[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Apremilast, an oral small molecule inhibitor of phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4), is in development for chronic inflammatory disorders, and has shown efficacy in psoriasis, psoriatic arthropathies, and Behçet’s syndrome. In March 2014, the US Food and Drug Administration approved apremilast for the treatment of adult patients with active psoriatic arthritis. The properties of apremilast were evaluated to determine its specificity, effects on intracellular signalling, gene and protein expression, and in vivo pharmacology using models of innate and adaptive immunity. Apremilast inhibited PDE4 isoforms from all four sub-families (A1A, B1, B2, C1, and D2), with IC50 values in the range of 10 to 100 nM. Apremilast did not significantly inhibit other PDEs, kinases, enzymes, or receptors. While both apremilast and thalidomide share a phthalimide ring structure, apremilast lacks the glutarimide ring and thus fails to bind to cereblon, the target of thalidomide action. In monocytes and T cells, apremilast elevated intracellular cAMP and induced phosphorylation of the protein kinase A substrates CREB and activating transcription factor-1 while inhibiting NF-κB transcriptional activity, resulting in both up- and down-regulation of several genes induced via TLR4. Apremilast reduced interferon-α production by plasmacytoid dendritic cells and inhibited T-cell cytokine production, but had little effect on B-cell immunoglobulin secretion. In a transgenic T-cell and B-cell transfer murine model, apremilast (5 mg/kg/day p.o.) did not affect clonal expansion of either T or B cells and had little or no effect on their expression of activation markers. The effect of apremilast on innate immunity was tested in the ferret lung neutrophilia model, which allows monitoring of the known PDE4 inhibitor gastrointestinal side effects (nausea and vomiting). Apremilast significantly inhibited lung neutrophilia at 1 mg/kg, but did not induce significant emetic reflexes at doses < 30 mg/kg. Overall, the pharmacological effects of apremilast are consistent with those of a targeted PDE4 inhibitor, with selective effects on innate immune responses and a wide therapeutic index compared to its gastrointestinal side effects.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multi-drug resistance and cumulative cardiotoxicity are major limitations for the clinical use of anthracyclines. Here, we evaluated and compared the cross-resistance of amrubicin, a third-generation synthetic anthracycline and potent topoisomerase (topo)-II inhibitor with little or no observed cardiotoxicity to other anthracyclines and the topo-II inhibitor etoposide in drug-resistant tumor models in order to elucidate its potential mechanisms of action.
Amrubicin activity was assessed in multi-drug-resistant cell lines and human tumor explants using cytotoxicity assays, confocal microscopy, fluorescence time-lapse imaging, flow cytometry, immunoblotting, and gene expression profiling techniques.
We demonstrate that both doxorubicin-resistant tumor cell lines and several drug-resistant human ovarian and breast tumor explants retain sensitivity to amrubicin. In addition, we observed similar levels of amrubicin uptake and accumulation in doxorubicin-sensitive versus doxorubicin-resistant cell lines. Although amrubicin is a weak P-glycoprotein substrate, transport and retention of amrubicin were not solely modulated by P-glycoprotein in the resistant cell lines overexpressing drug efflux pumps. The cellular retention of amrubicin is likely to be a result of rapid influx due to its high intrinsic permeability and lipophilic properties, and this may explain why amrubicin overcomes pleiotropic drug resistance. Consistent with drug accumulation studies, amrubicin induced DNA damage, G(2)-M cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis in both doxorubicin-sensitive and doxorubicin-resistant lines. Using gene expression profiling studies, several classes of genes were significantly and uniquely regulated following amrubicin, but not doxorubicin or etoposide, treatment.
