Joanna Szymura-Oleksiak

Jagiellonian University, Cracovia, Lesser Poland Voivodeship, Poland

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Publications (35)71.11 Total impact

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    Dataset: bmc2750

    Full-text · Dataset · Jun 2015
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    K. Kus̈ · A. Zakrzewska · M. Szafarz · M. Walczak · A. Gonciarz · A. Kij · J. Suraj · J. Szymura-Oleksiak
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    ABSTRACT: A sensitive and specific liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method for simultaneous determination of seven metabolites of CYP450 model substrates (acetaminophen, 4-hydroxytolbutamide, 4′-hydroxymephenytoin, 1-hydroxybufuralol, 6-hydroxychlorzoxazone, 1′- and 4′-hydroxymidazolam) in rat liver microsomes was developed. The assay used Kinetex analytical column and a gradient mobile phase consistent of acetonitrile and water with addition of 0.1% formic acid. The analysis was performed in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode both in positive and negative (for 6-hydroxychlorzoxazone) mode. The method was validated over the concentration ranges of 10-2000 ng/mL for 4′-hydroxymephenytoin and 4- hydroxytolbutamide, 50-2000 ng/mL for 1-hydroxybufuralol and 25-2000 ng/mL for the rest of the analytes. The intra- and inter-day precision (2-12%) and accuracy (93-119%) were within the limits set by the FDA and EMA guidelines. The developed method was successfully applied to assess the activity of selected CYP450 isoenzymes in rat liver microsomes after addition of ketoconazole.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015
  • Agnieszka Cios · Elżbieta Wyska · Joanna Szymura-Oleksiak · Tomasz Grodzicki
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    ABSTRACT: The aims of the study were to develop a population pharmacokinetic model of ciprofloxacin (CPX) in the elderly patients and to examine the impact of patient-dependent variables on pharmacokinetic parameter values of this drug. The study was conducted in a group of 44 patients at the age of 44-96 years, hospitalized due to pneumonia lobaris or bronchopneumonia. Patients received CPX at a dose of 200 mg every 12 h as a constant rate infusion over 0.5 h. Concentrations of CPX in serum were measured by HPLC with UV detection. Population pharmacokinetic analysis revealed that CPX concentration versus time data were best described by a one-compartment model. The mean values of volume of distribution and clearance of CPX in the patients above 65 years of age were 78.41 +/- 13.17 L and 18.39 +/- 4.15 L/h, respectively. The creatinine clearance influenced CPX clearance according to the equation: CLCPX (L/h) = 8.0 + 0.21 . CLCr, while the volume of distribution of CPX was dependent on the body weight of the patient as follows: V-dCPX (L) = 22.72 + 0.86 . WT. In summary, the developed population model can be used to assess the pharmacokinetic parameters of CPX in the elderly patients and to select on the basis of these parameters and MIC values an optimal dosage regimen of this drug.
    No preview · Article · May 2014 · Experimental Gerontology
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    Agnieszka Cios · Kamil Kuś · Joanna Szymura-Oleksiak
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    ABSTRACT: A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method with UV and DAD detection for the quantitative determination of linezolid in human serum was developed in present work. Chromatography was carried out by reversed-phase technique on a RP-18 column with a mobile phase composed of 50 mM phosphate buffer and acetonitrile (76 : 26, v/v), adjusted to pH 3.5 with orthophosphoric acid. Serum samples were deproteinized with methanol centrifuged and then, the supernatant was analyzed using HPLC procedure. No interference was observed at the retention times of linezolid from blank serum or ten commonly used antibiotics. A concentration range from 0.50 to 30.0 g/mL was utilized to construct calibration curves. The lower limit of detection was determined to be 0.1 microg/mL of serum for both detectors. The lower limit of quantification of 0.25 microg/mL (CV = 2.6%) was established for determination using HPLC-UV and 0.5 microg/mL (CV = 5.42%) for HPLC-DAD. The recovery of linezolid was approximately 100%. Intra-day accuracy ranged from 0.97 to 12.63% and 0.74 to 10.85% for HPLC-UV and HPLC-DAD method, respectively. Intra-day precision was less than 4.69% for HPLC-UV and less than 5.42% for HPLC-DAD method. Tests confirmed the stability of linezolid in serum during three freeze-thaw cycles and during long-term storage of frozen serum for up to 6 weeks; in extracts it was stable in the HPLC autosampler over 24 h. Statistical analysis by Student's t-test showed no significant difference between the results obtained by these two methods. In summary, these methods will be used and adapted for infected patients in intensive care unit, to determine linezolid serum concentrations in order to know the pharmacokinetic profiles of linezolid.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · Acta poloniae pharmaceutica
