[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This case report describes peripheral idiopathic polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (IPCV) with a collection of small aneurysmal dilations that masqueraded as choroidal tumors in an elderly patient. A 68-year-old African American woman was referred to us with a suspected diagnosis of asymptomatic vascular choroidal tumor and choroidal capillary hemangioma, affecting the temporal peripheral fundus. Upon examination, optical coherence tomography (OCT) revealed two large hemorrhagic pigment epithelium detachments (PED), and indocyanine green angiography (ICG) confirmed the diagnosis of IPCV. One year later, there was reduction in the hemorrhagic pigment epithelium detachments and the lesion took on a different appearance, resembling a choroidal osteoma. No treatment was necessary despite the presence of multiple polyps. IPCV is a rare condition that can resemble other choroidal diseases depending on the stage of presentation. OCT is the best tool to determine the characteristics of the lesions, and indocyanine green angiography should be used to confirm the diagnosis. Not all cases require treatment.
Preview · Article · May 2015 · Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: Register and compare anatomical changes, structural and quantitative found in optical coherence tomography Stratus and Topcon 3D in chronic users of chloroquine. Methods: Five patients were diagnosed with toxic "bull's eye" maculopathy was submitted to macular optical coherence tomography examination (Stratus and Topcon 3D). Results: Both tools demonstrated an increase reflectivity of choriocapillaris unit just foveal retinal pigment epithelium atrophy. However, Topcon 3D provided to all patients better description of the line corresponding to the transition between inner and outer segments of photoreceptors. Using the possibility of assembling threedimensional images and subtraction selective retinal layers, we found a lesion with a target that reflects the greater thickness of retinal pigment epithelium in central and parafoveal region that is matched to preserve macular photoreceptors.Conclusion: it was observed better resolution and faster image capture by Topcon 3D than Stratus OCT, that provided more detailed analysis of the line corresponding to transition between outer and inner segment of photoreceptors in macular region. With Topcon 3D, it was possible to evaluate soundly the thickness of retinal pigment epithelium in central and parafoveal region that caused an increase reflectivity of choriocapillaris creating a image with a target unpublished before.
Preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Revista brasileira de oftalmologia
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of preoperative intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) or triamcinolone (IVT) on the rate of early postvitrectomy hemorrhage in proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). METHODS: Eligible eyes were assigned randomly to 1 of 3 groups: the IVB group received 1.25 mg bevacizumab, the IVT group received 4,0mg triamcinolone and the control group underwent a sham procedure. The primary outcome measure was the incidence of early postvitrectomy hemorrhage. Secondary outcome measures included changes in visual acuity (BCVA) and adverse events. RESULTS: Twenty and seven eyes, 9 in each group were randomized. The incidence of vitreous hemorrhage was lower in the IVB group (p=0.18). Postoperative vitreous hemorrhage at 1 month also was less in the IVB group compared with the control group (p > 0.05). The rate of bleeding immediately after surgery was higher in IVT group with 4 (44.4%) cases. The overall mean visual acuity was 1.72 ± 0.37 logMAR preoperatively and 1.32 ± 0.73 logMAR in 6 months after surgery. Accessing visual acuity by group evidenced that the IVB group had initial mean logMAR VA of 1.87 and 1.57 logMAR VA at the six months (p = 0.84). In IVT group, initial mean VA was 1.75 logMAR and 0.96 logMAR VA at six months (p < 0.001). And in control group, the initial mean VA was 1.85 logMAR and 1.57 logMAR VA at six months (p= 0.34). CONCLUSION: Intravitreal injection of bevacizumab 1 week before vitrectomy seems to reduce the incidence of early postvitrectomy hemorrhage in diabetic patients. There was a better visual acuity outcome in the triamcinolone group.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2013 · Revista brasileira de oftalmologia
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate whether the time interval between type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) diagnosis and the first fundoscopic examination is related with the presence and the severity of diabetic retinopathy (DR) observed.
A survey of 105 type 2 DM patients referred to ophthalmologic evaluation in the "Hospital das Clinicas" (HC), University of São Paulo Medical School (USPMS).
Regarding classification of DR in the 105 patients, 15 (14.28%) did not show signs of DR, and 90 (85.72%) exhibited them on fundoscopy. Sixty patients underwent laser therapy, and 46.66% reported poor control of DM. Only 15.23% of DM patients were adequately screened for DR on the first year of their DM diagnosis. Among the 36 patients (34.30%) examined within five years of DM diagnosis, 58.33% did not present or demonstrate signs of mild DR and 22.20% of proliferative DR; 30 patients underwent an ophthalmologic examination after more than eleven years of DM diagnosis, 21.62% did not exhibit signs of DR and 59.46% were classified as proliferative DR.
