[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
To investigate the effect of diabetes mellitus on exercise heart rate and the role of impaired heart rate in excess mortality in diabetes.
Patients and methods:
Patients without cardiovascular disease who underwent exercise testing from September 1, 1993, through December 31, 2010, were included. Mortality was determined from Mayo Clinic records and the Minnesota Death Index. Multivariate linear regression was used to compare heart rate responses in patients with vs without diabetes. Cox regression was used to determine the effect of abnormal heart rate recovery and abnormal chronotropic index on survival.
A total of 21,396 patients (65.4% men) with a mean ± SD age of 51±11 years, including 1200 patients with diabetes (5.4%), were included. Patients with diabetes had a higher resting heart rate (81±14 vs 77±13 beats/min), lower peak heart rate (154±20 vs 165±19 beats/min), heart rate reserve (73±19 vs 88±19 beats/min), chronotropic index (0.86±0.22 vs 0.99±0.20), and heart rate recovery (15±8 vs 19±9 beats/min) vs patients without diabetes. There were 1362 deaths (6.4%) during a mean ± SD follow-up of 11.9±4.9 years. Adjusting for age, sex, and heart rate-lowering drug use, a chronotropic index less than 0.8 contributed significantly to risk in patients with diabetes (hazard ratio [HR], 2.21; 95% CI, 1.62-3.00; P<.001) and patients without diabetes (HR, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.71-2.20; P<.001), as did abnormal heart rate recovery (patients with diabetes: HR, 2.21; 95% CI, 1.60-5.05; P<.001; patients without diabetes: HR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.55-1.97).
Patients with diabetes exhibit abnormal heart rate responses to exercise, which are independently predictive of reduced long-term survival in patients with diabetes as in patients without diabetes.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Mayo Clinic Proceedings
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: If cigarettes were introduced as a new consumer product today, it is unlikely they would receive government regulatory approval. Cigarettes have proven biologic toxicities (carcinogenesis, atherogenesis, teratogenesis) and well-established causal links to human disease. Things were very different in 1913 when the R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company introduced the first modern cigarette, the iconic Camel. By the early 1950s, definitive scientific reports linked cigarettes and human disease, but it was more than a half century later (2006) that cigarette manufacturers were found guilty by a federal court of deceptive product marketing regarding the health hazards of tobacco use. In the United States, cigarette smoking remains a major but slowly declining problem. But in developing countries, cigarette use is expanding tremendously. In global terms, the epidemic of smoking-caused disease is projected to increase rapidly in coming decades, not decline. Society may have begun to slowly win the smoking battle in the developed world, but we are resoundingly losing the global war on smoking. All is not lost! There is some good news! The 2003 Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, supported strongly by the American College of Chest Physicians, is the first global public health treaty of the new millennium. Many developed societies have begun planning to rid their countries of cigarettes in what is called the Endgame Strategy, and now is the time for the international medical community to help change tobacco policy to a worldwide endgame approach to rid all humanity of smoking-related diseases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently, interest has emerged regarding adjuvant antiplatelet therapy in infective endocarditis (IE) and its impact on clinical outcomes. Despite ongoing research, the role of antiplatelet therapy in this setting remains unclear. Generally, investigations of IE are limited by the low incidence of the disease, practical issues related to diagnosis, and the highly variable latency period between symptom onset and definitive diagnosis. This article reviews the rationale for using antiplatelet therapy in the setting of IE and the contemporary literature that investigates its use.
No preview · Article · Jul 2010 · Current Infectious Disease Reports
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Medical errors may result from lapses in judgment or lack of prudent care by individual physicians, from system errors inherent in the medical-care delivery model or, more frequently, from a combination of the two. Medical error reporting is a sensitive topic for physicians, institutions, and patients. The veil of secrecy that surrounds medical errors deprives health-care practitioners of knowledge that may help prevent similar adverse outcomes for patients in the future. Although reporting individual medical errors to involved patients is obligatory by most professional codes of conduct for physicians, no laws or professional society guidelines mandate widespread reporting of errors to professional colleagues. Furthermore, reports of medical errors in peer-reviewed journals are extremely rare. In 2000, the Joint Commission for Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations described systemic medical errors as "fundamentally an information problem" and called for the development of programs to collect and analyze medical error data. In this review, we define medical errors and detail common motivations and barriers to publication of error reports. We propose a model for confidential error communication and describe US legislation designed to improve patient safety and establish nationwide programs for error disclosure and analysis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The training of physician learners in intensive care and coronary care medicine presents several unique challenges that are particularly suited to simulation-based medical education (SBME) solutions. Intensive care medical educators seek to provide evidence-based medical education and comprehensive clinical exposure for learners in the setting of maximal individual patient comfort and safety. This represents both a practical and ethical dilemma for educators - one that SBME can partially solve in a way that provides significant advantages over conventional "bedside" training, particularly in the intensive care setting among critically ill patients.
No preview · Article · Apr 2007 · Journal of Critical Care
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The presentation and electrocardiographic (ECG) characteristics of transient left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome (TLVABS) can be similar to that of anterior ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). We tested the hypothesis that the ECG on presentation could reliably differentiate these syndromes.
Between January 1, 2002 and July 31, 2004, we identified 18 consecutive patients with TLVABS who were matched with 36 subjects presenting with acute anterior STEMI due to atherothrombotic left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion.
All patients with TLVABS were women (mean age, 72.0 +/- 13.1 years). The heart rate, PR interval, QRS duration, and corrected QT interval were similar between groups. Distribution of ST elevation was similar, but patients with anterior STEMI exhibited greater ST elevation. Regressive partitioning analysis indicated that the combination of ST elevation in lead V2 of less than 1.75 mm and ST-segment elevation in lead V3 of less than 2.5 mm was a suggestive predictor of TLVABS (sensitivity, 67%; specificity, 94%). Conditional logistic regression indicated that the formula: (3 x ST-elevation lead V2) + (ST-elevation V3) + (2 x ST-elevation V5) allowed possible discrimination between TLVABS and anterior STEMI with an optimal cutoff level of less than 11.5 mm for TLVABS (sensitivity, 94%; specificity, 72%). Patients with TLVABS were less likely to have concurrent ST-segment depression (6% vs 44%; P = .003).
Women presenting with TLVABS have similar ECG findings to patients with anterior infarct but with less-prominent ST-segment elevation in the anterior precordial ECG leads. These ECG findings are relatively subtle and do not have sufficient predictive value to allow reliable emergency differentiation of these syndromes.
No preview · Article · Feb 2007 · Journal of electrocardiology