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    ABSTRACT: The degree of binding of a drug to plasma proteins has a significant effect on its distribution, elimination, and pharmacological effect since only the unbound fraction is available for distribution into extra-vascular space. The binding of DL76 (1-[3-(4-tert-butyl-phenoxy)propyl]piperidine) to bovine serum albumin (BSA) was studied in viitro by equilibrium dialysis at 37 degrees C and pH 7.4 over the concentration range of 0.32-317.18 microM and at a physiological protein concentration of 602 microM. Drug concentrations were determined by validated LC/MS/MS method. Nonlinear regression analyses of the data pointed to a single class of binding sites (m = 1) with a dissociation constant of DL76 equal 49.20 microM. Scatchard plot concave-down curve might indicate positive cooperativity, which was confirmed by the Hill plot with the slope higher than one.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2013 · Acta poloniae pharmaceutica
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    ABSTRACT: A sensitive and specific liquid chromatography electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry method for determination of 1,4-dimethylpyridinium (1,4-DMP) in rat plasma has been developed and validated. Chromatography was performed on an Aquasil C(18) analytical column (4.6 × 150 mm, 5 µm, Thermo Scientific, Rockford, IL, USA) with isocratic elution using a mobile phase containing acetonitrile and water with an addition of 0.1% of formic acid. Detection was achieved by an Applied Biosystems MDS Sciex (Concord, Ontario, Canada) API 2000 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. Electrospray ionization was used for ion production. The limit of detection in the single ion monitoring mode was found to be 10 ng/mL. The limit of quantification was 50 ng/mL. The precision and accuracy for both within-day and between-day determination of 1,4-dimethylpyridinium was 2.4-7.56 and 90.93-111.48%. The results of this analytical method validation allow pharmacokinetic studies to be carried out in rats. The method was used for the pilot study of the pharmacokinetic behavior of 1,4-DMP in rats after intravenous administration. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2013 · Biomedical Chromatography
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    ABSTRACT: Plasma protein binding of drugs may have significant effect on its pharmacodynamic, toxicological and pharmacokinetic properties, since only the free drug can pass across biological membrane and get to its specific site of action. Many drugs show a high affinity to albumin which is the most abundant plasma protein. In the present study capillary electrophoresis in the frontal analysis mode (CE/FA), as promising technique for assessment of drug-protein interaction was used. The free drug concentration was measured from height of the frontal peak and calculated based on the external drug standard in absence of protein. With a known concentration of total drug, the percentage of protein bound drug was determined. The binding parameters were also estimated based on the equilibrium dialysis experiment which is considered to be a reference method. This study was designed to examine the interaction of dexamethasone sodium phosphate (DXM) with BSA and HSA under simulated physiological conditions (pH 7.4, 67 mM phosphate buffer, I = 0.17). Using fixed, at physiological level, HSA and BSA concentrations and increasing DXM concentrations, the number of binding sites (n) and binding constant (K(a) ) was calculated from both nonlinear regression fitting and Scatchard Plot. Despite some differences, it can be concluded that the CE/FA is comparable with equilibrium dialysis, but since the first one offers advantages such as low sample consumption, short analysis time, and high separation efficiency, it can be used in high-throughput screening of drug protein binding at the early stage of drug discovery. Interspecies differences in binding of a drug to albumins have been observed and it should be taken into account in interpretation of the results.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2012 · Electrophoresis
