M. Fich

University of Waterloo, Ватерлоо, Ontario, Canada

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Publications (108)311.13 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We present a first look at the SCUBA-2 observations of three sub-regions of the Orion B molecular cloud: LDN 1622, NGC 2023/2024, and NGC 2068/2071, from the JCMT Gould Belt Legacy Survey. We identify 29, 564, and 322 dense cores in L1622, NGC 2023/2024, and NGC 2068/2071 respectively, using the SCUBA-2 850 micron map, and present their basic properties, including their peak fluxes, total fluxes, and sizes, and an estimate of the corresponding 450 micron peak fluxes and total fluxes, using the FellWalker source extraction algorithm. Assuming a constant temperature of 20 K, the starless dense cores have a mass function similar to that found in previous dense core analyses, with a Salpeter-like slope at the high-mass end. The majority of cores appear stable to gravitational collapse when considering only thermal pressure; indeed, most of the cores which have masses above the thermal Jeans mass are already associated with at least one protostar. At higher cloud column densities, above 1-2 x 10^23 cm^-2, most of the mass is found within dense cores, while at lower cloud column densities, below 1 x 10^23 cm^-2, this fraction drops to 10% or lower. Overall, the fraction of dense cores associated with a protostar is quite small (<8%), but becomes larger for the densest and most centrally concentrated cores. NGC 2023 / 2024 and NGC 2068/2071 appear to be on the path to forming a significant number of stars in the future, while L1622 has little additional mass in dense cores to form many new stars.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Performing ground-based submillimetre observations is a difficult task as the measurements are subject to absorption and emission from water vapour in the Earth's atmosphere and time variation in weather and instrument stability. Removing these features and other artifacts from the data is a vital process which affects the characteristics of the recovered astronomical structure we seek to study. In this paper, we explore two data reduction methods for data taken with the Submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array-2 (SCUBA-2) at the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT). The JCMT Legacy Reduction 1 (JCMT LR1) and The Gould Belt Legacy Survey Legacy Release 1 (GBS LR1) reduction both use the same software, Starlink, but differ in their choice of data reduction parameters. We find that the JCMT LR1 reduction is suitable for determining whether or not compact emission is present in a given region and the GBS LR1 reduction is tuned in a robust way to uncover more extended emission, which better serves more in-depth physical analyses of star-forming regions. Using the GBS LR1 method, we find that compact sources are recovered well, even at a peak brightness of only 3 times the noise, whereas the reconstruction of larger objects requires much care when drawing boundaries around the expected astronomical signal in the data reduction process. Incorrect boundaries can lead to false structure identification or it can cause structure to be missed. In the JCMT LR1 reduction, the extent of the true structure of objects larger than a point source is never fully recovered.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: We present early results from the JCMT (James Clerk Maxwell Telescope) Plane Survey (JPS), which has surveyed the northern inner Galactic plane between longitudes ℓ = 7° and ℓ = 63° in the 850-μm continuum with SCUBA-2 (Submm Common-User Bolometer Array 2), as part of the JCMT Legacy Survey programme. Data from the ℓ = 30° survey region, which contains the massive-star-forming regions W43 and G29.96, are analysed after approximately 40 per cent of the observations had been completed. The pixel-to-pixel noise is found to be 19 mJy beam−1 after a smooth over the beam area, and the projected equivalent noise levels in the final survey are expected to be around 10 mJy beam−1. An initial extraction of compact sources was performed using the FellWalker method, resulting in the detection of 1029 sources above a 5σ surface-brightness threshold. The completeness limits in these data are estimated to be around 0.2 Jy beam−1 (peak flux density) and 0.8 Jy (integrated flux density) and are therefore probably already dominated by source confusion in this relatively crowded section of the survey. The flux densities of extracted compact sources are consistent with those of matching detections in the shallower APEX (Atacama Pathfinder Experiment) Telescope Large Area Survey of the Galaxy (ATLASGAL) survey. We analyse the virial and evolutionary state of the detected clumps in the W43 star-forming complex and find that they appear younger than the Galactic-plane average.