Amrubicin appears to have a distinct mode of action that overcomes typical anthracycline resistance mechanisms. Therefore, amrubicin may be useful in the treatment of anthracycline-refractory or anthracycline-resistant tumors.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2011 · Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Overexpression of the transcription factor interferon regulatory factor-4 (IRF4), which is common in multiple myeloma (MM), is associated with poor prognosis. Patients with higher IRF4 expression have significantly poorer overall survival than those with low IRF4 expression. Lenalidomide is an IMiD immunomodulatory compound that has both tumouricidal and immunomodulatory activity in MM. This study showed that lenalidomide downregulated IRF4 levels in MM cell lines and bone marrow samples within 8 h of drug exposure. This was associated with a decrease in MYC levels, as well as an initial G1 cell cycle arrest, decreased cell proliferation, and cell death by day 5 of treatment. In eight MM cell lines, high IRF4 levels correlated with increased lenalidomide sensitivity. The clinical significance of this observation was investigated in 154 patients with MM. Among MM patients with high levels of IRF4 expression, treatment with lenalidomide led to a significantly longer overall survival than other therapies in a retrospective analysis. These data confirm the central role of IRF4 in MM pathogenesis; indicate that this is an important mechanism by which lenalidomide exerts its antitumour effects; and may provide a mechanistic biomarker to predict response to lenalidomide.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2011 · British Journal of Haematology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Histone deacetylase inhibitors are a group of recently developed compounds that modulate cell growth and survival. We evaluated the effects of the histone deacetylase inhibitor MGCD0103 on growth of pancreatic carcinoma models following single agent treatment and in combination with gemcitabine. MGCD0103 inhibited tumor cell growth and acted synergistically with gemcitabine to enhance its cytotoxic effects. Gene expression analysis identified the cell cycle pathway as one of the most highly modulated gene groups. Our data suggest that MGCD0103 + gemcitabine might be an effective treatment for gemcitabine-refractory pancreatic cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inhibition of histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6)-dependent aggresome function by pan HDAC inhibitors was recently reported to be a key mechanism underlying the synergistic activity between proteasome inhibitors and HDAC inhibitors in a variety of tumour types. Because these combinations induce significant thrombocytopenia in vivo, we examined whether less toxic, isotype-selective HDAC inhibitors may still synergize with proteasome inhibitors, and if so, by what mechanisms. Here, we showed that the class I HDAC inhibitor, MGCD0103, has a potent antiproliferative activity in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) cell lines. Furthermore, MGCD0103 induced tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α) expression and secretion, which was associated with nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation. Selective inhibition of TNF-α expression by short interfering mRNA, or inhibition of MGCD0103-induced NF-kB activation by proteasome inhibitors enhanced MGCD0103-induced cell death. Thus, our results demonstrate that MGCD0103 may synergize with proteasome inhibitors by HDAC6-independent mechanisms, providing mechanistic rationale for exploring this potentially less toxic combination for the treatment of lymphoma.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2010 · British Journal of Haematology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The cytidine nucleoside analogs azacitidine (AZA) and decitabine (DAC) are used for the treatment of patients with myelodysplastic syndromes and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Few non-clinical studies have directly compared the mechanisms of action of these agents in a head-to-head fashion, and the agents are often viewed as mechanistically similar DNA hypomethylating agents. To better understand the similarities and differences in mechanisms of these drugs, we compared their in vitro effects on several end points in human AML cell lines.
Both drugs effected DNA methyltransferase 1 depletion, DNA hypomethylation, and DNA damage induction, with DAC showing equivalent activity at concentrations 2- to 10-fold lower than AZA. At concentrations above 1 microM, AZA had a greater effect than DAC on reducing cell viability. Both drugs increased the sub-G1 fraction and apoptosis markers, with AZA decreasing all cell cycle phases and DAC causing an increase in G2-M. Total protein synthesis was reduced only by AZA, and drug-modulated gene expression profiles were largely non-overlapping.
These data demonstrate shared mechanisms of action of AZA and DAC on DNA-mediated markers of activity, but distinctly different effects in their actions on cell viability, protein synthesis, cell cycle, and gene expression. The differential effects of AZA may be mediated by RNA incorporation, as the distribution of AZA in nucleic acid of KG-1a cells was 65:35, RNA:DNA.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lenalidomide and pomalidomide have both been evaluated clinically for their properties as anticancer agents, with lenalidomide being available commercially. We previously reported that both compounds cause cell cycle arrest in Burkitt's lymphoma and multiple myeloma cell lines by increasing the level of p21(WAF-1) expression. In the present study, we unravel the molecular mechanism responsible for p21(WAF-1) up-regulation using Namalwa cells as a human lymphoma model. We show that the increase of p21(WAF-1) expression is regulated at the transcriptional level through a mechanism independent of p53. Using a combination of approaches, we show that several GC-rich binding transcription factors are involved in pomalidomide-mediated up-regulation of p21(WAF-1). Furthermore, we report that p21(WAF-1) up-regulation is associated with a switch from methylated to acetylated histone H3 on p21(WAF-1) promoter. Interestingly, lysine-specific demethylase-1 (LSD1) silencing reduced both pomalidomide and lenalidomide up-regulation of