[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Several types of T cells have been associated with the pathogenesis of unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion (URSA), including Th1/Th2/Th17/Tregs cell. It has been appreciated that immunotherapy with paternal or third party lymphocytes is an effective method of treatment for URSA patients. The balance of Th1/Th2 cells could be maintained and an increase of Treg cells would be beneficial after immunotherapy; however, the mechanism by which the Th17/Treg balance affects URSA has not yet been fully elucidated.
Here, we used flow cytometry, liquid chip technology and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) methods to characterize Th17/Treg cell populations after immunotherapy. We found that after immunotherapy in URSA patients, the percentage of Th17 cells decreased and the percentage of Treg cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) increased, as detected by flow cytometry.
Immunotherapy may induce a decrease in the Th17/Treg ratio and the Treg bias, which may be beneficial for the maintenance of pregnancy. The expression level of ROR gamma t, a transcription factor found in Th17 cells, decreased and the expression of the Treg-specific transcription factor Foxp3 increased in peripheral blood as detected by qPCR. Immunotherapy may induce a decrease in the ratio of ROR gamma t to Foxp3 and a Treg cell bias, which would be beneficial for pregnancy maintenance. The secretion of the Treg-associated cytokine TGF-beta, as well as Th2 cytokines, was increased in serum, while the secretion of Th17-associated cytokine IL-17A and Th1 cytokine production was decreased. The Th1/Th2 cytokine ratio significantly decreased. Similarly, the Th17/Treg ratio significantly decreased in the total patient after immunotherapy.
These results indicate that in patients with URSA, immunotherapy with mononuclear cells derived from the baby’s father could affect both Th1/Th2 and Th17/Treg balance, and we found that the Th2 and Treg bias would be beneficial for pregnancy, which may lead to a balancing of the Th17/Treg ratio in URSA patients after immunotherapy.
Preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The morphological assessment of oocytes is important for embryologists to identify and select MII oocytes in IVF/ICSI cycles. Dysmorphism of oocytes decreases viability and the developmental potential of oocytes as well as the clinical pregnancy rate. Several reports have suggested that oocytes with a dark zona pellucida (DZP) correlate with the outcome of IVF treatment. However, the effect of DZP on oocyte quality, fertilization, implantation, and pregnancy outcome were not investigated in detail. In this study, a retrospective analysis was performed in 268 infertile patients with fallopian tube obstruction and/or male factor infertility. In 204 of these patients, all oocytes were surrounded by a normal zona pellucida (NZP, control group), whereas 46 patients were found to have part of their retrieved oocytes enclosed by NZP and the other by DZP (Group A). In addition, all oocytes enclosed by DZP were retrieved from 18 patients (Group B). No differences were detected between the control and group A. Compared to the control group, the rates of fertilization, good quality embryos, implantation and clinical pregnancy were significantly decreased in group B. Furthermore, mitochondria in oocytes with a DZP in both of the two study groups (A and B) were severely damaged with several ultrastructural alterations, which were associated with an increased density of the zona pellucida and vacuolization. Briefly, oocytes with a DZP affected the clinical outcome in IVF/ICSI cycles and appeared to contain more ultrastructural alterations. Thus, DZP could be used as a potential selective marker for embryologists during daily laboratory work.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Before human MII oocytes are vitrified they are usually denuded from their cumulus cells. In this study we wanted to investigate the effects of an intact corona radiata on the vitrification and fertilization of human oocytes.
The study comprised two different parts. In Part 1, 36 MII stage oocytes, from 6 patients, were randomly assigned into a control group, a group of vitrified-warmed oocytes without a corona radiata and a group of vitrified-warmed oocytes with an intact corona radiata. In each group of 12, 6 oocytes were used for evaluation of the zona pellucida solubility (hardening) and another 6 oocytes were used for the analysis of their ultrastructure. In addition, six polyspermically fertilized oocytes were used as positive controls for zona pellucida hardening. In Part 2, 16 patients in total produced 107 fresh and 98 vitrified-warmed oocytes, with or without an intact corona radiata. All oocytes were fertilized via conventional IVF and embryos were transferred according to our standard ET routines. The oocyte survival and fertilization rates, embryo quality and pregnancy and implantation rates were evaluated.
There were no differences in oocyte survival, zona pellucida solubility (hardening) or the number of cortical granules between the vitrified-warmed and fresh oocytes. There were also no differences in the zona pellucida solubility and the number of cortical granules between vitrified-warmed oocytes with or without an intact corona radiata. However, the oocytes with an intact corona radiata had a higher fertilization rate after conventional IVF insemination. No differences were seen in the survival and cleavage rates, the percentage of high-quality embryos or the clinical outcome.
Zona hardening and ultrastructural damage do not seem to occur in vitrified human oocytes. An intact corona radiata in vitrified-warmed oocytes retains their fertilization capacity in conventional IVF, but does not improve the embryo quality. Poor fertilizing capacities of vitrified-warmed oocytes without an intact corona radiata seem to have been due to the complete removal of the cumulus cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: What is the relationship between Th17 cells and unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion (URSA)?