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    ABSTRACT: Methylnicotinamide (MNA) displays vasoprotective activity, however, the regulation of the activity of nicotinamide-N-methyltransferase (NNMT), is largely unknown. We analyze a possible involvement of IL-6 in the activation of NNMT-MNA pathway during an endurance exercise. FVB, C57Bl/6J IL6(+/+) and C57Bl/6J IL-6(-/-) mice were subjected to the single bout of endurance exercise consisting of 90 min of swimming. Thereafter, exercise-induced changes in NNMT activity in the liver as well as concomitant changes in the concentration of MNA and its further metabolites in plasma were analyzed. In two strains of mice (FVB and C57Bl/6J IL6(+/+)) 90 min of swimming resulted in approximately 2-3 folds increase in NNMT activity (from 0.14 ± 0.03 to 0.421 ± 0.02 pmol/min/mg, p < 0.05 and from 0.2 ± 0.06 to 0.35 ± 0.07 pmol/min/mg, p < 0.01, respectively) and concomitant increase in the plasma concentration of MNA (from 157 ± 15.06 to 230 ± 16.2 ng/ml, p < 0.01, and from 77.05 ± 14.6 ng/ml to 152.55 ± 58.4 ng/ml; p < 0.01, respectively). However, in C57Bl/6J IL-6(-/-) mice 90 min of swimming did not change liver NNMT activity (from 0.25 ± 0.07 to 0.23 ± 0.06 pmol/min/mg), while MNA concentration in plasma rose approximately two-fold (from 65.3 ± 30.9 ng/ml to 124.8 ± 35.8 ng/ml; p < 0.05). We demonstrated for the first time that NNMT - MNA pathway is activated by a single bout of endurance exercise. Interestingly, exercise-induced activation of NNMT in the liver involves IL-6, while the rise in MNA concentration in plasma was partially IL-6-independent. Taking into the consideration the pharmacological activity of MNA, IL-6-dependent and IL-6-independent activation of NNMT, may contribute to the exercise capacity. The physiological role of NNMT in the exercise warrant further studies.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · Pharmacological reports: PR

  • No preview · Article · Jun 2011 · Atherosclerosis Supplements
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    ABSTRACT: A sensitive and specific liquid chromatography electrospray ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry method for determination of new non-imidazole histamine H(3) receptor antagonist 1-[3-(4-tert-butylphenoxy)propyl]piperidine (DL76) in rat serum has been developed and validated. Chromatography was performed on a XBridge™ C18 analytical column (2.1 × 30 mm, 3.5 µm, Waters, Ireland) with gradient elution using a mobile phase containing acetonitrile and water with an addition of 0.1% of formic acid. Detection was achieved by an Applied Biosystems MDS Sciex (Concord, Ontario, Canada) API 2000 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. Electrospray ionization (ESI) was used for ion production. The limit of detection in the SRM mode was found to be 0.5 ng mL(-1). The limit of quantification was 1 ng mL(-1). The precision and accuracy for both intra- and inter-day determination of DL76 ranged from 1.65 to 15.09% and from 88.74 to 113.43%. The results of this analytical method validation allow to carry out pharmacokinetic studies in rats. The method was used for the pilot study of the pharmacokinetic behavior of DL76 in rats after intravenous administration.
    Preview · Article · May 2011 · Chromatographia
  • JOANNA SZYMURA-OLEKSIAK · JOLANTA BURY · RYSZARD LAUTERBACH · MACIEJ PAWŁOWSKI
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    ABSTRACT: Pentoxifylline, a methylxanthine derivative, and some of its metabolites have demonstrated an immunomodulatory effect both in-vivo and in-vitro. Therefore, pentoxifylline may play a potential role in the treatment of septic shock. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum concentrations of pentoxifylline and its clinically important metabolites (M1, M4 and M5) in a population of septic preterm neonates treated with pentoxifylline.The study was carried out on a group of 12 premature infants. Pentoxifylline was given once daily in a normalized dose of 5 mg kg−1 h−1, as a 6- or 12-h intravenous continuous infusion on three consecutive days. Serum concentrations were assayed by HPLC with solid-phase extraction. The results showed that a two-fold increase in the pentoxifylline dose (from 30 to 60 mg kg−1 day−1) resulted in a statistically significant increase in not only pentoxifylline, but also M1 metabolite serum concentrations compared with serum concentrations of M4 and M5 metabolites. Our data indicated that despite the high serum levels of the analysed compounds (with the M1 metabolite attaining the highest level), large doses of pentoxifylline were well tolerated.From the pharmacokinetic point of view, a longer, 12 h, infusion of pentoxifylline achieves serum concentrations of the drug which may be effective in inhibiting the production of some inflammatory mediators. Therefore, administration of pentoxifylline seems to be of benefit in the treatment of sepsis. However, further investigation of the efficacy and safety of this drug and its active metabolites in severe infections is warranted.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2011
