[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Late allergic reactions are common in the course of allergen-specific immunotherapy and even occur with allergy vaccines with reduced IgE reactivity.
We sought to study atopy patch test (APT) reactions and T-cell responses to the recombinant birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 and recombinant hypoallergenic T-cell epitope-containing Bet v 1 fragments in patients with birch pollen allergy with and without atopic dermatitis (AD).
A clinical study was conducted in 15 patients with birch pollen allergy with AD (group 1), 5 patients with birch pollen allergy without AD (group 2), 5 allergic patients without birch pollen allergy (group 3), and 5 nonallergic subjects (group 4) by performing skin prick tests and APTs with rBet v 1 and hypoallergenic rBet v 1 fragments. T-cell, cutaneous lymphocyte antigen (CLA)(+) and CCR4(+) T-cell and cytokine responses were studied by thymidine uptake, carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester staining, and Luminex technology, respectively.
rBet v 1 and hypoallergenic rBet v 1 fragments induced APT reactions in not only most of the patients with birch pollen allergy with AD (11/15) but also in most of those without AD (4/5). Patients with birch pollen allergy with AD had higher Bet v 1-specific proliferation of CLA(+) and CCR4(+) T cells compared with patients with birch pollen allergy without AD. There were no differences in Bet v 1-specific CLA(+) and CCR4(+) proliferation and cytokine secretion in patients with and without APT reactions.
Hypoallergenic rBet v 1 fragments induce T cell-dependent late reactions not only in patients with birch pollen allergy with AD but also in those without AD, which can be determined based on APT results but not based on in vitro parameters.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The diagnosis of fatal anaphylaxis can be difficult for clinical features may not always be evident in necropsy. Therefore post mortem determination of tryptase and other blood parameters can be helpful in verifying the diagnosis. We compared post mortem tryptase, histamine and diamine oxidase (DAO) serum levels of two patients who had died after a Hymenoptera sting and one patient who died of bronchospasm during anaesthesia with data obtained from 55 control subjects who had died from other causes than anaphylaxis. In the three anaphylactic cases, serum tryptase level was 880, 68 and 200 μg/l (normal range in living subjects: <11.4 μg/l), histamine was 37.5, 8.5 and 23.2 ng/ml (normal range: <0.3 ng/ml) and DAO was 1, 30 and 4 U/ml (normal range 10-30 U/ml), respectively. Values in the control group were as follows: tryptase 1-340 μg/l (mean 24.2 ± 58.2), histamine 5.0-22.0 ng/ml (mean 14.7 ± 3.9) and DAO 0-114 U/ml (mean 21.1 ± 27.8). 19/55 (34.5%) of the controls had elevated tryptase levels >11.4 μg/l, with four of them showing values >45 μg/ml. Significantly higher histamine levels were seen in blood samples taken more than 24h post mortem (p<0.05), whereas the timing of blood collection had no effect on tryptase and DAO levels. While moderately elevated tryptase levels are common in post mortem sera, values above 45 μg/l may support the diagnosis of fatal anaphylaxis. Strongly elevated histamine levels might give an additional clue on fatal anaphylaxis, whereas DAO does not seem to be helpful.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2011 · Forensic science international
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the proficiency of the Austrian childhood vaccination schedule to induce long lasting seroprotection against vaccine preventable diseases a seroepidemiological study in 348 children between four and eight years of age was conducted. Antibodies against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B, measles, mumps and rubella antigens were assessed in children, who had been vaccinated with hexavalent DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hib vaccines at three, four, five months and in the second year of life and/or MMR vaccines in the second year of life at least once, but mostly twice. High seroprotection rates (SPRs) were detected for tetanus (96%) and measles (90%). SPRs regarding diphtheria and mumps were 81% and 72%, respectively. Rubella-SPRs were 68% in females and 58% in males. Hepatitis B-antibody levels ≥10 mIU/mL were present in 52%; antibodies against pertussis were detected in 27% of the children. SPRs for measles and rubella depended on the interval since last vaccination; mumps-antibodies were significantly lower after one MMR-vaccination only. Antibodies against diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis depended on the interval since last vaccination while HBs-antibodies did not. The low levels of antibodies 1-7 years after vaccination against pertussis, rubella and mumps after only one vaccination should be considered when recommending new vaccination schedules.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fixed drug eruption is a fairly common drug-induced hypersensitivity reaction of the skin and the mucous membranes, which is characterized by the re-occurrence of the lesion(s) exactly on the previously involved sites after repeated administration. The pathogenetic mechanisms of this site-specificity are not fully elucidated.