This study showed a statistically significant relationship between the time interval from the diagnosis of type 2 DM and the first fundoscopic examination with the severity of DR.
Full-text · Article · May 2010 · Arquivos brasileiros de oftalmologia
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this case series is to describe if the intravitreal use of bevacizumab and perfluoropropane gas (C3F8) would be beneficial to the displacement of subretinal hemorrhage in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). A retrospective study of 5 eyes that received concurrent intravitreal injection of bevacizumab and C3F8 was performed. The results were graded according to blood displacement under the fovea, best final visual acuity and intraoperative complications. At the initial presentation, mean age of patients was 72.6 +/- 8.9 years-old and duration of symptoms was 13 +/- 9.7 days. From the 5 patients, 3 (60%) were male and 2 (40%) female. The success of submacular hemorrhage full displacement was achieved in 4 patients. The mean preoperative visual acuity (VA) was 1.12 +/- 0.34 logMAR and the mean postoperative VA was 0.92 +/- 0.4 logMAR. No cases of retinal detachment, endophthalmitis, vitreous hemorrhage, uveitis, cataracts and increased intraocular pressure were noted during the follow-up period. Intravitreal bevacizumab and C3F8 injection, associated to prone position can be a valuable therapeutic option for eyes with neovascular age-related macular degeneration and subretinal hemorrhage to the blood displacement out of the foveal area.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2010 · Arquivos brasileiros de oftalmologia
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this case series is to describe if the intravitreal use of bevacizumab and perfluoropropane gas (C3F8) would be beneficial to the displacement of subretinal hemorrhage in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). A retrospective study of 5 eyes that received concurrent intravitreal injection of bevacizumab and C3F8 was performed. The results were graded according to blood displacement under the fovea, best final visual acuity and intraoperative complications. At the initial presentation, mean age of patients was 72.6 ± 8.9 years-old and duration of symptoms was 13 ± 9.7 days. From the 5 patients, 3 (60%) were male and 2 (40%) female. The success of submacular hemorrhage full displacement was achieved in 4 patients. The mean preoperative visual acuity (VA) was 1.12 ± 0.34 logMAR and the mean postoperative VA was 0.92 ± 0.4 logMAR. No cases of retinal detachment, endophthalmitis, vitreous hemorrhage, uveitis, cataracts and increased intraocular pressure were noted during the follow-up period. Intravitreal bevacizumab and C3F8 injection, associated to prone position can be a valuable therapeutic option for eyes with neovascular age-related macular degeneration and subretinal hemorrhage to the blood displacement out of the foveal area.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2010 · Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: O objetivo deste relato é correlacionar achados à tomografia de coerência óptica e prognóstico visual de pacientes com commotio retina e de gravidades diferentes. Dois pacientes do sexo masculino, de 20 e 23 anos com baixa visual unilateral após trauma ocular contuso atribuível a edema de Berlin foram avaliados pela retinografia e tomografia de coerência óptica. A acuidade visual no olho afetado era de 20/25 no primeiro paciente e conta dedos a 2 metros no segundo. O exame oftalmológico revelou uveíte traumática e, na fundoscopia, evidenciaram-se opacificação retiniana moderada no primeiro caso e grave no segundo. A tomografia de coerência óptica confirmou discreta diminuição da depressão foveal no primeiro caso e desorganização das camadas retinianas no segundo. Houve resolução anatômica e funcional completa a tomografia de coerência óptica no primeiro paciente, enquanto o segundo evoluiu com baixa visual permanente e desorganização da arquitetura retiniana. A tomografia de coerência óptica é um exame complementar útil na avaliação do trauma retiniano, ajudando a entender sua fisiopatologia e predizer prognóstico a partir da análise anatômica da região acometida.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2009 · Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this case report was to correlate optical coherence tomography findings and visual outcomes of patients with different degrees of commotio retinae. A 20-year-old male and a 23-year-old male that presented with decreased vision due to Berlin's edema after blunt ocular trauma were evaluated by optical coherence tomography and retinography. The visual acuity in the affected eye was 20/25 in the first patient and counting fingers in the second one. The ophthalmic examination showed traumatic uveitis and fundoscopy revealed mild retinal opacification in the first case and severe opacification in the latter. The optical coherence tomography confirmed the reduction of foveal depression on the first case and the disarrangement of all retinal layers on the second. There has been complete functional and anatomical resolution by optical coherence tomography in the first patient, while the second evolved to permanent visual loss. Optical coherence tomography is a useful method in the evaluation of retinal trauma, helping to understand its physiopathology and to predict its prognosis through the anatomical analysis of the affected region.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to verify the influence of prostaglandin analogs and prostamide on central corneal thickness (CCT).
