage chemoattractant protein-1), inflammatory factors (nuclear factor κB, tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 6, and interleukin 1β), and proapoptosis factor p66shc. There was a decrease in the expression of AMPK, SIRT1, and claudin 5. FO emulsion significantly inhibited macrophage infiltration into the lungs, inflammatory factor expression, and p66shc phosphorylation. Importantly, FO emulsion restored AMPK, SIRT1, and claudin 5 in the lungs.
Pretreatment with ω-3 PUFAs effectively protects intestinal and lung injury induced by intestinal I/R, reduces macrophage infiltration, suppresses inflammation, inhibits lung apoptosis, and improves the lung endothelial barrier after intestinal I/R in a manner dependent on AMPK/SIRT1. Thus, there is a potential for developing AMPK/SIRT1 as a novel target for patients with intestinal I/R-induced ALI.
No preview · Article · Mar 2014 · Journal of Surgical Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Salvianolic acid A (SalA) is a phenolic carboxylic acid derivative extracted from Salvia miltiorrhiza. It has many biological and pharmaceutical activities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of SalA on concanavalin A (ConA)-induced acute hepatic injury in Kunming mice and to explore the role of SIRT1 in such an effect. The results showed that in vivo pretreatment with SalA significantly reduced ConA-induced elevation in serum alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) activities and decreased levels of the hepatotoxic cytokines such as interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). Moreover, the SalA pretreatment ameliorated the increases in NF-κB and in cleaved caspase-3 caused by ConA exposure. Whereas, the pretreatment completely reversed expression of the B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xL). More importantly, the SalA pretreatment significantly increased the expression of SIRT1, a NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase, which was known to attenuate acute hypoxia damage and metabolic liver diseases. In our study, the increase in SIRT1 was closely associated with down-regulation of the p66 isoform (p66shc) of growth factor adapter Shc at both protein and mRNA levels. In HepG2 cell culture, SalA pretreatment increased SIRT1 expression in a time and dose-dependent manner and such an increase was abrogated by siRNA knockdown of SIRT1. Additionally, inhibition of SIRT1 significantly reversed the decreased expression of p66shc, and attenuated SalA-induced p66shc down-regulation. Collectively, the present study indicated that SalA may be a potent activator of SIRT and that SalA can alleviate ConA-induced hepatitis through SIRT1-mediated repression of the p66shc pathway.
No preview · Article · Aug 2013 · Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Scope:
Flavonoids have well-known antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer activities. Isoflavone genistein is considered a potent antioxidant agent against oxidative stress. Although several mechanisms have been proposed, a clear antioxidant mechanism of genistein is still remained to be answered.
Methods and results:
In this study, we focused on the concerted effects on expression of Nrf2 and phase II enzyme pathway components. Transient transfection assays, RT-PCR and immunoblot analysis were performed to study its molecular mechanisms of action. In Caco-2 cells, treatment with genistein markedly attenuated H(2)O(2) -induced peroxide formation; this amelioration was reversed by buthionine sulfoximine(GCLC inhibitor) and zinc protoporphyrin(HO-1 inhibitor). Genistein increased HO-1 and GCLC mRNA and protein expression. Genistein treatment activated the ERK1/2 and PKC signaling pathway; therefore increased Nrf2 mRNA and protein expression. The roles of the ERK1/2 and PKC signaling pathway were determined using PD98059 (ERK1/2 inhibitor) and GF109203X (PKC inhibitor) and RNA interference directed against Nrf2. Both inhibitors and siNrf2 abolished genistein-induced HO-1 and GCLC protein expression. These results suggest the involvement of ERK1/2, PKC, and Nrf2 in inducing HO-1 and GCLC by genistein.
Our studies show that genistein up-regulated HO-1 and GCLC expression through the EKR1/2 and PKC /Nrf2 pathways during oxidative stress.