We report on three cases of fixed drug eruption, including a non-pigmenting generalized bullous fixed drug eruption, caused by mefenamic acid in its pure form.
Provocation tests with the assumed causative drug represent the gold standard for establishing the diagnosis and for identifying the culprit. Advantages and pitfalls of topical and systemic provocation tests as diagnostic approaches are discussed.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2011 · Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Activation of skin keratinocytes followed by their apoptotic death leads to eczema and spongiosis formations in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD). TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) binds to its receptor, fibroblast growth factor-inducible 14 (Fn14), and controls many cellular activities, including proliferation, migration, differentiation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and inflammation.
The aim of the study was to investigate the role of TWEAK and Fn14 in the formation of eczema in patients with AD.
Primary keratinocytes were isolated from nonlesional skin from patients with AD and psoriasis and from normal skin of healthy donors. Apoptosis analysis was performed by using annexin V/7-aminoactinomycin D and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling staining. The expression and regulation of TWEAK, TNF-α, Fn14, TNF receptor (TNFR) 1, and TNFR2 were measured by means of RT-PCR, flow cytometric analysis, and ELISA. TWEAK and Fn14 expression of lesional AD and psoriatic skin and normal control skin was analyzed by using immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence.
TWEAK and TNF-α cooperate in the induction of apoptosis in primary keratinocytes obtained from patients with AD, patients with psoriasis, and healthy subjects and in artificial skin equivalents. TNFR1 and Fn14 were the main receptors involved. TWEAK upregulates TNF-α expression in primary keratinocytes, whereas TNF-α did not affect the expression of TWEAK and its receptors. High TWEAK expression was observed in AD lesions but not in psoriatic lesions or normal skin. Fn14 was highly expressed in the lesional skin of patients with AD and patients with psoriasis and in healthy control skin.
The high expression of TWEAK in lesional AD skin contributes to the difference in keratinocyte apoptosis and lesional formation between AD and psoriasis.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2011 · The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Keratinocyte (KC) apoptosis is an important mechanism of eczema and spongiosis in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) and is mediated by IFN-gamma, which is secreted by T(H)1 cells. IL-32 is a proinflammatory cytokine that is involved in the inflammatory processes of rheumatoid arthritis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and Crohn disease. Recently, it was shown that upregulation of IL-32 induces apoptosis.
The aim of the study was to investigate the expression and function of IL-32 in patients with AD.
The expression of IL-32 in KCs was analyzed by means of RT-PCR, ELISA, and flow cytometry. Transfections of small interfering RNA were performed in primary KCs, and apoptosis was analyzed by means of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling, annexin-V, and 7-amino actinomycin D stainings. Immunofluorescence stainings were used to detect IL-32 in skin biopsy specimens, and serum levels of IL-32 were analyzed by means of ELISA.
We report that IL-32 is expressed in human primary KCs on stimulation with IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, and T(H)1 cells in contrast to T(H)2, regulatory T (Treg), or T(H)17 cells, which showed no effect. Transfection of primary KCs and artificial skin equivalents with small interfering RNA to IL-32, which resulted in a clear decrease in IL-32 expression, significantly reduced KC apoptosis. Immunofluorescence staining demonstrated that IL-32 was expressed in AD lesional skin, whereas it was present in neither skin biopsy specimens from healthy donors nor in lesional skin from patients with psoriasis. Serum levels of IL-32 from patients with AD correlated with disease severity, but increased serum levels of IL-32 were also detected in asthmatic patients.
The present study demonstrates KCs as a source of IL-32, which modulates KC apoptosis and contributes to the pathophysiology of AD.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2010 · The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Allergic diseases represent a major health problem in Europe. They are increasing in prevalence, severity and costs. GA2LEN (Global Allergy and Asthma European Network), an FP6 Network of Excellence, was created in 2005 as a vehicle to ensure excellence in research bringing together research and clinical institutions to combat fragmentation in the European research area and to tackle allergy as a whole. GA2LEN benefited greatly from the voluntary efforts of researchers who are strongly committed to this model of pan-European collaboration. The network was organized in order to increase networking for scientific projects in allergy and asthma around Europe and to make GA2LEN the world leader in the field. Besides these activities, research has been jointly made and the first papers are being published. GA2LEN achievements in general can be grouped as those for a durable infrastructure built up during the project phase those which are project-related work based on these novel infrastructures, and the development and implementations of guidelines. The major achievements of GA2LEN are reported in this paper.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2009 · Wiener klinische Wochenschrift