[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Meniscal allograft transplantation improves clinical outcomes for patients with symptomatic meniscus-deficient knees. We describe an established arthroscopic technique for meniscal allograft transplantation without the need for bone fixation of the meniscal horns. After preparation of the meniscal bed, the meniscus is parachuted into the knee through a silicone cannula and the meniscal horns are fixed with sutures through bone tunnels. The body of the meniscus is then fixed with a combination of all-inside and inside-out sutures. This technique is reliable and reproducible and has clinical outcomes comparable with those of bone plug fixation techniques.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Arthroscopy Techniques
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Meniscal tears are common injuries often treated by partial meniscectomy. This may result in altered joint contact mechanics which in turn may lead to worsening symptoms and an increased risk of osteoarthritis. Meniscal scaffolds have been proposed as a treatment option aimed at reducing symptoms while also potentially reducing progression of degenerative change. There are 2 scaffolds available for clinical use at the present time; Collagen Meniscus Implant and Actifit. Medium-term to long-term data (4.9 to 11.3 y) demonstrate efficacy of partial meniscus replacement. The patients who seem to benefit most are chronic postmeniscectomy rather than acute meniscal injuries. Herein we report on available clinical data for Collagen Meniscus Implant and Actifit while describing our preferred surgical technique and postoperative rehabilitation program.
No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Sports medicine and arthroscopy review
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Treatment of osteochondral defects remains a challenge in orthopedic surgery. The TruFit plug has been investigated as a potential treatment method for osteochondral defects. This is a biphasic scaffold designed to stimulate cartilage and subchondral bone formation. The aim of this study is to investigate clinical, radiological, and histological efficacy of the TruFit plug in restoring osteochondral defects in the joint.
We performed a systematic search in five databases for clinical trials in which patients were treated with a TruFit plug for osteochondral defects. Studies had to report clinical, radiological, or histological outcome data. Quality of the included studies was assessed.
Five studies describe clinical results, all indicating improvement at follow-up of 12 months compared to preoperative status. However, two studies reporting longer follow-up show deterioration of early improvement. Radiological evaluation indicates favorable MRI findings regarding filling of the defect and incorporation with adjacent cartilage at 24 months follow-up, but conflicting evidence exists on the properties of the newly formed overlying cartilage surface. None of the included studies showed evidence for bone ingrowth. The few histological data available confirmed these results.
There are no data available that support superiority or equality of TruFit compared to conservative treatment or mosaicplasty/microfracture. Further investigation is needed to improve synthetic biphasic implants as therapy for osteochondral lesions. Randomized controlled clinical trials comparing TruFit plugs with an established treatment method are needed before further clinical use can be supported.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There are several surgical options for recurrent patella dislocations. As the reconstruction of the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) has been proven to restore stability, it has become more accepted. Aim of this study was to investigate the clinical outcome after MPFL reconstruction as an isolated procedure or in association with a transposition of the tibial tubercle (in case of patella alta or an excessive TT-TG) in a large prospective cohort study. Additionally, the effect on patellar height was analysed radiographically using the Caton-Deschamps index.
In a large prospective cohort study of 129 knees in 124 patients (81 females, 48 males, mean age 22.8 ± 7.7 years), 91 knees received primary MPFL reconstruction (group 1) and 38 were a combination with a transposition of the tibial tubercle (group 2). The clinical follow-up was evaluated using KOOS and Kujala scores preoperatively and 1 year postoperatively. Patient satisfaction, complications and revision surgery were recorded.
Overall, Kujala improved significantly from 53.5 (SD 22.7) preoperatively to 74.7 (SD 20.5) postoperatively (p < 0.01). All KOOS subdomains improved significantly (p < 0.01). No significant difference for Kujala score between groups was noticed. Revision rate was (5/129) 3.9 %. Reconstruction was supplemented with a transfer of the tibial tuberosity in (38/129) 29.4 % of the cases and shows a comparable outcome.
MPFL reconstruction is a viable treatment option for episodic patellar dislocation. A concomitant tuberositas transposition is useful in selected patients.
No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Knee Surgery Sports Traumatology Arthroscopy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: The purpose of this review was to evaluate the role of biological augmentation and tissue engineering strategies in meniscus surgery. Although clinical (human), preclinical (animal), and in vitro tissue engineering studies are included here, we have placed additional focus on addressing preclinical and clinical studies reported during the 5-year period used in this review in a systematic fashion while also providing a summary review of some important in vitro tissue engineering findings in the field over the past decade.
