[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sepsis is a common and severe complication in premature neonates, particularly those with very low birth weight (VLBW) (<1500 g). Whether lactoferrin, a mammalian milk glycoprotein involved in innate immune host defenses, can reduce the incidence of sepsis is unknown. In animal models, the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) enhances the activity of lactoferrin but has not been studied in human infants.
To establish whether bovine lactoferrin (BLF), alone or in combination with LGG, reduces the incidence of late-onset sepsis in VLBW neonates.
Prospective, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial conducted in 11 Italian tertiary neonatal intensive care units. Patients were 472 VLBW infants enrolled from October 1, 2007, through July 31, 2008, and assessed until discharge for development of sepsis.
Infants were randomly assigned to receive orally administered BLF (100 mg/d) alone (n = 153), BLF plus LGG (6 x 10(9) colony-forming units/d) (n = 151), or placebo (n = 168) from birth until day 30 of life (day 45 for neonates <1000 g at birth).
First episode of late-onset sepsis, ie, sepsis occurring more than 72 hours after birth with isolation of any pathogen from blood or from peritoneal or cerebrospinal fluid.
Demographic, clinical, and management characteristics of the 3 groups were similar, including type of feeding and intake of maternal milk. Incidence of late-onset sepsis was significantly lower in the BLF and BLF plus LGG groups (9/153 [5.9%] and 7/151 [4.6%], respectively) than in the control group receiving placebo (29/168 [17.3%]) (risk ratio, 0.34; 95% confidence interval, 0.17-0.70; P = .002 for BLF vs control and risk ratio, 0.27; 95% confidence interval, 0.12-0.60; P < .001 for BLF plus LGG vs control). The decrease occurred for both bacterial and fungal sepsis. No adverse effects or intolerances to treatment occurred.
Compared with placebo, BLF supplementation alone or in combination with LGG reduced the incidence of a first episode of late-onset sepsis in VLBW neonates.
isrctn.org Identifier: ISRCTN53107700.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2009 · JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Invasive candida infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in preterm infants. We performed a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of fluconazole for the prevention of fungal colonization and infection in very-low-birth-weight neonates.
During a 15-month period, all neonates weighing less than 1500 g at birth from eight tertiary Italian neonatal intensive care units (322 infants) were randomly assigned to receive either fluconazole (at a dose of either 6 mg or 3 mg per kilogram of body weight) or placebo from birth until day 30 of life (day 45 for neonates weighing <1000 g at birth). We performed weekly surveillance cultures and systematic fungal susceptibility testing.
Among infants receiving fluconazole, fungal colonization occurred in 9.8% in the 6-mg group and 7.7% in the 3-mg group, as compared with 29.2% in the placebo group (P<0.001 for both fluconazole groups vs. the placebo group). The incidence of invasive fungal infection was 2.7% in the 6-mg group and 3.8% in the 3-mg group, as compared with 13.2% in the placebo group (P=0.005 for the 6-mg group and P=0.02 for the 3-mg group vs. the placebo group). The use of fluconazole did not modify the relationship between colonization and the subsequent development of invasive fungal infection. Overall mortality was similar among groups, as was the incidence of cholestasis. No evidence for the emergence of resistant candida species was observed, but the study did not have substantial power to detect such an effect.
Prophylactic fluconazole reduces the incidence of colonization and invasive candida infection in neonates weighing less than 1500 g at birth. The benefit of treating candida colonization is unclear. (Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN85753869 [controlled-trials.com]).
Full-text · Article · Jun 2007 · New England Journal of Medicine