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: We employ SCUBA-2 (Submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array 2) observations of the Orion A North molecular cloud to derive column density and temperature maps. We apply a novel, Hessian-based structural identification algorithm for detection of prestellar cores to these data, allowing for automated generation of the prestellar mass function. The resulting mass function is observed to peak at 1.39(-0.19)(+0.18) M-circle dot, indicating a star-forming efficiency lower limit of similar to 14 per cent when compared with the Orion nebula Cluster initial mass function (IMF) peak. Additionally, the prestellar mass function is observed to decay with a high-mass power-law exponent alpha = 2.53(-0.14)(+0.16), indicating approximate functional similarity with the Salpeter IMF (alpha = 2.35). This result, when combined with the results of previous investigations suggests a regional dependence of the star-forming efficiency.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: We present 850 and 450 μm data from the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) Gould Belt Survey obtained with Submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array 2 (SCUBA-2) and characterize the dust attributes of Class I, Class II and Class III disc sources in L 1495. We detect 23 per cent of the sample at both wavelengths, with the detection rate decreasing through the Classes from I to III. The median disc mask is 1.6 × 10−3 M⊙, and only 7 per cent of Class II sources have disc masses larger than 20 Jupiter masses. We detect a higher proportion of discs towards sources with stellar hosts of spectral type K than spectral type M. Class II discs with single stellar hosts of spectral type K have higher masses than those of spectral type M, supporting the hypothesis that higher mass stars have more massive discs. Variations in disc masses calculated at the two wavelengths suggest that there may be differences in dust opacity and/or dust temperature between discs with hosts of spectral types K to those with spectral type M.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper we present the first observations of the Ophiuchus molecular cloud performed as part of the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) Gould Belt Survey (GBS) with the SCUBA-2 instrument. We demonstrate methods for combining these data with previous HARP CO, Herschel, and IRAM N$_{2}$H$^{+}$ observations in order to accurately quantify the properties of the SCUBA-2 sources in Ophiuchus. We produce a catalogue of all of the sources found by SCUBA-2. We separate these into protostars and starless cores. We list all of the starless cores and perform a full virial analysis, including external pressure. This is the first time that external pressure has been included in this level of detail. We find that the majority of our cores are either bound or virialised. Gravitational energy and external pressure are on average of a similar order of magnitude, but with some variation from region to region. We find that cores in the Oph A region are gravitationally bound prestellar cores, while cores in the Oph C and E regions are pressure-confined. We determine that N$_{2}$H$^{+}$ is a good tracer of the bound material of prestellar cores, although we find some evidence for N$_{2}$H$^{+}$ freeze-out at the very highest core densities. We find that non-thermal linewidths decrease substantially between the gas traced by C$^{18}$O and that traced by N$_{2}$H$^{+}$, indicating the dissipation of turbulence at higher densities. We find that the critical Bonnor-Ebert stability criterion is not a good indicator of the boundedness of our cores. We detect the pre-brown dwarf candidate Oph B-11 and find a flux density and mass consistent with previous work. We discuss regional variations in the nature of the cores and find further support for our previous hypothesis of a global evolutionary gradient across the cloud from southwest to northeast, indicating sequential star formation across the region.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: We present SCUBA-2 450 and 850 μm observations of the Serpens MWC 297 region, part of the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) Gould Belt Survey of nearby star-forming regions. Simulations suggest that radiative feedback influences the star formation process and we investigate observational evidence for this by constructing temperature maps. Maps are derived from the ratio of SCUBA-2 fluxes and a two-component model of the JCMT beam for a fixed dust opacity spectral index of β = 1.8. Within 40 arcsec of the B1.5Ve Herbig star MWC 297, the submillimetre fluxes are contaminated by free–free emission with a spectral index of 1.03 ± 0.02, consistent with an