No preview · Article · Feb 2013 · Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) coupled with a reverse micelle solvent system was successfully developed to separate three proteins from Momordica charantia. Suitable HSCCC conditions were carefully optimized as follows: the stationary phase was a reverse micellar phase composed of isooctane and 50mM bis-(2-ethylhexyl)-1-sulfosuccinate sodium (AOT). The mobile phase contained mobile phase A (50mM Tris-HCl buffer containing 50mM KCl at pH 7.0) for forward-extraction and mobile phase B (50mM Tris-HCl buffer containing 0.5M KCl at pH 10.0) for back-extraction. The flow rate, detection wavelength and column temperature were set at 1.5 ml/min, 280 nm and 4 °C, respectively. Under these conditions, three fractions (I, II and III) were separated, which showed high purity when analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The structures of these proteins were then identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS/MS and compared with the NCBInr database. Fractions I and III were identified as resistance-like protein P-B and pentatricopeptide repeat-containing protein, respectively, which were found in M. charantia for the first time. However, fraction II, which is thought to be a new protein, was not identified, and further investigations on this fraction are required. The anticancer activities of these three proteins on the human gastric cancer cell line SGC-7901 were evaluated in vitro. The results indicated that fraction II has excellent anticancer activity (IC(50)=0.116 mg/ml for 48 h treatment). This is the first report on the use of HSCCC to isolate proteins from M. charantia.
No preview · Article · Mar 2012 · Journal of chromatography. B, Analytical technologies in the biomedical and life sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The total flavonoids (TFs) from Rosa laevigata Michx fruit showed hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities. However, the safety of this natural product has not been investigated. In the present paper, a 90-day subchronic toxicity study was conducted, and the tested TFs was orally administered to rats at the doses of 500, 1000 and 2000mg/kg/day. The toxicity of the TFs was evaluated on base of ophthalmic examination, body weight, feed/water consumption, urinalysis, hematology, clinical biochemistry and pathology. No toxic signs of the TFs at the doses of 500 and 1000mg/kg/day were observed. However, decreased PLT was found in the 2000mg/kg/day groups and increased intercellular space of myocardial cells was observed in the male 2000mg/kg/day group compared with control. A significant increase in the relative cardiac weight was observed in the male 1000 and 2000mg/kg/day groups. And the significant decrease in the absolute and relative weight of adrenals in the female 1000 and 2000mg/kg groups was happened. The TFs could cause mild side effects at the dose of 1000mg/kg/day in males and females. Thus, the dose of 500mg/kg/day for male and female were selected as the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL). The present study provides useful data for subsequent researches and new drug exploration of the TFs from R. laevigata Michx fruit.
No preview · Article · Mar 2012 · Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A successful method of preparative high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was established for direct isolation and purification of hydrolysis products of Epimedium koreanum Nakai to obtain the secondary glycosides and aglycons of flavonoids in E. koreanum. The two-phase solvent systems of HSCCC composed n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water at the ratios of 6:3.5:6:5 (v/v) and 6:3.5:8:5 (v/v) were used in a stepwise elution. Totally, 60.1 mg of Fraction I that would be isolated and purified by preparative HPLC, 9.4 mg of icartin (4), 3.5 mg of desmethylicartin (5), 4.7 mg of 3ethyoxyl-icartin (6), 7.3 mg of anhydroicaritin (7) and 10.1 mg of β-anhydroicaritin (8) were obtained in one-step separation from 100 mg of the crude materials with purities of 97.7%, 96.2%, 99.2%, 99.5% and 91.0%, respectively. And Fraction I of HSCCC was purified by the preparative HPLC to obtain 12.7 mg of pletypetaloside (I-1), 6.8 mg of icariside I (I-2) and 16.3 mg of 3ethyoxyl-pletypetaloside (I-3) with purities of 90.8%, 93.4% and 99.2%. All of the chemical structures were identified on the basis of widely spectral technology including 2D-NMR. Among them, compounds I-3 and6 are novel.
No preview · Article · Jan 2012 · Journal of Liquid Chromatography & Related Technologies