No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Arthroscopy The Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This article looks into normal physiological fracture healing with special emphasis on the diamond concept. A precise definition of nonunion of long bones is described. Most often inadequate fixation (too rigid or too loose) is the reason for nonunion in long bone fractures. Because a critical bone defect cannot be bridged, it may lead directly or indirectly (lack of fixation) to nonunion. Individual inadequate local biological characteristics are also often found to be the cause; poor soft tissue coverage as well as a lack of periosteum and muscle or fascia or skin defects can lead to compromised vascularity in situ. Systemic factors are now much more recognized, e.g., smoking, diabetes, and cachexia, as well as the limited impact of some medications, e.g., nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and steroids. Today's mode of treatment for nonunion is approached in this article, and suggestions for appropriate treatment of long bone nonunion is presented.
No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Arthroscopy The Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose It remains unclear what the contribution of the PCL is in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The goal of this study was to investigate the influence of the PCL in TKA in relationship to clinical outcome, strength and proprioception. Methods Two arthroplasty designs were compared: a posterior cruciate-substituting (PS) and a posterior cruciate-retaining (CR) TKA. A retrospective analysis was performed of 27 CR and 18 PS implants with a minimum of 1 year in vivo. Both groups were compared in terms of clinical outcome (range of motion, visual analogue scale for pain, Hospital for Special Surgery Knee Scoring system, Lysholm score and Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score), strength (Biodex System 3 Dynamometer®) and proprioception (balance and postural control using the Balance Master system®). Each design was also compared to the non-operated contralateral side in terms of strength and proprioception. Results There were no significant differences between both designs in terms of clinical outcome and strength. In terms of proprioception, only the rhythmic weight test at slow and moderate speed shifting from left to right was significant in favour of the CR design. None of the unilateral stance tests showed any significant difference between both designs. There was no difference in terms of strength and proprioception between the operated side and the non-operated side. Conclusion Retaining the PCL in TKA does not result in an improved performance in terms of clinical outcome and proprioception and does not show any difference in muscle strength. Level of evidence III.
No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Knee Surgery Sports Traumatology Arthroscopy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
: Post-operative widening of tibial and/or femoral bone tunnels is a common observation after ACL reconstruction, especially with soft-tissue grafts. There are no studies comparing tunnel widening in hamstring autografts versus tibialis anterior allografts. The goal of this study was to observe the difference in tunnel widening after the use of allograft vs. autograft for ACL reconstruction, by measuring it with a novel 3-D computed tomography based method.
: Thirty-five ACL-deficient subjects were included, underwent anatomic single-bundle ACL reconstruction and were evaluated at 1 year after surgery with the use of 3-D CT imaging. Three independent observers semi-automatically delineated femoral and tibial tunnel outlines, after which a best-fit cylinder was derived and the tunnel diameter was determined. Finally, intra- and inter-observer reliability of this novel measurement protocol was defined.
: In femoral tunnels, the intra-observer ICC was 0.973 (95% CI: 0.922-0.991) and the inter-observer ICC was 0.992 (95% CI: 0.982-0.996). In tibial tunnels, the intra-observer ICC was 0.955 (95% CI: 0.875 – 0.985). The combined inter-observer ICC 0.970 (95% CI:). Tunnel widening was significantly higher in allografts compared to autografts, in the tibial tunnels (p = 0.013) as well as in the femoral tunnels (p = 0.007).
: To our knowledge, this novel, semi-automated 3D-computed tomography image processing method has shown to yield highly reproducible results for the measurement of bone tunnel diameter and area. This series showed a significantly higher amount of tunnel widening observed in the allograft group at 1-year follow-up.
Level of Evidence: Level II, Prospective comparative study
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the biomechanical effect of skeletal knee joint abnormalities, the authors propose to implant pathologically shaped rapid prototyped implants in cadaver knee specimens. This new method was validated by replacing the native trochlea by a replica implant on four cadaver knees with the aid of cadaver-specific guiding instruments. The accuracy of the guiding instruments was assessed by measuring the rotational errors of the cutting planes (on average 3.01° in extension and 1.18° in external/internal rotation). During a squat and open chain simulation, the patella showed small differences in its articulation with the native trochlea and the replica trochlea, which could partially be explained by the rotational errors of the implants. This study concludes that this method is valid to investigate the effect of knee joint abnormalities with a replica implant as a control condition to account for the influence of material properties and rotational errors of the implant.
Preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part H Journal of Engineering in Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose
Meniscus replacement is of clinical benefit, but universal efficacy remains elusive. A greater understanding of the biological activity within implanted allografts or synthetic scaffolds may assist the development of improved surgical strategies.
Biopsies of fresh–frozen allograft (n = 20), viable allograft (n = 18) and polyurethane scaffolds (n = 20) were obtained at second-look arthroscopy. Histological evaluation of tissue morphology and cell density/distribution was performed using haematoxylin–eosin (H&E) staining. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the presence of CD34 (on progenitor cells and blood vessels) and smooth muscle actin (SMA)-positive structures and aggrecan. Collagen presence was investigated using picrosirius red staining.