ultracompact H ii region and polar winds/jets. Contamination accounts for 73 ± 5 per cent and 82 ± 4 per cent of peak flux at 450 μm and 850 μm, respectively. The residual thermal disc of the star is almost undetectable at these wavelengths. Young stellar objects (YSOs) are confirmed where SCUBA-2 850 μm clumps identified by the fellwalker algorithm coincide with Spitzer Gould Belt Survey detections. We identify 23 objects and use Tbol to classify nine YSOs with masses 0.09 to 5.1 M⊙. We find two Class 0, one Class 0/I, three Class I and three Class II sources. The mean temperature is 15 ± 2 K for the nine YSOs and 32 ± 4 K for the 14 starless clumps. We observe a starless clump with an abnormally high mean temperature of 46 ± 2 K and conclude that it is radiatively heated by the star MWC 297. Jeans stability provides evidence that radiative heating by the star MWC 297 may be suppressing clump collapse.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: Context: The physical origin behind organic emission in embedded low-mass star formation has been fiercely debated in the last two decades. A multitude of scenarios have been proposed, from a hot corino to PDRs on cavity walls to shock excitation. Aims: The aim of this paper is to determine the location and the corresponding physical conditions of the gas responsible for organics emission lines. The outflows around the small protocluster NGC 2071 are an ideal testbed to differentiate between various scenarios. Methods: Using Herschel-HIFI and the SMA, observations of CH3OH, H2CO and CH3CN emission lines over a wide range of excitation energies were obtained. Comparisons to a grid of radiative transfer models provide constraints on the physical conditions. Comparison to H2O line shape is able to trace gas-phase synthesis versus a sputtered origin. Results: Emission of organics originates in three spots: the continuum sources IRS 1 ('B') and IRS 3 ('A') as well as a outflow position ('F'). Densities are above 10$^7$ cm$^{-3}$ and temperatures between 100 to 200 K. CH3OH emission observed with HIFI originates in all three regions and cannot be associated with a single region. Very little organic emission originates outside of these regions. Conclusions: Although the three regions are small (<1,500 AU), gas-phase organics likely originate from sputtering of ices due to outflow activity. The derived high densities (>10$^7$ cm$^{-3}$) are likely a requirement for organic molecules to survive from being destroyed by shock products. The lack of spatially extended emission confirms that organic molecules cannot (re)form through gas-phase synthesis, as opposed to H2O, which shows strong line wing emission. The lack of CH3CN emission at 'F' is evidence for a different history of ice processing due to the absence of a protostar at that location and recent ice mantle evaporation.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: NGC 7129 FIRS 2 (hereafter FIRS 2) is an intermediate-mass (2 to 8 Msun) protostar located at a distance of 1250 pc. High spatial resolution observations are required to resolve the hot core at its center. We present a molecular survey from 218200 MHz to 221800 MHz carried out with the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer. These observations were complemented with a long integration single-dish spectrum taken with the IRAM 30m telescope. We used a Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) single temperature code to model the whole dataset. The interferometric spectrum is crowded with a total of ~300 lines from which a few dozens remain unidentified yet. The spectrum has been modeled with a total of 20 species and their isomers, isotopologues and deuterated compounds. Complex molecules like methyl formate (CH3OCHO), ethanol (CH3CH2OH), glycolaldehyde (CH2OHCHO), acetone (CH3COCH3), dimethyl ether (CH3OCH3), ethyl cyanide (CH3CH2CN) and the aGg' conformer of ethylene glycol (aGg'-(CH2OH)_2) are among the detected species. The detection of vibrationally excited lines of CH3CN, CH3OCHO, CH3OH, OCS, HC3N and CH3CHO proves the existence of gas and dust at high temperatures. In fact, the gas kinetic temperature estimated from the vibrational lines of CH3CN, ~405 K, is similar to that measured in massive hot cores. Our data allow an extensive comparison of the chemistry in FIRS~2 and the Orion hot core. We find a quite similar chemistry in FIRS 2 and Orion. Most of the studied fractional molecular abundances agree within a factor of 5. Larger differences are only found for the deuterated compounds D2CO and CH2DOH and a few molecules (CH3CH2CN, SO2, HNCO and CH3CHO). Since the physical conditions are similar in both hot cores, only different initial conditions (warmer pre-collapse phase in the case of Orion) and/or different crossing time of the gas in the hot core can explain this behavior.