p21(WAF-1), suggesting that this histone demethylase is involved in the priming of the p21(WAF-1) promoter. Based on our findings, we propose a model in which pomalidomide and lenalidomide modify the chromatin structure of the p21(WAF-1) promoter through demethylation and acetylation of H3K9. This effect, mediated via LSD1, provides GC-rich binding transcription factors better access to DNA, followed by recruitment of RNA polymerase II and transcription activation. Taken together, our results provide new insights on the mechanism of action of pomalidomide and lenalidomide in the regulation of gene transcription, imply possible efficacy in p53 mutated and deleted cancer, and suggest new potential clinical uses as an epigenetic therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sickle-cell disease (SCD) and beta thalassemia constitute worldwide public health problems. New therapies, including hydroxyurea, have attempted to augment the synthesis of fetal hemoglobin (HbF) and improve current treatment. Lenalidomide and pomalidomide are members of a class of immunomodulators used as anticancer agents. Because clinical trials have demonstrated that lenalidomide reduces or eliminates the need for transfusions in some patients with disrupted blood cell production, we investigated the effects of lenalidomide and pomalidomide on erythropoiesis and hemoglobin synthesis. We used an in vitro erythropoiesis model derived from human CD34+ progenitor cells from normal and SCD donors. We found that both compounds slowed erythroid maturation, increased proliferation of immature erythroid cells, and regulated hemoglobin transcription, resulting in potent induction of HbF without the cytotoxicity associated with other HbF inducers. When combined with hydroxyurea, pomalidomide and, to a lesser extent, lenalidomide were found to have synergistic effects on HbF upregulation. Our results elucidate what we believe to be a new mechanism of action of pomalidomide and lenalidomide and support the hypothesis that pomalidomide, used alone or in combination with hydroxyurea, may improve erythropoiesis and increase the ratio of fetal to adult hemoglobin. These findings support the evaluation of pomalidomide as an innovative new therapy for beta-hemoglobinopathies.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2008 · Journal of Clinical Investigation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: COX2 (prostaglandin G/H synthase, PTGS2) is a well-validated target in the fields of both oncology and inflammation. Despite their significant toxicity profile, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have become standard of care in the treatment of many COX2-mediated inflammatory conditions. In this report, we show that one IMiDs((R)) immunomodulatory drug, CC-4047, can reduce the levels of COX2 and the production of prostaglandins (PG) in human LPS-stimulated monocytes. The inhibition of COX2 by CC-4047 occurs at the level of gene transcription, by reducing the LPS-stimulated transcriptional activity at the COX2 gene. Because it is a transcriptional rather than an enzymatic inhibitor of COX2, CC-4047 inhibition of PG production is not susceptible to competition by exogenous arachadonic acid (AA). The distinct mechanisms of action allow CC-4047 and a COX2-selective NSAID to work additively to block PG secretion from monocytes. CC-4047 does not, however, block COX2 induction in or prostacyclin secretion from IL-1beta stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) cells, nor does it inhibit COX1 in either monocytes or HUVEC cells. CC-4047 also inhibits COX2 and PG production in monocytes derived from patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). Taken together, the data in this manuscript suggest CC-4047 will provide important anti-inflammatory benefit to patients and will improve the safety of NSAIDs in the treatment of SCD or other inflammatory conditions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clinical studies involving patients with myelodysplastic syndromes or multiple myeloma have shown the efficacy of lenalidomide by reducing and often eliminating malignant cells while restoring the bone marrow function. To better understand these clinical observations, we investigated and compared the effects of lenalidomide and a structurally related analogue, CC-4047, on the proliferation of two different human hematopoietic cell models: the Namalwa cancer cell line and normal CD34+ progenitor cells. Both compounds had antiproliferative effects on Namalwa cells and pro-proliferative effects on CD34+ cells, whereas p21WAF-1 expression was up-regulated in both cell types. In Namalwa cells, the up-regulation of p21WAF-1 correlated well with the inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 2, CDK4, and CDK6 activity leading to pRb hypophosphorylation and cell cycle arrest, whereas in CD34+ progenitor cells the increase of p21WAF-1 did not inhibit proliferation. Similarly, antiproliferation results were observed in two B lymphoma cell lines (LP-1 and U266) but interestingly not in normal B cells where a protection of apoptosis was found. Finally, CC-4047 and lenalidomide had synergistic effects with valproic acid [a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor] by increasing the apoptosis of Namalwa cells and enhancing CD34+ cell expansion. Our results indicate that lenalidomide and CC-4047 have opposite effects in tumor cells versus normal cells and could explain, at least in part, the reduction of malignant cells and the restoration of bone marrow observed in patients undergoing lenalidomide treatment. Moreover, this study provides new insights on the cellular pathways affected by lenalidomide and CC-4047, proposes new potential clinical uses, such as bone marrow regeneration, and suggests that the combination of lenalidomide or CC-4047 with certain HDAC inhibitors may elevate the therapeutic index in the treatment of hematologic malignancies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Starting from a phenol screening hit (6), three series of benzopyranone selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) have been designed, synthesized, and analyzed for both estrogen receptor alpha binding affinity and in vitro activity in two cell assays. The lead compound identified, SP500263 (13), was more potent than raloxifene and tamoxifen in a cell-based assay measuring inhibition of interleukin-6 release.
