[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Successful vaccination against West Nile virus (WNV) requires induction of both neutralizing antibodies and cell-mediated immune responses. In this study, we have assessed the ability of a recombinant ALVAC-WNV vaccine (RECOMBITEK WNV) to elicit neutralizing antibodies and virus-specific cell-mediated immune responses in horses. In addition, we examined whether prior exposure to ALVAC-WNV vaccine would inhibit B and cell-mediated immune responses against the transgene product upon subsequent booster immunizations with the same vaccine. The results demonstrated that the recombinant ALVAC-WNV vaccine induced neutralizing antibodies and prM/E insert-specific IFN-gamma(+) producing cells against WNV in vaccinated horses. Prior exposure to ALVAC-WNV vaccine did not impair the ability of horses to respond to two subsequent booster injections with the same vaccine, although anti-vector-specific antibody and cell-mediated immune responses were induced in vaccinated horses. This report describes, for the first time, the induction of antigen-specific cell-mediated responses following vaccination with an ALVAC virus recombinant vaccine encoding WNV antigens. Moreover, we showed that both WNV-specific IFN-gamma producing cells and anti-WNV neutralizing antibody responses, are not inhibited by subsequent vaccinations with the same vector vaccine.
No preview · Article · Jul 2008 · Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A classical limitation of early life immunization is the interference by maternally derived antibodies, which are known to inhibit the immune response to modified-live and killed vaccines. Several studies have convincingly shown that even minute amounts of maternally derived antibodies against equine influenza can strongly interfere with successful vaccination of foals born to immune mares. In this study we evaluated the response of foals born to vaccinated mares to immunization with a canarypox-vectored recombinant vaccine against equine influenza virus H3N8. The recombinant vaccine was able to efficiently prime foals in the presence of maternally derived immunity against influenza as was evidenced by a clear anamnestic antibody response when a secondary vaccination with the same vaccine was performed. The canarypox-vectored recombinant influenza vaccine therefore offers a unique opportunity to overcome the limitations of early life vaccination in the face of maternally derived immunity in foals.
No preview · Article · Aug 2007 · Journal of Comparative Pathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine onset and duration of immunity provided by a 2- or 3-dose series of a new canarypox-vectored recombinant vaccine for equine influenza virus (rCP-EIV vaccine) expressing the hemagglutinin genes of influenza H3N8 virus strains A/eq/Kentucky/94 and A/eq/Newmarket/2/93 in ponies.
Forty-nine 1- to 3-year-old male Welsh Mountain Ponies that were seronegative for equine influenza virus.
Vaccinated and control ponies were challenged with aerosolized influenza virus A/eq/Sussex/89 (H3N8), representative of the Eurasian lineage of circulating influenza viruses. In trial 1, control ponies and ponies that received rCP-EIV vaccine were challenged 2 weeks after completion of the 2-dose primary vaccination program. In trial 2, ponies were challenged 5 months after 2 doses of rCP-EIV vaccine or 1 year after the first boosting dose of rCP-EIV vaccine, administered 5 months after completion of the primary vaccination program. After challenge, ponies were observed daily for clinical signs of influenza and nasal swab specimens were taken to monitor virus excretion.
The challenge reliably produced severe clinical signs consistent with influenza infection in the control ponies, and virus was shed for up to 7 days. The vaccination protocol provided clinical and virologic protection to vaccinates at 2 weeks and 5 months after completion of the primary vaccination program and at 12 months after the first booster.
The rCP-EIV vaccine provided protection of ponies to viral challenge. Of particular importance was the protection at 5 months after the second dose, indicating that this vaccine closes an immunity gap between the second and third vaccination.
No preview · Article · Mar 2007 · American Journal of Veterinary Research