  • Maria Walczak · Ewelina Kozaczek · Joanna Szymura-Oleksiak · Elżbieta Pękala
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    ABSTRACT: A sensitive and selective liquid chromatographic-electrospray ionization mass spectrometric method for the simultaneous determination of propentofylline and enantiomers of its active metabolite M1 in rat serum, cortex and hippocampus was developed and validated according to GLP procedures. Sample preparations were carried out by liquid-liquid extraction using diethyl ether after the addition of the internal standard (pentoxifylline). The dried residue was reconstituted in mobile phase and injected onto a Chiralpak AD column (10 µm, 250 × 4.6 mm i.d.). The limit of quantification for propentofylline in serum, cortex and hippocampus was set at 0.25 ng/mL and for enantiomers of its metabolite M1 at 1.25 ng/mL. The established LC/ESI-MS/MS method has been successfully applied to an initial pharmacokinetic study of propentofylline and also to assessment of distribution of parent drug and enantiomers of its pharmacologically active metabolite M1 to cortex and hippocampus after intravenous administration of propentofylline to rats at a dose of 5 mg/kg.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2011 · Biomedical Chromatography
  • Maria Walczak · Andrzej Fedorowicz · Stefan Chłopicki · Joanna Szymura-Oleksiak
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    ABSTRACT: A sensitive and specific liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method with electrospray ionization for the determination of endothelin-1 in rat plasma and lung effluents has been developed and validated. Detection was achieved by an Applied Biosystems MDS Sciex API 2000 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer coupled to an Agilent 1100 LC system. The limit of detection and the limit of the quantification of ET-1 in matrix buffer was estimated at 40 pM and 1 nM, respectively. The precision and accuracy for both intra- and inter-day determination of the analyte ranged from 2.5% to 14.7% and from 104.2% to 113.3%, respectively. No significant relative matrix effect was observed. Stability of ET-1 established in a bench-top, autosampler, long-term storage stability as well as freeze/thaw cycles shown no significant degradation products in the samples. The results of the method validation indicated that this method is applicable for the determination of the ET-1 concentration in an effluent from the isolated lung preparation as well as in vivo in plasma samples to evaluate ET-1 as a potential biomarker of the progression of pulmonary endothelial dysfunction and pulmonary hypertension in rats induced by a monocrotaline injection.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2010 · Talanta
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    ABSTRACT: Nicotinamide N-methyltransferase (NNMT), which converts nicotinamide (NA) to 1-methylnicotinamide (MNA), is up-regulated in the cirrhotic liver. Because MNA displays PGI(2)-dependent anti-inflammatory effects, the up-regulation of NNMT may play a regulatory role in liver inflammation. In the present work, we analyzed changes in NNMT activity in the liver and concomitant changes in the concentration of endogenous MNA in plasma in T-cell dependent hepatitis induced by concanavalin A (ConA) in BALB/c mice. Furthermore, we tested whether exogenous MNA possessed a protective effect against ConA-induced hepatitis. Development of liver injury induced by ConA (10 mg/kg, iv) was characterized by measurements of plasma concentration of alanine aminotransaminase (ALT), inflammatory cytokines (INF gamma and TNFalpha) and by histopathological examination. ConA-induced hepatitis was characterized by an early activation of inflammatory cytokines (IFN gamma; from below 0.05 ng/ml to 23.72 +/- 8.80 ng/ml; TNFalpha;from 0.07 +/- 0.01 ng/ml to 0.71 +/- 0.12 ng/ml, 2 h after ConA), an elevation of ALT (from 40.65 +/- 3.2 U/l to 5,092.20 +/- 1,129.05 U/l, 8 h after ConA) and by morphological signs of severe liver inflammation and injury (24 h after ConA). In mice injected with ConA, NNMT activity in the liver was up-regulated approximately 2-fold to 3-fold, 8-24 h after ConA injection. The concentration of MNA and its metabolites (Met-2PY and Met-4PY) in plasma were elevated approximately 2-fold 8 h after ConA injection. Exogenous MNA (100 mg/kg, iv) diminished ConA-induced liver injury, and this effect was reversed by an antagonist of the prostacyclin receptor, RO 3244794 (10 mg/kg, po). In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that hepatic NNMT activity and MNA concentration in plasma significantly increased during the progression of ConA-induced hepatitis in mice. This response may play a hepatoprotective role compatible with the PGI(2)-releasing properties of MNA.
