[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Passiflora edulis Sims, Passifloraceae, has been used in Brazilian traditional folk medicine to the treatment of anxiety and insomnia. P. edulis is commonly known for its economic interests in Brazil. This species exhibits significant variability in the fruit rind color, then two subpopulations has been described (P. edulis fo. flavicarpa O. Deg. (PEF); P. edulis fo. edulis (PEE)). This study compared phytochemical profile and biological actions of aqueous leaf extract of PEE and PEF. HPLC analysis showed marked distinct chromatograms to the P. edulis varieties. However, in both extracts the major compounds observed were flavonoids C-glycosides. Behavioral studies showed that PEE (300mg/kg, p.o.) and PEF (100 and 300mg/kg, p.o.) reduced anxiety in the elevated plus maze test. PEE (300 and 1000mg/kg, p.o.) and PEF (1000mg/kg, p.o.) also induced antidepressant-like actions in the forced swimming test. PEE 1000mg/kg significantly reduced distance moved, thus suggesting sedation. No alterations in sleeping time were observed with PEE and PEF extracts. In conclusion, despite the similarities between the biological actions observed for both P. edulis varieties, quite different phytochemical profile was herein reported. These data suggest that the anxiolytic and antidepressant actions are not due to a specific phytochemical component.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Kalanchoe brasiliensis, known as “saião” and “coirama branca,” is native to Brazil. Although this species is widely used in folk medicine, there is no quantification method of chemical markers to it. To characterize and quantify the chemical markers of hydroethanolic extract from leaves of the K. brasiliensis, the study was divided into two parts: 1) isolation and identification of one chemical marker of the hydroethanolic extract from K. brasiliensis leaves; and 2) development and validation of an analytical methodology to quantify it via HPLC–DAD. The hydroethanolic extract from K. brasiliensis leaves was subjected to column chromatographies using different mobile phases, resulting in the pure compound named Kb1. The Kb1 compound was identified as the flavonoid, patuletin 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-7-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside, through analysis by UV spectrum and MS–MS. The most appropriate chromatographic system by HPLC analysis was as follows: phase A, water:formic acid (99.7:0.3, v/v) and phase B, methanol:formic acid (99.7:0.3, v/v), with an elution gradient of 40% B–58% B in 50 min, a C18 Hichrom (250 × 4.0 mm, 5 µm) column, a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min, and chromatogram recorded at 370 nm. The method proved to be linear, precise, accurate, and reproducible. According to the results, it was observed that patuletin 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-7-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside can be used as a chemical marker of hydroethanolic extract from K. brasiliensis leaves.
No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Journal of Liquid Chromatography & Related Technologies
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Jatropha gossypiifolia L. (Euphorbiaceae) is a medicinal plant largely used in folk medicine. Teas from the leaves are popularly used as an antithrombotic agent and the branches are frequently employed as a "thick blood" agent. Considering that the anticoagulant activity associated with antioxidant properties could be beneficial for various cardiovascular diseases, this study’s aim is the evaluation of anticoagulant and antioxidant activities of J. gossypiifolia leaves, seeking new therapeutic purposes for this plant.
The aqueous leaf crude extract (CE) was prepared by decoction and was fractionated by liquid-liquid partition with solvents of increasing polarity. The phytochemical analysis was performed by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and by the spectrophotometric quantification of sugars, proteins and phenolic compounds. The anticoagulant activity was evaluated by prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) tests. The capacity to act in the fibrinolytic system (fibrinolytic and fibrinogenolytic activities) was also assessed. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by total antioxidant capacity, reducing power, copper chelating activity, iron chelating activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and superoxide radical scavenging assays. The potential toxicity was evaluated using hemolytic assay and the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide (MTT) assay on HEK-293 cells.
CE showed significant anticoagulant activity in aPTT test, while no action was observed in PT test, suggesting a preferential action toward the intrinsic and/or common pathway of coagulation. No effect was observed in the fibrinolytic system. Using the aPTT test, it was observed that the residual aqueous (RA) fraction was the most active, being two times more active than CE. RA presented very significant antioxidant activity in all models tested comparable to or even higher than CE. Regarding the safety, CE and RA did not produce significant cytotoxicity in both tests employed. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, proteins, tannins, steroids and/or terpenoids and sugars.
