- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intraarticular injection of neostigmine has been reported to create long-lasting analgesia due to the blockade of muscarinic receptors and neuronociceptive transmitters. The aim of the study was to determine if similar effects could be achieved after adding neostigmine to bupivacaine during infiltration of the surgical area before inguinal hernia surgery. Ninety patients (82 males and 8 females), aged 20-88 (mean 54.8) years, scheduled for Lichtenstein hernia surgery under spinal anaesthesia, were randomly allocated to three groups. The surgical area was infiltrated with 10 mL of 0.5% bupivacaine in group 1, or 10 mL of 0.5% bupivacaine with 0.5 mg neostigmine in group 2. Patients in the control group did not receive local infiltration. Postoperative pain was assessed using a numerical rating scale (NRS), and adjective rating scale (ARS) and the need for rescue analgesia (ketoprofen or pethidine) was recorded. The patients of group 1 required rescue analgesia significantly later, compared to the other two groups. Intense pain occurred less frequently in group 1 and the most frequently in group 3. The need for rescue analgesia was also least in group 1 and greatest in group 3. Neostigmine added to bupivacaine had no effect on analgesia after pre-emptive local wound infiltration.
Conference Paper: Sol-gel-based optical waveguides on LTCC substrates[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this work is to test the possibility of sol-gel optical waveguides fabrication on ceramic substrates. The silica sol-gel film is chosen for an optical substrate and cladding and a glaze layer as a material for a waveguide core. The presented paper contains results of examination of the optimal chemical composition and process parameters of sol-gel material and the glaze layer. The refractive indexes and thicknesses of the films have been measured. The technology allows to make waveguide in the grooves made in LTCC substrate. The grooves have 137 mum depth and width variable from 100 mum to 1500 mum. The sol-gel/glaze combination have been used to make stripe waveguides in the grooves.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The sol-gel technique has been long used for the purpose of integrated optics and connected with the Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramic technology seems to be a very promising solution to the integrated optics issue. Versatile SiO<sub>2</sub> sol-gel silica and hybrid SiO<sub>2</sub>-TiO<sub>2</sub> sol-gel layers have been fabricated and deposited on substrate in the dip-coating process. In order to measure the layers an ellipsometer has been used. A wide range of achieved refractive indexes and thicknesses enabled to produce a planar waveguide on a LTCC substrate. The structure has been investigated using the prism coupler technique which confirmed its waveguide character. In order to fabricate a stripe waveguide in a LTCC channel structure both SiO<sub>2</sub> and hybrid SiO<sub>2</sub>-TiO<sub>2</sub> sol-gel glass have been used. The LTCC substrate was dip-coated with pure silica - as the waveguide substrate layer - while the channel was filled with the hybrid solution which performed higher refractive index than silica. The structure 140 mum high and 500 mum wide has been measured with the help of cut-off technique and its attenuation has turned out to be 2,46 dB/cm at the wavelength of 632,8 nm.
Article: Photonic Crystals in Nature[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Photonic crystals have been subject of research for the last two decades. These artificial materials behave towards optical electromagnetic radiation in the same way as semiconductors behave towards electrons. A lot of materials and technologies have been tested for usefulness in this field. At the moment the most promising material is silicon processed with microelectronic technologies. It turned out however, that what people discovered a couple of years ago, Mother Nature created millions of years earlier. Examples of photonic crystals structures occur in hard minerals (opal), as well as in living creatures (butterfly wings, fur of the sea mouse). Naturally created photonic crystal structures aren't all the same, they differ in forms and functions. Two as well as three-dimensional structures are reported. That makes them even more interesting subject for research. The most interesting examples of photonic crystal structures existing in nature are presented and classified in this article
Wroclaw University of Technology
Vrotslav, Lower Silesian Voivodeship, Poland
- Faculty of Microsystem Electronics and Photonics