    Preview · Article · May 2010 · Pharmacological reports: PR
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    ABSTRACT: A sensitive and specific liquid chromatography electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous quantitation of nicotinic acid (NicA) and its metabolites nicotinamide (NA), 1-methylnicotinamide (MNA), 1-methyl-2-pyridone-5-carboxamide (M2PY) and 1-methyl-4-pyridone-5-carboxamide (M4PY) in rat plasma has been developed and validated. As an internal standard, 6-chloronicotinamide was used. The samples (100 microL) were subjected to deproteinization with acetonitrile (200 microL) and then, after centrifugation, 150 microL of the supernatant was transferred into conical vial and evaporated. Dry residue was reconstituted in 100 microL of the ACN/water (10:90, v/v) mixture. Chromatography was performed on a Waters Spherisorb 5 microm CNRP 4.6 x 150 mm analytical column with gradient elution using a mobile phase containing acetonitrile and water with 0.1% of formic acid. The full separation of all compounds was achieved within 15 min of analysis. Detection was performed by an Applied Biosystems MDS Sciex API 2000 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer set at unit resolution. The mass spectrometer was operated in the selected reactions monitoring mode (SRM), monitoring the transition of the protonated molecular ions m/z 153-110 for M2PY, 153-136 for M4PY, 124-80 for NicA, 123-80 for NA and 137-94 for MNA. The mass spectrometric conditions were optimized for each compound by continuously infusing the standard solution at the rate of 5 microL/min using a Harvard infusion pump. Electrospray ionization (ESI) was used for ion production. The instrument was coupled to an Agilent 1100 LC system. The precision and accuracy for both intra- and inter-day determination of all analytes ranged from 1.3% to 13.3% and from 94.43% to 110.88%. No significant matrix effect (ME) was observed. Stability of compounds was established in a battery of stability studies, i.e. bench-top, autosampler and long-term storage stability as well as freeze/thaw cycles. The method proved to be suitable for various applications. In particular using this method we detected increased concentration of MNA and its metabolites in rat plasma after treatment with exogenous MNA (100 mg/kg), as well as increased concentration of endogenous NA and MNA in rat plasma in the early phase of hypertriglyceridemia development in rats fed high-fructose diet.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2010 · Journal of chromatography. B, Analytical technologies in the biomedical and life sciences
  • Maria Walczak · Joanna Szymura-Oleksiak · Elzbieta Pekala
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this paper was to validate an analytical method for the simultaneous determination of PTX and its active metabolite (-)-(R)-M1 in rat serum and some tissues using a high-performance liquid chromatography method with ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV). The specificity, linearity, precision, accuracy, recovery, lower limit of detection, lower limit of quantification and stability study were successively conducted according to GLP procedures. HPLC separation of all compounds was carried out on a normal-phase ChiralPak AD column (250 mm x 4.6 mm i.d., 5 mm), using, as a mobile phase, a mixture of hexane and 2-propanol (84:16, v/v) containing 0.01% of diethylamine with a flow rate of 1.5 mL x min(-1). The calibration curves from all studied matrices were linear across the concentration range from 0.01 to 100 mg x mL(-1) with a lower limit of quantification of 0.01 microg x mL(-1) for all analytes. The application of the assay to a pilot pharmacokinetic study and tissue distribution of the compounds in rats after intraperitoneal dosing of 50 mg x kg(-1) of PTX was described. Significant (p<0.05) differences between serum and tissue levels of PTX, (-)-(R)-M1 and (+)-(S)-M1 were observed.
    No preview · Article · May 2009 · Acta poloniae pharmaceutica
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    ABSTRACT: A sensitive and specific liquid chromatography electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry method for the enantioselective determination of the novel beta-adrenolytic compound, 1-(1-H-indol-4-yloxy)-3-{[2-(2-methoxyphenoxy)ethylo]amino} propan-2-ol, in rat plasma has been developed and validated. Chromatography was performed on a reversed-phase Chiralcel OD-RH analytical column (150x4.6 mm, 5 microm, Daicel Chemical Industries, Tokyo, Japan) with isocratic elution using a mobile phase containing acetonitrile and water with 0.01% formic acid. Detection was achieved by an Applied Biosystems MDS Sciex (Concord, Ontario, Canada) API 2000 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. Electrospray ionization (ESI) was used for ion production. The limit of detection in the MRM mode was found to be 1.25 ng/ml. The limit of quantification of both enantiomers was 2.5 ng/ml. The precision and accuracy for both intra- and inter-day determination of 2F109 enantiomers ranged from 2.6 to 12% and from 89.1 to 107.1%. This analytical method allowed us to carry out pharmacokinetic studies in rats. Our findings demonstrate that 2F109 shows stereoselective disposition in rat plasma after i.v. administration. The terminal half-lives of (+)-(R)-2F109 and (-)-(S)-2F109 were 33.5 and 42.6 min, respectively. The AUC0-inf of (+)-(R)-2F109 exceeded that of (-)-(S)-2F109.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2007 · Chirality