CE and RA possessed significant anticoagulant and antioxidant activity and absence of cytotoxic effect in vitro, thus showing the potential of the plant, especially RA fraction, as a new source of bioactive molecules for therapeutic purposes, with particular emphasis on the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Snakebites are a serious public health problem due their high morbi-mortality. The main available specific treatment is the antivenom serum therapy, which has some disadvantages, such as poor neutralization of local effects, risk of immunological reactions, high cost and difficult access in some regions. In this context, the search for alternative therapies is relevant. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antiophidic properties of Jatropha gossypiifolia, a medicinal plant used in folk medicine to treat snakebites. The aqueous leaf extract of the plant was prepared by decoction and phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of sugars, alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, terpenes and/or steroids and proteins. The extract was able to inhibit enzymatic and biologic activities induced by Bothrops jararaca snake venom in vitro and in vivo. The blood incoagulability was efficiently inhibited by the extract by oral route. The hemorrhagic and edematogenic local effects were also inhibited, the former by up to 56% and the latter by 100%, in animals treated with extract by oral and intraperitoneal routes, respectively. The inhibition of myotoxic action of B. jararaca reached almost 100%. According to enzymatic tests performed, it is possible to suggest that the antiophidic activity may be due an inhibitory action upon snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs) and/or serine proteinases (SVSPs), including fibrinogenolytic enzymes, clotting factors activators and thrombin like enzymes (SVTLEs), as well upon catalytically inactive phospholipases A2 (Lys49 PLA2). Anti-inflammatory activity, at least partially, could also be related to the inhibition of local effects. Additionally, protein precipitating and antioxidant activities may also be important features contributing to the activity presented. In conclusion, the results demonstrate the potential antiophidic activity of J. gossypiifolia extract, including its significant action upon local effects, suggesting that it may be used as a new source of bioactive molecules against bothropic venom.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: Jatropha gossypiifolia L. (Euphorbiaceae), popularly known in Brazil as "pinhão-roxo", is a medicinal plant largely used in folk medicine as an anti-inflammatory, healing, and antihypertensive drug. It is included in the National List of Medicinal Plants of Interest to Brazilian Public Health System (RENISUS) due to its recognized therapeutic potential. The plant is frequently medicinally used by infusion or decoction. However, phytochemical and pharmacological studies conducted with aqueous extracts are poorly described to the species. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of the aqueous leaf extract of J. gossypiifolia and characterize its phytochemical constitution. Methods: A phytochemical screening of the aqueous leaf extract prepared by infusion was performed through chemical reactions and thin layer chromatography (TLC). Systemic and local anti-inflammatory activity (50-200 mg/kg, orally, and 1-5% w/w lipogels, topically) was evaluated in carrageenan-induced paw edema model in rats. Results: Alkaloids, flavonoids, gums, resins, and sulfur compounds were detected by chemical reactions. TLC analysis suggests that flavonoids could be the major compounds in the extract. In both routes, the extract was effective in reducing paw edema induced by carrageenan. Conclusion: These results suggest the potential of the aqueous leaf extract of J. gossypiifolia as a source of anti-inflammatory herbal drugs and/or molecules, and seem to justify part of its main popular uses in traditional medicine.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Scorpion bite represents a significant and serious public health problem in certain regions of Brazil, as well as in other parts of the world. Inflammatory mediators are thought to be involved in the systemic and local immune response induced by Tityus serrulatus scorpion envenomation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of extracts of Mimosa tenuiflora on model envenomation. In mice, the envenomation model is induced by Tityus serrulatus venom. Previous treatment of mice with fractions from M. tenuiflora was able to suppress the cell migration to the peritoneal cavity. The treatment of mice with M. tenuiflora extracts also decreased the levels of IL-6, IL-12, and IL-1β. We concluded that the administration of the extract and fractions resulted in a reduction in cell migration and showed a reduction in the level of proinflammatory cytokines. This study demonstrates, for the first time, the anti-inflammatory effect of aqueous extract from the Mimosa tenuiflora plant on T. serrulatus venom.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · BioMed Research International
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Jatropha gossypiifolia
L. (Euphorbiaceae), widely known as “
” is a medicinal plant largely used throughout Africa and America. Several human and veterinary uses in traditional medicine are described for different parts and preparations based on this plant. However, critical reviews discussing emphatically its medicinal value are missing. This review aims to provide an up-to-date overview of the traditional uses, as well as the phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicity data of
species, in view of discussing its medicinal value and potential application in complementary and alternative medicine. Pharmacological studies have demonstrated significant action of different extracts and/or isolated compounds as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antidiarrheal, antihypertensive, and anticancer agents, among others, supporting some of its popular uses. No clinical trial has been detected to date. Further studies are necessary to assay important folk uses, as well as to find new bioactive molecules with pharmacological relevance based on the popular claims. Toxicological studies associated with phytochemical analysis are important to understand the eventual toxic effects that could reduce its medicinal value. The present review provides insights for future research aiming for both ethnopharmacological validation of its popular use and its exploration as a new source of herbal drugs and/or bioactive natural products.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Envenoming caused by scorpion sting is a serious public health problem. In Brazil, 13,038 accidents caused by venomous animals have been reported. Of this total, 53% of the cases and 14 deaths were caused by scorpions. Furthermore, Tityus serrulatus (Buthidae) is the most dangerous scorpion due to the high toxicity of its venom. The treatment is the common supportive therapy and the serum therapy, but some people do not have access to both therapies and seek healing through the use of medical plants.