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: We describe a search for submillimeter emission in the vicinity of one of the most distant, luminous galaxies known, HerMES FLS3 at z=6.34, exploiting it as a signpost to a potentially biased region of the early Universe, as might be expected in hierarchical structure formation models. Imaging to the confusion limit with the innovative, wide-field submillimeter bolometer camera, SCUBA-2, we are sensitive to colder and/or less luminous galaxies in the surroundings of HFLS3. We use the Millennium Simulation to illustrate that HFLS3 may be expected to have companions if it is as massive as claimed, but find no significant evidence from the surface density of SCUBA-2 galaxies in its vicinity, or their colors, that HFLS3 marks an over-density of dusty, star-forming galaxies. We cannot rule out the presence of dusty neighbours with confidence, but deeper 450-um imaging has the potential to more tightly constrain the redshifts of nearby galaxies, at least one of which likely lies at z>~5. If associations with HFLS3 can be ruled out, this could be taken as evidence that HFLS3 is less biased than a simple extrapolation of the Millennium Simulation may imply. This could suggest either that it represents a rare short-lived, but highly luminous, phase in the evolution of an otherwise typical galaxy, or that this system has suffered amplification due to a foreground gravitational lens and so is not as intrinsically luminous as claimed.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: MS 0451.6−0305 is a rich galaxy cluster whose strong lensing is particularly prominent at submm wavelengths. We combine new Submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array (SCUBA)-2 data with imaging from Herschel Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE) and PACS and Hubble Space Telescope in order to try to understand the nature of the sources being lensed. In the region of the ‘giant submm arc’, we uncover seven multiply imaged galaxies (up from the previously known four), of which six are found to be at a redshift of z ∼ 2.9, and possibly constitute an interacting system. Using a novel forward-modelling approach, we are able to simultaneously deblend and fit spectral energy distributions to the individual galaxies that contribute to the giant submm arc, constraining their dust temperatures, far-infrared luminosities, and star formation rates (SFRs). The submm arc first identified by SCUBA can now be seen to be composed of at least five distinct sources, four of these within a galaxy group at z ∼ 2.9. Only a handful of lensed galaxy groups at this redshift are expected on the sky, and thus this is a unique opportunity for studying such systems in detail. The total unlensed luminosity for this galaxy group is (3.1 ± 0.3) × 1012 L⊙, which gives an unlensed SFR of (450 ± 50) M⊙ yr−1. This finding suggests that submm source multiplicity, due to physically associated groupings as opposed to chance alignment, extends to fainter flux densities than previously discovered. Many of these systems may also host optical companions undetected in the submm, as is the case here.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: Submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array 2 (SCUBA-2) is an innovative 10 000 pixel bolometer camera operating at submillimetre wavelengths on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT). The camera has the capability to carry out wide-field surveys to unprecedented depths, addressing key questions relating to the origins of galaxies, stars and planets. With two imaging arrays working simultaneously in the atmospheric windows at 450 and 850 μm, the vast increase in pixel count means that SCUBA-2 maps the sky 100–150 times faster than the previous SCUBA instrument. In this paper, we present an overview of the instrument, discuss the physical characteristics of the superconducting detector arrays, outline the observing modes and data acquisition, and present the early performance figures on the telescope. We also showcase the capabilities of the instrument via some early examples of the science SCUBA-2 that have already been undertaken. In 2012 February, SCUBA-2 began a series of unique legacy surveys for the JCMT community. These surveys will take 2.5 yr and the results are already providing complementary data to the shorter wavelength, shallower, larger area surveys from Herschel. The SCUBA-2 surveys will also provide a wealth of information for further study with new facilities such as ALMA, and future telescopes such as CCAT and SPICA.