  • Elzbieta Wyska · Joanna Szymura-Oleksiak · Elzbieta Pekala · Anna Obruśnik
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to develop pharmacokinetic models for pentoxifylline (PTX) and the R(-)-enantiomer of the PTX metabolite 1, lisofylline (LSF), in order to identify some factors influencing the absorption of these compounds from the intestines and to clarify mechanisms involved in their non-linear pharmacokinetics. Serum samples were collected after oral and intravenous administration of PTX and LSF to male CD-1 mice at two different doses. In addition, both compounds under investigation were coadministered with a modulator of drug transporters, verapamil, and an inhibitor of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4, ketoconazole. Pharmacokinetic analysis revealed that a one-compartment model with Michaelis-Menten type absorption and elimination best described the pharmacokinetics of PTX, whereas the LSF concentration-time data were adequately fitted to a two-compartment model with a first-order absorption and Michaelis-Menten type elimination process. Both coadministered compounds significantly decreased the area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 60 min calculated for PTX and increased the value of this parameter for LSF. The results of this study indirectly suggest that saturation of drug transport across intestinal cells and elimination from the central compartment may be responsible for the non-linear pharmacokinetics of PTX, whereas in the case of LSF, the dose dependency in the pharmacokinetics is solely related to the elimination from the central compartment. It seems that the observed changes in PTX and LSF concentrations after coadministration with verapamil and ketoconazole may be clinically significant, especially after chronic treatment, however further studies are necessary to assess the importance of these interactions in humans.
    No preview · Article · May 2007 · Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
  • Aneta Zima · B. Mycek · Anna Ślósarczyk · J. Szymura-Oleksiak · Zofia Paszkiewicz

    No preview · Article · Oct 2006 · Advances in Science and Technology
  • Elzbieta Wyska · Elzbieta Pekala · Joanna Szymura-Oleksiak
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to assess the interconversion pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of pentoxifylline and the active (R)-enantiomer of its metabolite M1, lisofylline in male CD-1 mice. Both compounds were administered intravenously at a dose of 50 mg/kg on two separate occasions. Serum and tissues were collected at different time points following drug administration. In addition, the (S)-enantiomer of M1 was administered to a group of mice and serum samples were obtained. Analyte concentrations were measured by chiral HPLC. All serum concentration versus time data were fitted simultaneously to a pharmacokinetic model incorporating interconversion processes of parent drug and metabolites. The estimated conversion clearance of (-)-(R)-M1 to pentoxifylline (CL21) was six times greater than that for the reverse process (CL12). The interconversion of pentoxifylline and (+)-(S)-M1 was faster as reflected by the values of conversion clearances CL13 and CL31 which were approximately 16 and 7 times greater in comparison with the corresponding clearances for the interconversion of pentoxifylline and (-)-(R)-M1. When fitting pharmacokinetic data of both parent compounds to a one-compartment model, the values of elimination clearances assessed were close to those obtained on the basis of the interconversion model. After administration of pentoxifylline, tissue-to-serum AUC ratios ranged from 0.1 for liver and lungs to 0.32 for brain tissue. Serum levels of its metabolite, (-)-(R)-M1 were very low, whereas its tissue levels exceeded serum concentrations. The highest value of metabolite-to-parent AUC ratio (4.98) was observed in lungs. When (-)-(R)-M1 was given as a parent drug, tissue-to-serum AUC ratios in liver, kidney, and lungs were very close and ranged from 0.64 to 0.72. At the same time, levels of its metabolite, pentoxifylline were relatively low both in serum and all tissues studied. In consequence, metabolite-to-parent AUC ratios did not exceed the value of 0.27. In conclusion, reversible metabolism plays a modest role in the disposition of pentoxifylline and (-)-(R)-M1. It seems that pentoxifylline has less favourable pharmacokinetic properties than (-)-(R)-M1 due to lower concentrations attained in target organs. High levels of (-)-(R)-M1 observed after pentoxifylline administration in certain tissues such as liver or lungs suggest that pentoxifylline may constitute an effective prodrug for (-)-(R)-M1 in these organs.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2006 · Chirality

Publication Stats

397 Citations
71.11 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1999-2014
    • Jagiellonian University
      • • Medical College
      • • Faculty of Pharmacy
      • • Department of Pharmacokinetics and Physical Pharmacy
      • • Department of Organic Chemistry
      Cracovia, Lesser Poland Voivodeship, Poland