This study evaluated the ability of the crude extract and fractions from the leaves of Ipomoea asarifolia in neutralizing the main biological effects caused by T. serrulatus envenoming in mice.
BALB/c mice were pretreated (i.v.) with 100μλ of aqueous extracts and fractions dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol (CH2Cl2, EtOAc, and n-BuOH, respectively) of I. asarifolia, rutin or saline. Then, the animals received 100μλ (i.p.) of venom of T. serrulatus (0.8mg/kg). After six hours, the peritoneal lavage was performed with PBS and the number cells were determined using a Neubauer chamber. The supernatants were collected for determination of cytokines, such as IL-6, IL-12, and IL-1β.
The aqueous extract, fractions and rutin, at all doses, significantly reduced cell migration, which was endorsed by the reduction of the levels of certain cytokines.
This is the first study that demonstrated the potential effect of I. asarifolia against inflammation caused by T. serrulatus venom, suggesting that these extracts and / or their bioactive molecules, especially the flavonoid rutin, have potential use in the therapy of this envenomation.
No preview · Article · Apr 2014 · Journal of ethnopharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plukenetia volubilis Linneo, or Sacha inca, is an oleaginous plant from the Euphorbiaceae family. The aim of this work was to perform a chemical and biological analysis of different leaf extracts from P. volubilis such as aqueous extract (AEL), methanol (MEL), ethanol (EEL), chloroform (CEL), and hexane (HEL). Thin layer chromatography analysis revealed the presence of phenolic compounds, steroids, and/or terpenoídes. Furthermore, the antioxidant activities were analyzed by in vitro assays and their effects on cell lineages by in vivo assays. The Total Antioxidant Capacity (TCA) was expressed as equivalent ascorbic acid (EEA/g) and it was observed that the extracts showed values ranging from 59.31 to 97.76 EAA/g. Furthermore, the DPPH assay values ranged from 62.8% to 88.3%. The cell viability assay showed that the extracts were able to reduce viability from cancer cells such as HeLa and A549 cells. The extracts MEL and HEL (250 µg/mL) were able to reduce the proliferation of HeLa cells up to 54.3% and 48.5%, respectively. The flow cytometer results showed that these extracts induce cell death via the apoptosis pathway. On the other hand, the extracts HEL and AEL were able to induce cell proliferation of normal fibroblast 3T3 cells.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The leaf extracts of many species of genus Passiflora have been extensively investigated for their biological activities on several rat tissues, but mainly in the central nervous system and liver. They posses anxiolytic-like, sedative effects and antioxidant properties. Evidences suggest a key role of C-glycosylflavonoids in the biological activities of Passiflora extracts. Some species (such as P. manicata) of the genus are still poorly investigated for their chemical and biological activity. In this work, we aim to investigate both antioxidant and antiglycation properties of aqueous extract of P. manicata leaves (PMLE) in vitro and ex vivo models. Crude extract showed the C-glycosylflavonoid isovitexin as the major compound. Isoorientin and vitexin were also identified. In TRAP/TAR assay, PMLE showed a significant antioxidant activity. PMLE at concentrations of 10 and 100μgmL-1 significantly decreasing LDH leakage in rat liver slices. Antioxidant effect also was observed by decreased in oxidative damage markers in slices hence hydrogen peroxide was added as oxidative stress inductor. PMLE inhibited protein glycation at all concentrations tested. In summary, P. manicata aqueous leaf extract possess protective properties against reactive oxygen species and also protein glycation, and could be considered a new source of natural antioxidants.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2013 · Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The species of Passiflora are widely used in folk medicine as mild sedatives and tranquilizers. P. alata and P. quadrangularis are distributed throughout South America, with widespread occurrence in Brazil and Colombia. Due to the difficulty in making a botanical distinction between these species, especially in the absence of flowers and fruits, the use of chemical markers for these plants offer an alternative method of identification. This work describes the isolation and identification of the major flavonoids and saponins from the leaves of P. alata andP. quadrangularis, as well as rapid and efficient HPLC-DAD methods for comparison of these compounds in both species. Vitexin derivatives are proposed as chemical markers in the identification of P. alata and P. quadrangularis and the detection of adulterations in raw material
No preview · Article · Aug 2012 · Journal of Liquid Chromatography & Related Technologies
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Leaves and fruits of Passiflora species are widely used around the world in popular medicine, mainly as sedatives and tranquilisers. C-glycosyl flavonoids are the main components of these species.
To investigate the constituent patterns and to develop a chromatographic method for the characterisation of the C-glycosyl flavonoids profile of the extracts of the leaves and the pericarp of South American Passiflora species.
The chemical composition of extracts from the leaves and the fruits' pericarp of Passiflora edulis var. flavicarpa, P. edulis var. edulis, Passiflora alata, Passiflora tripartita var. mollissima, Passiflora quadrangularis, Passiflora manicata and Passiflora ligularis was evaluated for the presence of C-glycosyl flavonoids. Two separate HPLC methods were developed suitable for a diode array detector (DAD) and a MS detector. Separation by HPLC-DAD was achieved on a Luna C-18 column, using solvent A (tetrahydrofuran-isopropanol-acetonitrile) and solvent B (H₃PO₄ 0.5%) in an isocratic elution mode. In the HPLC-MS, the components were separated on a Luna RP-18A column by a gradient elution (water-acetonitrile-formic acid).
The presence of C-glycosyl flavonoids was identified in leaves and pericarp of P. edulis var. flavicarpa, P. alata, P. edulis var. edulis and P. tripartita var. molissima, but only in leaf extracts of P. quadrangularis and P. manicata and not at all in P. ligularis. The different species and varieties showed different major constituents. The C-glycosyl flavonoids identified more frequently were orientin, isoorientin, vitexin and isovitexin.
The methods established are simple and can be used as a tool for the characterisation and quality control of pharmaceutical preparations containing these Passiflora extracts.
Full-text · Article · May 2012 · Phytochemical Analysis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Passiflora edulis has been used in traditional medicine as a sedative and to treat or prevent central disorders such as anxiety and insomnia. In this study, the central effects of the aqueous extract (AE), the butanolic fraction (BF), and the aqueous residual fraction (ARF) obtained from the pericarp of P. edulis flavicarpa were investigated in mice and the possible compounds involved in these putative neuropharmacologic effects were determined. AE, BF, and ARF increased the total time spent in the light compartment of the light:dark box, an anxiolytic-like effect, and AE also potentiated the hypnotic effects of ethyl ether, a sedative effect. The thin layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography analysis indicated the predominance of C-glycosylflavonoids in these extracts and fractions, which were identified as isoorientin, vicenin-2, spinosin, and 6,8-di-C-glycosylchrysin.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2009 · Experimental Biology and Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Passiflora edulis, commonly known as "maracujá", is widely cultivated in Brazil for the industrial production of juice. The species of Passiflora are popularly used as a sedative or tranquillizer, and also against intermittent fever and skin inflammation. In this study we evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of four sub-fractions and three isolated compounds from the butanolic fraction of P. edulis var. flavicarpa leaves, using the mouse model of pleurisy induced by carrageenan. The butanolic fraction obtained from an aqueous extract of P. edulis (50 and 100 mg/kg, I. P.) showed anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting leukocytes and neutrophils (p < 0.01). Sub-fraction C showed itself to be more effective than the other sub-fractions (p < 0.01). Isoorientin ( 1), vicenin-2 ( 2) and spinosin ( 3) were isolated from the active sub-fraction C derived from the butanolic fraction. The sub-fraction C (50 mg/kg, I. P.), as well as its major isolated compounds (25 mg/kg, I. P.), inhibited leukocytes and neutrophils (p < 0.05). Additionally, the butanolic fraction and isoorientin also inhibited myeloperoxidase activity (p < 0.05). The present study showed that the C-glucosylflavones isolated from P. edulis leaves can be responsible for the anti-inflammatory effect of P. edulis on the mouse model of pleurisy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of the aqueous extract of Passiflora edulis forma flavicarpa Degenerer leaves in the air pouch inflammation model induced by carrageenan, histamine or substance P, in mice. An aqueous extract was prepared by infusion and lyophilized. Part of the extract was fractionated with n-butanol, resulting in the butanolic and aqueous residual fractions. The anti-inflammatory activities of the lyophilized extract and these two derived fractions were evaluated. In the inflammation induced by carrageenan, aqueous extract (100 mg/kg, i.p.), butanolic fraction (50 mg/kg, i.p.), aqueous residual fraction (100 mg/kg, i.p.) and dexamethasone (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) inhibited the leukocyte, neutrophil, myeloperoxidase, nitric oxide, and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) levels (p < 0.05). The aqueous extract and butanolic and aqueous residual fractions, but not dexamethasone, decreased macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) levels (p < 0.05). Only dexamethasone inhibited mononuclear cells (p < 0.01). In the inflammation induced by histamine, the aqueous extract, butanolic and aqueous residual fractions, and dexamethasone inhibited total and differential leukocytes (p < 0.01). In the inflammation induced by substance P, the aqueous extract, butanolic and aqueous residual fractions, and dexamethasone also inhibited total leukocytes and mononuclears (p < 0.01). Neutrophils were only inhibited by aqueous extract, butanolic fraction, and dexamethasone (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the active principle(s) present in the P. edulis aqueous extract and its two fractions showed pronounced anti-inflammatory properties, inhibiting cell migration, proinflammatory cytokines, enzymes and mediators.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper describes the screening of different South American plant extracts and fractions. Aqueous and organic extracts were prepared and tested for antiherpetic (HSV-1, KOS and 29R strains) and antirabies (PV strain) activities. The evaluation of the potential antiviral activity of these extracts was performed by using an MTT assay for HSV-1, and by a viral cytopathic effect (CPE) inhibitory method for rabies virus (RV). The results were expressed as 50% cytotoxicity (CC(50)) for MTT assay and 50% effective (EC(50)) concentrations for CPE, and with them it was possible to calculate the selectivity indices (SI = CC(50)/EC(50)) of each tested material. From the 18 extracts/fractions tested, six extracts and four fractions showed antiviral action. Ilex paraguariensis, Lafoensia pacari, Passiflora edulis, Rubus imperialis and Slonea guianensis showed values of SI > 7 against HSV-1 KOS and 29-R strains and Alamanda schottii showed a SI of 5.6 against RV, PV strain.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2007 · Phytotherapy Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The popular medicine Passiflora edulis has been used as a sedative, tranquilizer, against cutaneous inflammatory diseases and intermittent fever. Most of the pharmacological investigations of Passiflora edulis have been addressed to its Central Nervous System activities, such as anxiolytic, anticonvulsant and sedative actions. Otherwise, there are few reports about the anti-inflammatory activity of the Passiflora species. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of the anti-inflammatory effect of aqueous lyophilized extract obtained from leaves of Passiflora edulis var. flavicarpa Degener (Passifloraceae) in the mouse model of pleurisy induced by carrageenan (Cg), bradykinin, histamine or substance P, observing the effects upon leucocytes migration, myeloperoxidase (MPO), nitric oxide (NO) concentrations and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1beta) levels. RESULTS: Passiflora edulis (250mg/kg) administered by intraperitoneal route (i.p.) inhibited the leukocyte, neutrophils, myeloperoxidase, nitric oxide, TNFalpha and IL-1beta levels (P<0.01) in the pleurisy induced by carrageenan. Passiflora edulis (250-500mg/kg, i.p.) also inhibited total and differential leukocytes in the pleurisy induced by bradykinin, histamine or substance P (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Several mechanisms, including the inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNFalpha, IL-1beta), enzyme (myeloperoxidase) and mediators (bradykinin, histamine, substance P, nitric oxide) release and/or action, appear to account for Passiflora edulis's actions.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2007 · Journal of Ethnopharmacology