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2013 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: The James Clerk Maxwell Telescope Nearby Galaxies Legacy Survey (NGLS) comprises an H i-selected sample of 155 galaxies spanning all morphological types with distances less than 25 Mpc. We describe the scientific goals of the survey, the sample selection and the observing strategy. We also present an atlas and analysis of the CO J=3 - 2 maps for the 47 galaxies in the NGLS which are also part of the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey. We find a wide range of molecular gas mass fractions in the galaxies in this sample and explore the correlation of the far-infrared luminosity, which traces star formation, with the CO luminosity, which traces the molecular gas mass. By comparing the NGLS data with merging galaxies at low and high redshift, which have also been observed in the CO J=3 - 2 line, we show that the correlation of far-infrared and CO luminosity shows a significant trend with luminosity. This trend is consistent with a molecular gas depletion time which is more than an order of magnitude faster in the merger galaxies than in nearby normal galaxies. We also find a strong correlation of the LFIR/LCO(3-2) ratio with the atomic-to-molecular gas mass ratio. This correlation suggests that some of the far-infrared emission originates from dust associated with atomic gas and that its contribution is particularly important in galaxies where most of the gas is in the atomic phase.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2012 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: The James Clerk Maxwell Telescope Nearby Galaxies Legacy Survey (NGLS) comprises an HI-selected sample of 155 galaxies spanning all morphological types with distances less than 25 Mpc. We describe the scientific goals of the survey, the sample selection, and the observing strategy. We also present an atlas and analysis of the CO J=3-2 maps for the 47 galaxies in the NGLS which are also part of the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey. We find a wide range of molecular gas mass fractions in the galaxies in this sample and explore the correlation of the far-infrared luminosity, which traces star formation, with the CO luminosity, which traces the molecular gas mass. By comparing the NGLS data with merging galaxies at low and high redshift which have also been observed in the CO J=3-2 line, we show that the correlation of far-infrared and CO luminosity shows a significant trend with luminosity. This trend is consistent with a molecular gas depletion time which is more than an order of magnitude faster in the merger galaxies than in nearby normal galaxies. We also find a strong correlation of the L(FIR)/L(CO3-2) ratio with the atomic to molecular gas mass ratio. This correlation suggests that some of the far-infrared emission originates from dust associated with atomic gas and that its contribution is particularly important in galaxies where most of the gas is in the atomic phase.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2012
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    ABSTRACT: NGC 7129 FIRS 2 is a young intermediate-mass (IM) protostar, which is associated with two energetic bipolar outflows and displays clear signs of the presence of a hot core. It has been extensively observed with ground based telescopes and within the WISH Guaranteed Time Herschel Key Program. We present new observations of the C18O 3-2 and the HDO 3_{12}-2_{21} lines towards NGC 7129 FIRS 2. Combining these observations with Herschel data and modeling their emissions, we constrain the C18O and HDO abundance profiles across the protostellar envelope. In particular, we derive the abundance of C18O and HDO in the hot core. The intensities of the C18O lines are well reproduced assuming that the C18O abundance decreases through the protostellar envelope from the outer edge towards the centre until the point where the gas and dust reach the CO evaporation temperature (~20-25 K) where the C18O is released back to the gas phase. Once the C18O is released to the gas phase, the modelled C18O abundance is found to be ~1.6x10^{-8}, which is a factor of 10 lower than the reference abundance. This result is supported by the non-detection of C18O 9-8, which proves that even in the hot core (T_k>100 K) the CO abundance must be 10 times lower than the reference value. Several scenarios are discussed to explain this C18O deficiency. One possible explanation is that during the pre-stellar and protostellar phase, the CO is removed from the grain mantles by reactions to form more complex molecules. Our HDO modeling shows that the emission of HDO 3_{12}-2_{21} line is maser and comes from the hot core (T_k>100 K). Assuming the physical structure derived by Crimier et al. (2010), we determine a HDO abundance of ~0.4 - 1x10^{-7} in the hot core of this IM protostar, similar to that found in the hot corinos NGC 1333 IRAS 2A and IRAS 16293-2422.