Cell density in the deep zone of the meniscus replacement was significantly higher in polyurethane scaffolds versus allograft transplants (p
Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · International Orthopaedics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives
In this pilot study we wanted to evaluate the kinematics of a knee implanted with an artificial polycarbonate-urethane meniscus device, designed for medial meniscus replacement. The static kinematic behavior of the implant was compared to the natural medial meniscus of the non-operated knee. A second goal was to evaluate the motion pattern, the radial displacement and the deformation of the meniscal implant.
Materials and Methods
Three patients with a polycarbonate-urethane implant were included in this prospective study. An open-MRI was used to track the location of the implant during static weight-bearing conditions, within a range of motion of 0° to 120° knee flexion. Knee kinematics were evaluated by measuring the tibiofemoral contact points and femoral roll-back. Meniscus measurements (both natural and artificial) included anterior-posterior meniscal movement, radial displacement, and meniscal height.
No difference (p > 0.05) was demonstrated in femoral roll-back and tibiofemoral contact points during knee flexion between the implanted and the non-operated knees. Meniscal measurements showed no significant difference in radial displacement and meniscal height (p > 0.05) at all flexion angles, in both the implanted and non-operated knees. A significant difference (p ≤ 0.05) in anterior-posterior movement during flexion was observed between the two groups.
In this pilot study, the artificial polycarbonate-urethane implant, indicated for medial meniscus replacement, had no influence on femoral roll-back and tibiofemoral contact points, thus suggesting that the joint maintains its static kinematic properties after implantation. Radial displacement and meniscal height were not different, but anterior-posterior movement was slightly different between the implant and the normal meniscus.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study presents the prospective two-year clinical and MRI outcome of autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis (AMIC) for the treatment of patellofemoral cartilage defects in the knee. Ten patients were clinically prospectively evaluated during 2 years. MRI data were analysed based on the original and modified MOCART (Magnetic Resonance Observation of Cartilage Repair Tissue) scoring system. A satisfying clinical improvement became apparent during the 24 months of follow-up. The MOCART scoring system revealed a slight tendency to deterioration on MRI between one and 2 years of follow-up. However, the difference was not statistical significant. All cases showed subchondral lamina changes. The formation of intralesional osteophytes was observed in 3 of the 10 patients (30%). In conclusion, AMIC is safe and feasible for the treatment of symptomatic patellofemoral cartilage defects and resulted in a clinical improvement. However, the favourable clinical outcome of the AMIC technique was not confirmed by the MRI findings.
No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Acta orthopaedica Belgica
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was designed to describe the clinical and radiographical outcome of the HemiCAP(®) resurfacing system as a salvage treatment for a failed index cartilage procedure.
Fourteen patients were treated consecutively and clinically prospectively followed for a mean period of 26.1 ± 12.8 months. All patients were previously treated for their cartilage lesion. Radiographical data were analysed based on the Kellgren and Lawrence system.
The patients involved in this study demonstrated a gradual clinical improvement in time. However, radiographically significant osteoarthritic changes were observed during the follow-up period. The position of the HemiCAP(®) resurfacing system was adequate in all cases, and no signs of loosening were observed during the follow-up period.
The HemiCAP(®) resurfacing system is feasible as a salvage treatment for a failed index cartilage procedure and resulted in a gradual clinical improvement. However, the favourable clinical outcome was not confirmed by the radiographical findings. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: IV.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent articles have ranked Lateral Release (LR) 47th among all procedures by orthopaedic surgeons [ 9 , 14 ]. Despite its frequency the indications and results of an LR remain controversial. The acceptable results (good and excellent) have a wide range from 14 to 99 % [ 1 , 4 , 12 , 14 ]. LR can be subdivided as both an isolated and an associated procedure (as part of a proximal or distal realignment). The procedure can also be performed as an open, mini-open or arthroscopic procedure [ 14 ]. O'Neill et al. proved that there is no significant difference in outcome between arthroscopic and open LR [ 18 ]. In arthroscopic LR, however, the risk for postoperative hemarthrosis and swelling is considered higher. The use of electrocautery is advised to prevent this major complication. Until today, this study is the only prospective random-ized clinical trial concerning LR. 15.1.1 Anatomy of the Lateral Retinaculum The lateral retinaculum consists of two separate layers (Fig. 15.1): 1. The superfi cial oblique layer: This originates from the iliotibial band and interdigitates with the longitudinal fi bres of vastus lateralis. 2. The deep layer: This consists of the deep transverse retinaculum with the epicondylo-patellar ligament proximally and the patello-tibial ligament distally.