CD4(+) interleukin (IL)-17A(+) T (Th17) cells and CD4(+) CD25(bright) Foxp3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells in peripheral blood were analyzed by flow cytometry; IL-17 concentrations in cell culture supernatants were quantitatively determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; and IL-17A positive cells in decidua tissues were measured by immunohistochemistry.
The proportion of Th17 cells and IL-17A concentrations was both significantly higher in patients with URSA than in normal early pregnant (NEP) and non-pregnant (NP) patients, Treg frequencies were significantly lower in patients with URSA than in NEP patients, and the ratio of Th17 to Treg was significantly higher in the URSA group than in the other two. Additionally, the percentage of IL-17A cells in deciduas was significantly higher in patients with URSA than in NEP patients.
Human Th17 cells may play a major role in rejecting conceptus antigens and therefore may be harmful to the maintenance of pregnancy. The data also suggest that Treg cells are beneficial to pregnancy. There may exist a balance of Th17/Treg in normal pregnancy.
No preview · Article · Oct 2010 · American Journal Of Reproductive Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To establish a simple, rapid and easy method for screening the gene mutation in hemophilia A, which was further applied to a direct diagnosis and carrier detection at gene level.
Twenty-four clinically diagnosed hemophilia pedigrees, including all the hemophilia patients and female members, were tested for the introns 22 and 1 in factor VIII gene by using inversion polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and regular PCR techniques. All the 26 exons of factor VIII gene were consecutively screened in the 17 patients manifesting non-inverted sequences in intron 22 by using PCR, subsequently all the 37 amplicons resulted from 26 exons were analyzed by conformation sensitive gel electrophoresis (CSGE), finally the mutated exons were subjected to sequencing verification. According to the mutation results, mothers and twin sisters of the hemophilia probands were tested by CSGE or subjected to nucleotide sequencing directly, to ascertain if those individuals had the same mutation or were the carriers of disease-causing gene.
Intron 22 inversion was detected in 7 hemophilia probands out of 24 hemophilia pedigrees, intron 1 inversion was not detected in these pedigrees. Single-base mutations distributed in different exons of factor VIII gene were detected in 13 pedigrees with family history and 3 sporadic pedigrees, diagnosed as non-inverted 22 intron patients. By comprehensive usage of PCR-CSGE and nucleotide sequencing, the positive rate and the diagnosable rate of gene diagnosis or carrier detection in the 24 hemophilia pedigrees was 94.12% and 100% respectively.
PCR-CSGE is a highly sensitive and special assay for detecting single base mutation. By integrated utilization of introns 22 and 1 of factor VIII gene detection and PCR-CSGE genotyping, combining with nucleotide sequencing, a direct diagnosis of all hemophilia pedigrees be could nearly make at gene level, including the sporadic families. This method might be used to screen new mutation theoretically and ascertain the mutation type. It is a simple, rapid and low-cost method, possessing unique advantages in direct diagnosis of hemophilia A and carrier screening. It should have important application value in hemophilia diagnosis.
No preview · Article · Aug 2009 · Zhonghua yi xue yi chuan xue za zhi = Zhonghua yixue yichuanxue zazhi = Chinese journal of medical genetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the proportion and function of CD(4)(+)CD(25)(+) regulatory T cells (CD(4)(+)CD(25)(+) Tr) in unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion (URSA).
(1) Proportion measurement: the proportion of CD(4)(+)CD(25)(+) Tr cells in peripheral blood was measured by double-label flow cytometric analysis. The samples were taken from 15 URSA women, 15 normal non-pregnancy women and 13 normal pregnancy women. (2) Function measurement: CD(4)(+)CD(25)(+) Tr cells and CD(4)(+)CD(25)(-) T cells were extracted from peripheral blood lymphocytes by the microbeads separation. The purity of CD(4)(+)CD(25)(+) Tr cells and CD(4)(+)CD(25)(-) T cells was measured by flow cytometry. The growth inhibitory effect of CD(4)(+)CD(25)(+) Tr cells on CD(4)(+)CD(25)(-) T cells was assessed in vitro.
The proportion of CD(4)(+)CD(25)(+) Tr cells was decreased significantly in URSA women (6.9 +/- 1.8)% than that in normal non-pregnancy women [(10.8 +/- 1.1)%] (P<0.05) and normal pregnancy women [(11.2 +/- 1.4)%] (P<0.01). Moreover, the suppressive rate of CD(4)(+)CD(25)(+) Tr cells was decreased significantly in URSA women (75 +/- 6)% than that in normal non-pregnancy women [(89 +/- 4)%] (P<0.05) and normal pregnancy women [(90 +/- 4)%] (P<0.01). However, with respect to the proportion and function of CD(4)(+)CD(25)(+) Tr cells, there was no significant difference between normal non-pregnancy women and normal pregnancy women (P > 0.05).
The results suggest that decrease in proportion and function of CD(4)(+)CD(25)(+) Tr cells may be associated with URSA.
No preview · Article · Mar 2007 · Zhonghua fu chan ke za zhi