[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ecto-5'-nucleotidase (CD73), a cell surface protein that hydrolyzes extracellular AMP into adenosine and phosphate, is overexpressed in many solid tumors. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that increased CD73 may promote tumor progression by examining the effect of CD73 suppression via RNA interference and CD73 overexpression on tumor growth in vivo and in vitro. Using digitized whole-body images, plate clone forming assay and TUNEL assay in frozen tissue sections, we found that the cell growth rate was significantly lower in vivo and in vitro after CD73 suppression and late apoptosis was much higher in xenograft tumors developed from the CD73-siRNA transfected MB-MDA-231 clone (P1). By flow cytometry, the P1 cell cycle was arrested in the G0/G1 phase. Moreover, Bcl-2 was downregulated, while Bax and caspase-3 were upregulated with CD73 suppression. CD73 inhibitor α,β-methylene adenosine-5'-disphosphate (APCP) functioned similarly with RNAi-mediated CD73 suppression. In addition, in transfected MCF-7 cells, we found that CD73 overexpression increased cell viability and promoted cell cycle progression, depending on its enzyme activity. More intriguingly, CD73 overexpression in MCF-7 breast cancer cells produces a tumorigenic phenotype. We conclude that CD73 plays an important role in breast cancer growth by affecting cell cycle progression and apoptosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Associated with many molecules, metastasis includes cell adhesion to extracellular matrix, migration towards specific direction and invasion into local vessel of distant organs. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the role of ecto-5'-nucleotidase (eN, ecto-5-NT, CD73) generated extracellular adenosine in biologically malignant behaviors of human breast cancer cell lines.
Two human breast cancer cell lines, T-47D with lower expression of CD73 and MB-MDA-231 with higher expression of CD73, were used to investigate the functions of CD73. The effects of CD73 over-expression on invasion, migration and adhesion were observed in T-47D transfected with pcDNA-NT5E plasmid. The effects of specific CD73 inhibitor, alpha, ss-methylene ADP (APCP), were observed in MB-MDA-231 cells.
The results showed CD-73 overexpression increased invasion, migration and adhesion to ECM of the pcDNA-NT5E transfected T-47D cells compared to the saline and mock vector controls. The increased cell mobility of CD-73-overexpressed T-47D cells was blocked by APCP. Adenosine increased the mobility of wild type T-47D cells. APCP inhibited the mobility of the MB-MDA-231 cells.
Taken together, our results indicated that CD73 may facilitate the adhesion, migration and invasion of human breast cancer cells through its enzyme activity of generating adenosine. This study provided a possibly molecular mechanism of metastasis of breast carcinoma.
No preview · Article · Apr 2008 · Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ecto-5'-nucleotidase (CD73) is an essential enzyme that generates adenosine, an essential molecule for cell growth. CD73 increases significantly in many breast cancers. In this study, alpha,beta-methylene adenosine-5'-diphosphate (APCP), a specific CD73 inhibitor was used to block the hydrolase's activity. Effects of CD73 were examined on human breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231 in culture for proliferation, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis before and after APCP treatment. The in vivo effect of CD73 was examined on MDA-MB-231 tumor xenograft growth in nude mice. Cell growth curve, cell cycle and apoptosis were observed with MTT assays and flow cytometry, respectively. Microvessel density (MVD) and lymph vessel density (LVD) of implanted tumor tissues was analyzed by immunohistochemistry for CD31 and VEGFR-3 staining respectively. Our results showed that APCP inhibited MDA-MB-231 viability in a dose-dependent manner. APCP (12 microM) increased the percentage of G0/G1 phase cells from 49.75 to 59.16% while it decreased S phase and G2/M cells from 24.85 and 18.65% to 21.65 and 12.55%, respectively. The percentages of early and late apoptotic cells were also decreased after APCP treatment. However, APCP treatment did not affect the percentage of normal cells. Xenograft of MDA-MB-231 cells in the APCP treatment group had lower volume and weight than those of control group (2.70+/-1.14 vs 1.41+/-0.39 cm(3) and 2.7+/-0.5 vs 1.3+/-0.2 g), accompanied with less vessel formation with a MVD of 5+/-1 compared to the control group's 10+/-2 and an LVD of 4+1 vs 7+2. Our results suggest that CD73 may promote tumor growth and serve as a marker of breast cancer progression.
No preview · Article · Jul 2007 · Oncology Reports