[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The MYC oncogene has been implicated in the regulation of up to thousands of genes involved in many cellular programs including proliferation, growth, differentiation, self-renewal, and apoptosis. MYC is thought to induce cancer through an exaggerated effect on these physiologic programs. Which of these genes are responsible for the ability of MYC to initiate and/or maintain tumorigenesis is not clear. Previously, we have shown that upon brief MYC inactivation, some tumors undergo sustained regression. Here we demonstrate that upon MYC inactivation there are global permanent changes in gene expression detected by microarray analysis. By applying StepMiner analysis, we identified genes whose expression most strongly correlated with the ability of MYC to induce a neoplastic state. Notably, genes were identified that exhibited permanent changes in mRNA expression upon MYC inactivation. Importantly, permanent changes in gene expression could be shown by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) to be associated with permanent changes in the ability of MYC to bind to the promoter regions. Our list of candidate genes associated with tumor maintenance was further refined by comparing our analysis with other published results to generate a gene signature associated with MYC-induced tumorigenesis in mice. To validate the role of gene signatures associated with MYC in human tumorigenesis, we examined the expression of human homologs in 273 published human lymphoma microarray datasets in Affymetrix U133A format. One large functional group of these genes included the ribosomal structural proteins. In addition, we identified a group of genes involved in a diverse array of cellular functions including: BZW2, H2AFY, SFRS3, NAP1L1, NOLA2, UBE2D2, CCNG1, LIFR, FABP3, and EDG1. Hence, through our analysis of gene expression in murine tumor models and human lymphomas, we have identified a novel gene signature correlated with the ability of MYC to maintain tumorigenesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oncogene-induced senescence is an important mechanism by which normal cells are restrained from malignant transformation. Here we report that the suppression of the c-Myc (MYC) oncogene induces cellular senescence in diverse tumor types including lymphoma, osteosarcoma, and hepatocellular carcinoma. MYC inactivation was associated with prototypical markers of senescence, including acidic beta-gal staining, induction of p16INK4a, and p15INK4b expression. Moreover, MYC inactivation induced global changes in chromatin structure associated with the marked reduction of histone H4 acetylation and increased histone H3 K9 methylation. Osteosarcomas engineered to be deficient in p16INK4a or Rb exhibited impaired senescence and failed to exhibit sustained tumor regression upon MYC inactivation. Similarly, only after lymphomas were repaired for p53 expression did MYC inactivation induce robust senescence and sustained tumor regression. The pharmacologic inhibition of signaling pathways implicated in oncogene-induced senescence including ATM/ATR and MAPK did not prevent senescence associated with MYC inactivation. Our results suggest that cellular senescence programs remain latently functional, even in established tumors, and can become reactivated, serving as a critical mechanism of oncogene addiction associated with MYC inactivation.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2007 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences