[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fanconi anemia is characterized by congenital abnormalities, bone marrow failure, and cancer predisposition. To investigate the origin, functional role, and clinical impact of FANCA mutations, we determined a FANCA mutational spectrum with 130 pathogenic alleles. Some of these mutations were further characterized for their distribution in populations, mode of emergence, or functional consequences at cellular and clinical level. The world most frequent FANCA mutation is not the result of a mutational "hot-spot" but results from worldwide dissemination of an ancestral Indo-European mutation. We provide molecular evidence that total absence of FANCA in humans does not reduce embryonic viability, as the observed frequency of mutation carriers in the Gypsy population equals the expected by Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. We also prove that long distance Alu-Alu recombination can cause Fanconi anemia by originating large interstitial deletions involving FANCA and 2 adjacent genes. Finally, we show that all missense mutations studied lead to an altered FANCA protein that is unable to relocate to the nucleus and activate the FA/BRCA pathway. This may explain the observed lack of correlation between type of FANCA mutation and cellular phenotype or clinical severity in terms of age of onset of hematologic disease or number of malformations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fanconi anaemia (FA) is a rare syndrome characterized by bone marrow failure, malformations and cancer predisposition. Chromosome fragility induced by DNA interstrand crosslink (ICL)-inducing agents such as diepoxybutane (DEB) or mitomycin C (MMC) is the 'gold standard' test for the diagnosis of FA.
To study the variability, the diagnostic implications and the clinical impact of chromosome fragility in FA.
Data are presented from 198 DEB-induced chromosome fragility tests in patients with and without FA where information on genetic subtype, cell sensitivity to MMC and clinical data were available.
This large series allowed quantification of the variability and the level of overlap in ICL sensitivity among patients with FA and the normal population. A new chromosome fragility index is proposed that provides a cut-off diagnostic level to unambiguously distinguish patients with FA, including mosaics, from non-FA individuals. Spontaneous chromosome fragility and its correlation with DEB-induced fragility was also analysed, indicating that although both variables are correlated, 54% of patients with FA do not have spontaneous fragility. The data reveal a correlation between malformations and sensitivity to ICL-inducing agents. This correlation was also statistically significant when the analysis was restricted to patients from the FA-A complementation group. Finally, chromosome fragility does not correlate with the age of onset of haematological disease.
This study proposes a new chromosome fragility index and suggests that genome instability during embryo development may be related to malformations in FA, while DEB-induced chromosome breaks in T cells have no prognostic value for the haematological disease.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2011 · Journal of Medical Genetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fanconi anaemia is a heterogeneous genetic disease, where 12 complementation groups have been already described. Identifying the complementation group in patients with Fanconi anaemia constitutes a direct procedure to confirm the diagnosis of the disease and is required for the recruitment of these patients in gene therapy trials.
To determine the subtype of Fanconi anaemia patients in Spain, a Mediterranean country with a relatively high population (23%) of Fanconi anaemia patients belonging to the gypsy race.
Most patients could be subtyped by retroviral complementation approaches in peripheral blood T cells, although some mosaic patients were subtyped in cultured skin fibroblasts. Other approaches, mainly based on western blot analysis and generation of nuclear RAD51 and FANCJ foci, were required for the subtyping of a minor number of patients. Results and
From a total of 125 patients included in the Registry of Fanconi Anaemia, samples from 102 patients were available for subtyping analyses. In 89 cases the subtype could be determined and in 8 cases exclusions of common complementation groups were made. Compared with other international studies, a skewed distribution of complementation groups was observed in Spain, where 80% of the families belonged to the Fanconi anaemia group A (FA-A) complementation group. The high proportion of gypsy patients, all of them FA-A, and the absence of patients with FA-C account for this characteristic distribution of complementation groups.
Full-text · Article · May 2007 · Journal of Medical Genetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 65-year-old woman presented with clinical features of primary thrombocythemia (PT), and absence of the BCR/ABL fusion gene. She responded to hydroxyurea treatment, although after 1 year she required progressive increases in the dose. Six years later, she maintained a high platelet count despite hydroxyurea at 2 g/day and treatment was changed to anagrelide. After 3 weeks, both platelet and leukocyte counts increased. A karyotype study detected the Philadelphia chromosome in all of the 24 metaphases studied. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis revealed the BCR/ABL rearrangement. The patient was treated with imatinib mesylate and achieved a normal platelet and leukocyte count in 3 weeks. Patients presenting clinical features of PT expressing the Ph chromosome or the BCR/ABL fusion gene have been well documented but, to our knowledge, this is the first report of evolution from typical PT to chronic myeloid leukemia.
No preview · Article · Jun 2006 · Cancer Genetics and Cytogenetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report a case of acute myeloid leukemia (M5a of the FAB classification), secondary to the myelodysplastic syndrome, showing a deletion of the short arm of chromosome 2 at p23 in the bone marrow cells. In addition, a duplication of chromosome 13,dup(13)(q12q14) was found.
No preview · Article · May 1993 · Cancer Genetics and Cytogenetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A case of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in a 16-year-old male with a 47,XYY karyotype is reported. This chromosome aneuploidy was found in both bone marrow (BM) cells and mitogen-stimulated lymphocytes. Immunologic profile of leukemic cells showed a null phenotype. To our knowledge, this is the fifth case reported in the literature.
No preview · Article · Nov 1990 · Cancer Genetics and Cytogenetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cytogenetic studies were carried out in 18 patients with secondary blood diseases; 15 patients had a history of prior malignancy, two had been professionally exposed to carcinogenic agents, and one patient had been treated with immunodepressors. The interval between initial therapy and secondary disease ranged from 13 to 123 months, with a mean of 57.8 months; the mean survival time from the diagnosis of secondary disease was 6 months. Cytogenetic abnormalities were present in 83% of cases, with a trend to hypodiploidy in 90%. The most often involved chromosomes were #5, #7, and 3p. A correlation between the cytogenetic abnormalities and etiologic factors has been analyzed; data from the present series and from the literature suggest a correlation between chromosome #7 and chemical agents, and chromosomes #11, #12, and #17 and physical agents.
No preview · Article · Sep 1986 · Cancer Genetics and Cytogenetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clonal chromosome changes have been found in two patients with Waldenström's macroglobulinemia (WM). In one, the changes were only numerical: trisomy 3, trisomy 18, and monosomy 21. In the other, both numerical and structural changes were observed, among which t(8;14) with breakpoints (q24;q32), similar to those found in Burkitt's lymphoma, was the most relevant. This association between a new lymphoproliferative process and the Burkitt-type t(8;14) is stressed.
No preview · Article · Nov 1985 · Cancer Genetics and Cytogenetics