[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cattleya walkeriana
, one of the most improved Brazilian Cattleyas, is a popular tropical orchid endemic from Brazil and currently endangered. In the present study, for the first time microsatellite markers were developed for
and their transferability was tested for the species
. The markers were used for genotyping 26
specimens from different growers and from different levels of improvement. The transferability was successful, with five polymorphic loci transferred to
and six polymorphic loci to
. Eight loci were polymorphic, revealing a maximum of two to ten alleles per locus in
and two to four and two to five in
, respectively. There was no significant linkage disequilibrium in the studied loci. For
, the observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0 to 0.963 and from 0.138 to 0.841, respectively. These markers identified polymorphisms and may be used to study the genetic diversity, gene flow or hybridization of these species.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Plant Genetic Resources
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present work aimed to characterize the chemical composition of essential oils and genetic diversity
of three native populations of Ocimum selloi collected in Brazil southern and southeastern. Thus, with
the proposals to subsidize genetic improvement programs for the species preservation and commercial
application of the essential oil.
A total of 60 samples from Iporanga and Piquete counties (State of São Paulo) and Adrianópolis county
(State of Paraná) were analyzed by RAPD – genetic polymorphism – and GC–MS – chemical composition
of essential oils. The data showed that the variation of the chemical composition of the essential oils
of the samples was influenced by geographical region and genetic factors. The Piquete population was
more homogeneous with respect to factors evaluated, and presented germacrene D, elemicin, trans--
bergamotene, andbicyclogermacrene as themajor components. Populations ofAdrianópolis andIporanga
showed strong variability probably due to the gene flow between these populations, because they are
geographically close. Most samples of these two regions had as major substances elemicin, -selinene,
and -4-copaen--ol. The results showed a great genetic and chemical divergence among and inside
the populations between, being the diversity inside the populations bigger than among populations.
The oils presented potential for commercial use in the manufacture of veterinary, pharmaceutical, and
No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Industrial Crops and Products
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The goal of this study was to characterize the structure of two natural populations of the coral tree using RAPD and ISSR markers. The study evaluated all individuals in two different areas in the northeastern region of Brazil: the first was in the riparian area, 10 km x 100 m along the edge of the lower São Francisco River, and the second was in the municipality of Pinhão, in a semiarid region between the municipalities of Neópolis and Santana do São Francisco. We used all the coral trees present in those two areas (37 individuals). The results of the RAPD and ISSR markers were highly congruent, supporting the reliability of the techniques used. Similarity was estimated using the Jaccard arithmetic complement index. A dendrogram was constructed using the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean cluster algorithm, and the robustness of the data was bootstrapped with 5000 replicates. A principal coordinate analysis was performed on the basis of Jaccard coefficients. The total genetic variation observed was 21%, corresponding to the variation between the populations, and 79% of the variation was observed within the populations.
[Show description][Hide description] DESCRIPTION: Due to the economic interests in vetiver, Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.) Roberty, molecular and chemical studies are essential to generate information for its sustainable exploitation. The aim of this study was to undertake a molecular and chemical characterization of vetiver accessions of the active germplasm bank of the Universidade Federal de Sergipe. The molecular characteristics of the accessions were studied using amplified fragment length polymorphism markers, with a total of 14 primer combinations that generated 442 loci, allowing us to observe that these accessions have similar genomes. The vetiver accessions were divided into three distinct groups, where accession UFS-VET005 was the most differentiated and accession UFS-VET004 had the lowest essential oil content (0.70%). The content of the chemical constituents of the essential oils was observed to vary, with a predominance of khusimol, which ranged from 18.97 to 25.02%. It was possible to divide the vetiver accessions into two groups based on chemical composition, and these groups do not correlate with the molecular grouping. Therefore, it is necessary to perform molecular and chemical analyses to characterize vetiver accessions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The rubber tree [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. de Juss.) Muell. Arg.] is the only plant species worldwide that is cultivated for the commercial production of natural rubber. This study describes the genetic diversity of the Hevea spp. complex that is available in the main ex situ collections of South America, including Amazonian populations that have never been previously described. Genetic data were analyzed to determine the genetic structure of the wild populations, quantify the allelic diversity and suggest the composition of a core collection to capture the maximum genetic diversity within a minimal sample size. A total of 1,117 accessions were genotyped with 13 microsatellite markers. We identified a total of 408 alleles, 319 of which were shared between groups and 89 that were private in different groups of accessions. In a population structure and principal component analysis, the level of clustering reflected a primary division into the following two subgroups: cluster 1, which consisted of varieties from the advanced breeding germplasm that originated from the Wickham and Mato Grosso accessions; and cluster 2, which consisted of the wild germplasm from the Acre, Amazonas, Pará and Rondônia populations and Hevea spp. The analyses revealed a high frequency of gene flow between the groups, with the genetic differentiation coefficient (GST) estimated to be 0.018. Additionally, no distinct separation among the H. brasiliensis accessions and the other species from Amazonas was observed. A core collection of 99 accessions was identified that captured the maximum genetic diversity. Rubber tree breeders can effectively utilize this core collection for cultivar improvement. Furthermore, such a core collection could provide resources for forming an association panel to evaluate traits with agronomic and commercial importance. Our study generated a molecular database that should facilitate the management of the Hevea germplasm and its use for subsequent genetic and genomic breeding.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pioneer tree species exhibit life-cycle characteristics and population structures that are mainly affected by natural or human disturbances. In primary forests, demographic dynamics of pioneer species may resemble those defined for a metapopulation. In early successional forests, the patterns of establishment, survival and reproduction are mainly determined by microclimate and biota modifications of the site after the human disturbance. The aim of this study was to investigate how the ecological processes and the population genetic factors associated with disturbances can affect the genetic diversity and structure of populations of a pioneer tree species: Croton floribundus Spreng. (Euphorbiaceae). Nuclear and chloroplast microsatellite markers were examined in plants of two size classes sampled in four gaps of primary forest and four sub-areas of early successional forest. Despite presenting similar genetic diversity levels, the genetic diversity was distributed differently between forests. The combined effects of seed dispersal and colonizations (and extinctions) were determinants of the fine-scale genetic structure of C. floribundus. The main finding was that human disturbances seem to boost the influence of founder effects in populations of a species with limited seed dispersal. Results suggested that gene flow by pollen was responsible for maintaining the genetic diversity within populations of C. floribundus in both forests, but in the early successional forest, gene flow by seeds was equally important. We conclude that gap dynamics, colonization, and pollen and seed dispersal affect the genetic diversity and structure of the pioneer species depending mainly on the number of colonizers, the number of source populations, the gene flow rates, and the level of human disturbance.
Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Forest Ecology and Management
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Mangrove plants grow in the intertidal zone in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. The global latitudinal distribution of the mangrove is mainly influenced by climatic and oceanographic features. Because of current climate changes, poleward range expansions have been reported for the major biogeographic regions of mangrove forests in the Western and Eastern Hemispheres. There is evidence that mangrove forests also responded similarly after the last glaciation by expanding their ranges. In this context, the use of genetic tools is an informative approach for understanding how historical processes and factors impact the distribution of mangrove species. We investigated the phylogeographic patterns of two Avicennia species, A. germinans and A. schaueriana, from the Western Hemisphere using nuclear and chloroplast DNA markers.
Our results indicate that, although Avicennia bicolor, A. germinans and A. schaueriana are independent lineages, hybridization between A. schaueriana and A. germinans is a relevant evolutionary process. Our findings also reinforce the role of long-distance dispersal in widespread mangrove species such as A. germinans, for which we observed signs of transatlantic dispersal, a process that has, most likely, contributed to the breadth of the distribution of A. germinans. However, along the southern coast of South America, A. schaueriana is the only representative of the genus. The distribution patterns of A. germinans and A. schaueriana are explained by their different responses to past climate changes and by the unequal historical effectiveness of relative gene flow by propagules and pollen.
We observed that A. bicolor, A. germinans and A. schaueriana are three evolutionary lineages that present historical and ongoing hybridization on the American continent. We also inferred a new evidence of transatlantic dispersal for A. germinans, which may have contributed to its widespread distribution. Despite the generally wider distribution of A. germinans, only A. schaueriana is found in southern South America, which may be explained by the different demographic histories of these two species and the larger proportion of gene flow produced by propagules rather than pollen in A. schaueriana. These results highlight that these species responded in different ways to past events, indicating that such differences may also occur in the currently changing world.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12862-015-0343-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to characterize the genetic variability of Anglo-Nubian goats using microsatellite markers. The study was conducted using herds from four municipalities of Central-Northern Piauí (Teresina, José de Freitas, Campo Maior, and Angical), where technical information is scarce. Seven markers suggested by FAO were used (ILSTS11, McM527, INRA23, ETH10, OarfCB304, OarfCB48, and MAF209). The samples were genotyped using a 7% polyacrylamide gel. The average number of alleles per locus was 4.0, with observed and expected heterozygosity of 0.38 and 0.55, respectively. Few deviations from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were observed for each population. Only two loci deviated significantly in two localities. The coefficient of gene differentiation (GST') indicated that 11.9% of the genetic variation was distributed among populations, and according to the coefficient of inbreeding (GIS = 0.23 and FIS = 0.23), there is a deficiency of heterozygotes within populations. These findings corroborate the Bayesian analyses performed with the STRUCTURE software, which revealed three distinct and moderately structured groups. The graphic analysis showed that Teresina and José de Freitas are isolated groups, while Angical and Campo Maior share most of their alleles. Despite this, the level of diversity among herds was low. Based on this genetic structure, exchange of reproducers among municipalities is recommended for the maintenance of the breed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mangrove plants comprise a unique group of organisms that grow within the intertidal zones of tropical and subtropical regions and whose distributions are influenced by both biotic and abiotic factors. To understand how these extrinsic and intrinsic processes influence a more fundamental level of the biological hierarchy of mangroves, we studied the genetic diversity of two Neotropical mangrove trees, Avicenniagerminans and A. schaueriana, using microsatellites markers. As reported for other sea-dispersed species, there was a strong differentiation between A. germinans and A. schaueriana populations sampled north and south of the northeastern extremity of South America, likely due to the influence of marine superficial currents. Moreover, we observed fine-scale genetic structures even when no obvious physical barriers were present, indicating pollen and propagule dispersal limitation, which could be explained by isolation-by-distance coupled with mating system differences. We report the first evidence of ongoing hybridization between Avicennia species and that these hybrids are fertile, although this interspecific crossing has not contributed to an increase in the genetic diversity the populations where A. germinans and A. schaueriana hybridize. These findings highlight the complex interplay between intrinsic and extrinsic factors that shape the distribution of the genetic diversity in these sea-dispersed colonizer species.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We isolated and characterised eight pairs of primers to amplify microsatellite regions for Centrolobium tomentosum, a neotropical tree species widely used for forest restoration, with important pharmacological potential. For the primer characterisation, we genotyped 48 individuals from two populations of C. tomentosum from natural remnants of Atlantic Rainforests. We detected 2-9 alleles per locus, observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.08 to 0.72, and 0.08 to 0.83, respectively and we observed private alleles in six of the loci. No linkage disequilibrium was observed and all loci are in Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium in at least one of the populations. This study presents a powerful tool for population genetic studies of this species.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Conservation Genetics Resources