No preview · Article · Aug 2004 · Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The molecular circuitry underlying innate immunity is constructed of multiple, evolutionarily conserved signaling modules with distinct regulatory targets. The MAP kinases and the IKK-NF-kappa B molecules play important roles in the initiation of immune effector responses. We have found that the Drosophila NF-kappa B protein Relish plays a crucial role in limiting the duration of JNK activation and output in response to Gram-negative infections. Relish activation is linked to proteasomal degradation of TAK1, the upstream MAP kinase kinase kinase required for JNK activation. Degradation of TAK1 leads to a rapid termination of JNK signaling, resulting in a transient JNK-dependent response that precedes the sustained induction of Relish-dependent innate immune loci. Because the IKK-NF-kappa B module also negatively regulates JNK activation in mammals, thereby controlling inflammation-induced apoptosis, the regulatory cross-talk between the JNK and NF-kappa B pathways appears to be broadly conserved.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2004 · Genes & Development
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bone metabolism requires tightly coupled activities exhibited by two unique cell populations, the bone-resorbing osteoclasts and the bone-forming osteoblasts. Imbalance in the function of these two cell types can result in osteoporosis, a condition characterized by loss in bone integrity and of bone mass. We developed a human bone cell culture model that allows the in vitro study of bone formation and osteoclastogenesis and employed this bone model for the screening and pharmacological analyses of protein and small molecule therapeutics. The cytokines, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), play an intricate role in osteoclastogenesis in this system. Neutralizing antibodies to IL-6 and GM-CSF decreased the formation of osteoclast-like cells. SP500263, an early lead compound from a novel class of selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), was more efficacious than estrogen and comparable to raloxifene in blocking cytokine production and formation of osteoclast-like cells. Our research demonstrates the usefulness of the in vitro co-culture model in the dissection of molecular events relevant to bone metabolism and provides greater insight into a potential novel role for cytokines in bone resorption. Furthermore, representatives of the SP500263 family of SERMs may be effective as therapeutics for the treatment of osteoporosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We describe here the activity of a novel selective estrogen receptor modulator, SP500263. When given to adult ovariectomized (OVX) rats for 28 days at doses of 0.3, 1, or 3 mg/kg/day, we found that SP500263 partially protected against OVX-induced loss of bone mineral content in the distal ends of femurs and in the whole bone. SP500263 also antagonized the OVX-induced increase in body weight. However, unlike 17beta-estradiol, SP500263 at efficacious doses did not prevent the OVX-induced loss in uterine wet weight. A small but significant effect on uterine wet weight was noted with raloxifene dosed at 1 mg/kg. As expected, SP500263 but not raloxifene acted as an estrogen antagonist on the uterus in adult rats when administered for 7 days at 30 mg/kg/day. Finally, SP500263 had no statistically significant effects on total serum cholesterol and serum triglycerides in OVX rats treated for 28 days. Raloxifene had no significant effects on body weight, bone mineral content, and serum cholesterol or triglycerides in the OVX-rat model. In summary, SP500263 is a new orally active SERM that acts in rats as an estrogen agonist on bone without causing uterine stimulatory effects.
No preview · Article · Jul 2003 · Calcified Tissue International
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have compared the antitumor activities of SP500263, a novel next-generation selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), tamoxifen, and raloxifene side-by-side in in vitro and in vivo MCF-7 breast cancer models. In vitro, SP500263 acted as an antiestrogen and potently inhibited estrogen-dependent MCF-7 proliferation with IC(50) values in the nanomolar range. SP500263 also strongly inhibited MCF-7 proliferation in the absence of estrogen at all of the concentrations tested. To investigate the antitumor activity of SP500263 in animals, athymic nude mice were implanted with MCF-7 tumor in the presence of a tumor growth-supporting sustained release estrogen pellet. Treatment was initiated after tumors were established. SP500263, administered for 28 days through daily i.p. dosing, effectively reduced estrogen-stimulated tumor growth at 3 and 30 mg/kg. SP500263 was as efficacious as tamoxifen and superior to raloxifene at the corresponding doses. Maximum efficacy was reached with the 30 mg/kg dose. The observed effects were highly significant. SP500263 represents a member of a novel series of SERMs that is structurally unrelated to SERMs currently on the market or in clinical development. The experiments described herein demonstrate that SP500263 is efficacious in the MCF-7 proliferation assay and in a murine model of breast cancer.