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2012 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: The Gould Belt Legacy Survey will map star-forming regions within 500 pc, using HARP (Heterodyne Array Receiver Programme), SCUBA-2 (Submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array 2) and POL-2 (Polarimeter 2) on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT). This paper describes HARP observations of the J = 3-2 transitions of 13CO and C18O towards Orion A. The 1500-resolution observations cover 5 pc of the Orion filament, including OMC1 (inc. BN-KL and Orion Bar), OMC 2/3 and OMC 4, and allow a comparative study of the molecular gas properties throughout the star-forming cloud. The filament shows a velocity gradient of ~1 km/s /pc between OMC 1, 2 and 3, and high velocity emission is detected in both isotopologues. The Orion Nebula and Bar have the largest masses and line widths, and dominate the mass and energetics of the high velocity material. Compact, spatially resolved emission from CH3CN, 13CH3OH, SO, HCOOCH3, C2H5OH, CH3CHO and CH3OCHO is detected towards the Orion Hot Core. The cloud is warm, with a median excitation temperature of ~24 K; the Orion Bar has the highest excitation temperature gas, at >80 K. The C18O excitation temperature correlates well with the dust temperature (to within 40%). The C18O emission is optically thin, and the 13CO emission is marginally optically thick; despite its high mass, OMC 1 shows the lowest opacities. A virial analysis indicates that Orion A is too massive for thermal or turbulent support, but is consistent with a model of a filamentary cloud that is threaded by helical magnetic fields. The variation of physical conditions across the cloud is reflected in the physical characteristics of the dust cores....continued
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2012 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

  • No preview · Article · Jan 2012
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    ABSTRACT: Aims. In this paper the calibration and in-orbit performance of the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared (HIFI) is described. Methods. The calibration of HIFI is based on a combination of ground and in-flight tests. Dedicated ground tests to determine those instrument parameters that can only be measured accurately using controlled laboratory stimuli were carried out in the instrument level test (ILT) campaign. Special in-flight tests during the commissioning phase (CoP) and performance verification (PV) allowed the determination of the remaining instrument parameters. The various instrument observing modes, as specified in astronomical observation templates (AOTs), were validated in parallel during PV by observing selected celestial sources. Results. The initial calibration and in-orbit performance of HIFI has been established. A first estimate of the calibration budget is given. The overall in-flight instrument performance agrees with the original specification. Issues remain at only a few frequencies.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2012 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: In the wake of the Decadal Survey and a January 2011 meeting of NASA's Exoplanet Exploration Program Analysis Group (ExoPAG), one might be tempted to conclude that space interferometry is dead. We explain why this slogan is hyperbole, summarize the steps currently being taken to prepare for a space-based far-IR interferometer, and reiterate the science case for an imaging and spectroscopic interferometer - SPIRIT - that would operate in space at long infrared wavelengths. Space-based interferometry is alive and well, but the center of activity has shifted to a spectral region (25 to 400 microns) in which no alternative measurement technique can provide information essential to answering several scientific questions deemed compelling by the Decadal Survey. Astrophysicists will use SPIRIT to: discover how the conditions for habitability arise during planetary system formation; find and characterize exoplanets by measuring their sculpting effects on protoplanetary and debris disks; and study the formation, merger history, and star formation history of galaxies.
    No preview · Article · May 2011

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Publication Stats

2k Citations
311.13 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1999-2015
    • University of Waterloo
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Ватерлоо, Ontario, Canada
  • 2003
    • University of Toronto
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 1985-1986
    • University of Washington Seattle
      Seattle, Washington, United States
  • 1983-1985
    • University of California, Berkeley
      • Department of Astronomy
      Berkeley, California, United States
    • Adelphi University
      غاردين سيتي، نيويورك, New York, United States