A prospective analysis was done of CCT in glautomatous patients submitted to monotherapy with prostaglandin analogs (latanoprost 0.005% or travoprost 0.004%) or prostamide (bimatoprost 0.03%) during an 8-week period. A control group of patients without any ocular medication was also evaluated. CCT measurements were performed with a commercially available ultrasound pachymeter. A total of 73 patients were included in this study. Mean age was 68.5 +/- 9.2 (range, 48-85) years old.
A statistically significant reduction in CCT was observed in all groups, except the control group (n = 21): Bimatoprost 0.03% group (n = 21): 544.41 +/- 35.4 vs. 540.35 +/- 35.9 microm (P = 0.039); travoprost 0.004% group (n = 17): 538.47 +/- 32.0 vs. 532.25 +/- 30.4 microm (P = 0.009); latanoprost 0.005% group (n = 14): 548.57 +/- 32.4 vs. 543.88 +/- 35.6 microm (P = 0.036).
Topical therapy with prostaglandin analogs and bimatoprost is associated with CCT reduction over a period of at least 8 weeks.
No preview · Article · Mar 2009 · Journal of ocular pharmacology and therapeutics: the official journal of the Association for Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chloroquine diphosphate has been used in the treatment of various rheumatic diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis. The most important of its side effects is retinopathy. If not diagnosed early, this lesion can evolve into irreversible bull's eye maculopathy and visual loss. The aim of this study was to define the outcome of chloroquine-induced maculopathy after cessation of chloroquine therapy and also to identify the risk factors involved in case of retinopathy evolution. The design of this cohort study was longitudinal and retrospective. Over the period spanning 2000 to 2005, out of 607 medical records of patients with rheumatoid arthritis followed in our Division of Rheumatology, 27 had been diagnosed with chloroquine-induced maculopathy through clinical funduscopy with pupil dilation. In all cases, there was immediate chloroquine intake cessation. After a mean time of 5 years, 16 of these patients were available for follow-up and underwent a new ophthalmologic evaluation by funduscopy, using biomicroscopy and angiofluorescein when necessary. Sequelae maculopathy were reconfirmed in all 16 cases, but progression to advanced stage (bull's eye maculopathy) was found in half of the cohort, even though chloroquine had been suspended. All patients complained of visual alterations, but without progression. Comparison between patient groups with and without bull's eye maculopathy revealed a statistically significant longer rheumatoid arthritis disease history in the former group. Also, the bull's eye group had higher dose intakes of chloroquine and over a longer period compared to the other group, but not statistically significant. This study corroborates the progression of maculopathy even after cessation of chloroquine intake, pointing out the need for careful screening in the high-risk patients. Furthermore, it indicates that duration of rheumatoid arthritis disease could be a possible factor linked to worse prognosis of chloroquine-induced maculopathy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine whether there is a correlation between asymmetric glaucomatous visual field (VF) damage and water-drinking test (WDT) response.
A retrospective analysis was conducted of VF and WDT data from 101 patients with glaucoma in clinical therapy, who were receiving treatment with the same topical medication in both eyes, and asymmetric VF defect. Eyes were classified according to mean deviation (MD) into "better" and contralateral "worse" eyes. Maximum mean difference in basal IOP was 2 mm Hg between both eyes. The peak IOP and fluctuation obtained with the WDT were compared between both groups. For the statistical analysis, the Tukey post hoc multiple comparison test and paired t-test were used.
Better and contralateral worse eyes presented mean MDs of -4.6 +/- 5.3 and -9.0 +/- 7.4 dB, respectively (P < 0.001). Mean basal IOPs were 13.9 +/- 3.3 and 13.9 +/- 3.1 mm Hg, respectively (P = 0.67). Mean maximum IOPs after water ingestion were 16.5 +/- 3.8 mm Hg in the group with less severe VF defect and 17.2 +/- 4.1 mm Hg in the contralateral group with worse visual fields (P < 0.001). Mean fluctuation (maximum IOP - minimum IOP after water ingestion) was 3.6 +/- 1.8 and 4.4 +/- 2.2 mm Hg (P < 0.001), respectively.
Eyes with worse MDs presented higher IOP peaks and fluctuation after water ingestion. This study demonstrates a lower capacity of eyes with worse glaucomatous lesion to respond to a stimulus that leads to a transitory elevation of IOP.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Retinal vasoproliferative tumor is a rare and benign disease that presents with an exsudative lesion in the retinal periphery. The lesion can be classified as primary (idiopathic) or secondary to a number of previous retinal injuries. Diagnosis is based on a careful ophthalmic examination. Therapeutic options include observation, cryotherapy, laser photocoagulation and brachytherapy. We present a case of idiopathic retinal vasoproliferative tumor associated with macular edema. The aspects of the tumor on fundus examination, fluorescent angiography, echography and optic coherence tomography are discussed.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2005 · Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia