[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although there is in vivo evidence suggesting a role for glutathione in the metabolism and tissue distribution of vitamin C, no connection with the vitamin C transport systems has been reported. We show here that disruption of glutathione metabolism with buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine (BSO) produced a sustained blockade of ascorbic acid transport in rat hepatocytes and rat hepatoma cells. Rat hepatocytes expressed the Na(+)-coupled ascorbic acid transporter-1 (SVCT1), while hepatoma cells expressed the transporters SVCT1 and SVCT2. BSO-treated rat hepatoma cells showed a two order of magnitude decrease in SVCT1 and SVCT2 mRNA levels, undetectable SVCT1 and SVCT2 protein expression, and lacked the capacity to transport ascorbic acid, effects that were fully reversible on glutathione repletion. Interestingly, although SVCT1 mRNA levels remained unchanged in rat hepatocytes made glutathione deficient by in vivo BSO treatment, SVCT1 protein was absent from the plasma membrane and the cells lacked the capacity to transport ascorbic acid. The specificity of the BSO treatment was indicated by the finding that transport of oxidized vitamin C (dehydroascorbic acid) and glucose transporter expression were unaffected by BSO treatment. Moreover, glutathione depletion failed to affect ascorbic acid transport, and SVCT1 and SVCT2 expression in human hepatoma cells. Therefore, our data indicate an essential role for glutathione in controlling vitamin C metabolism in rat hepatocytes and rat hepatoma cells, two cell types capable of synthesizing ascorbic acid, by regulating the expression and subcellular localization of the transporters involved in the acquisition of ascorbic acid from extracellular sources, an effect not observed in human cells incapable of synthesizing ascorbic acid.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2012 · Free Radical Biology and Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We studied the acquisition of dehydroascorbic acid by rat hepatocytes, H4IIE rat hepatoma cells and Xenopus laevis oocytes. Transport kinetics and competition and inhibition studies revealed that rat hepatocytes transport oxidized dehydroascorbic acid through a single functional component possessing the functional and kinetic properties expected for the glucose transporter GLUT2. On the other hand, rat hepatoma cells showed expression of at least two dehydroascorbic acid transporters with the expected functional and kinetic properties expected for GLUT1 and GLUT2. Expression studies of GLUT2 in X. laevis oocytes followed by transport kinetics and competition and inhibition studies revealed that GLUT2 is a low affinity dehydroascorbic transporter whose kinetic and functional properties match those observed for the endogenous GLUT2 transporter in rat hepatocytes and rat hepatoma cells. Therefore, GLUT2, a transporter known as a low affinity transporter of glucose and fructose and a high affinity transporter of glucosamine is also a low affinity dehydroascorbic acid transporter.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2011 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vitamin C is a wide spectrum antioxidant essential for humans, which are unable to synthesize the vitamin and must obtain it from dietary sources. There are two biologically important forms of vitamin C, the reduced form, ascorbic acid, and the oxidized form, dehydroascorbic acid. Vitamin C exerts most of its biological functions intracellularly and is acquired by cells with the participation of specific membrane transporters. This is a central issue because even in those species capable of synthesizing vitamin C, synthesis is restricted to the liver (and pancreas) from which is distributed to the organism. Most cells express two different transporter systems for vitamin C; a transporter system with absolute specificity for ascorbic acid and a second system that shows absolute specificity for dehydroascorbic acid. The dehydroascorbic acid transporters are members of the GLUT family of facilitative glucose transporters, of which at least three isoforms, GLUT1, GLUT3 and GLUT4, are dehydroascorbic acid transporters. Ascorbic acid is transported by the SVCT family of sodium-coupled transporters, with two isoforms molecularly cloned, the transporters SVCT1 y SVCT2, that show different functional properties and differential cell and tissue expression. In humans, the maintenance of a low daily requirement of vitamin C is attained through an efficient system for the recycling of the vitamin involving the two families of vitamin C transporters.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2009 · Journal of physiology and biochemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cellular glutathione levels may exceed vitamin C levels by 10-fold, generating the question about the real antioxidant role that low intracellular concentrations of vitamin C can play in the presence of a vast molar excess of glutathione. We characterized the metabolism of vitamin C and its relationship with glutathione in primary cultures of human endothelial cells oxidatively challenged by treatment with hydrogen peroxide or with activated cells undergoing the respiratory burst, and analyzed the manner in which vitamin C interacts with glutathione to increase the antioxidant capacity of cells. Our data indicate that: (i) endothelial cells express transporters for reduced and oxidized vitamin C and accumulate ascorbic acid with participation of glutathione-dependent dehydroascorbic acid reductases, (ii) although increased intracellular levels of vitamin C or glutathione caused augmented resistance to oxidative stress, 10-times more glutathione than vitamin C was required, (iii) full antioxidant protection required the simultaneous presence of intracellular and extracellular vitamin C at concentrations normally found in vivo, and (iv) intracellular vitamin C cooperated in enhancing glutathione recovery after oxidative challenge thus providing cells with enhanced survival potential, while extracellular vitamin C was recycled through a mechanism involving the simultaneous neutralization of oxidant species. Therefore, in endothelial cells under oxidative challenge, vitamin C functions as an essential cellular antioxidant even in the presence of a vast molar excess of glutathione.
Full-text · Article · May 2007 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We characterized the human Na+-ascorbic acid transporter SVCT2 and developed a basic model for the transport cycle that challenges the current view that
it functions as a Na+-dependent transporter. The properties of SVCT2 are modulated by Ca2+/Mg2+ and a reciprocal functional interaction between Na+ and ascorbic acid that defines the substrate binding order and the transport stoichiometry. Na+ increased the ascorbic acid transport rate in a cooperative manner, decreasing the transport Km without affecting the Vmax, thus converting a low affinity form of the transporter into a high affinity transporter. Inversely, ascorbic acid affected
in a bimodal and concentration-dependent manner the Na+ cooperativity, with absence of cooperativity at low and high ascorbic acid concentrations. Our data are consistent with a
transport cycle characterized by a Na+:ascorbic acid stoichiometry of 2:1 and a substrate binding order of the type Na+:ascorbic acid:Na+. However, SVCT2 is not electrogenic. SVCT2 showed an absolute requirement for Ca2+/Mg2+ for function, with both cations switching the transporter from an inactive into an active conformation by increasing the
transport Vmax without affecting the transport Km or the Na+ cooperativity. Our data indicate that SVCT2 may switch between a number of states with characteristic properties, including
an inactive conformation in the absence of Ca2+/Mg2+. At least three active states can be envisioned, including a low affinity conformation at Na+ concentrations below 20 mm and two high affinity conformations at elevated Na+ concentrations whose Na+ cooperativity is modulated by ascorbic acid. Thus, SVCT2 is a Ca2+/Mg2+-dependent transporter.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2007 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have shown previously that rats subjected to tourniquet shock develop an acute form of remote organ injury of the liver that is both Kupffer cell (KC) and polymorphonuclear (PMN) leukocyte dependent. Circulating plasma xanthine oxidase (XO) has been shown to be responsible for the development of endothelial dysfunction and for remote organ injury of the lung and intestine after ischemia-reperfusion protocols. We now hypothesize that XO is released from rat hind limbs upon reperfusion and that it is responsible for KC and PMN leukocyte activation in this shock model. Our results show that about 30% of rat gastrocnemius muscle xanthine dehydrogenase (XD) is converted to XO during the 5-h tourniquet period and that it is released into the femoral vein within 10 min of reperfusion. Total muscle xanthine oxidoreductase activity (XO + XD) decreases within 30 min of reperfusion and is paralleled by a corresponding increase in femoral vein lactic dehydrogenase. In addition, liver tissue XO increases significantly within 30 min of reperfusion without a corresponding conversion of endogenous XD. Conversion of hepatic XD becomes evident 60 min after reperfusion is initiated, as does XO, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) release into the hepatic vein, presumably from damaged hepatocytes as a consequence of oxidative stress. Tissue myeloperoxidase activity also increases significantly after the 60-min reperfusion period. That XO mediates KC and PMN activation is supported by the following observations: a) the close relationships between plasma XO and the time courses of tumor necrosis factor-alpha TNFalpha release into the hepatic vein and colloidal carbon clearance by KCs; b) that colloidal carbon clearance, TNFalpha and ALT release, loss of tissue free thiols, lipid peroxidation (TBARS), and liver infiltration by PMN neutrophils can also be induced by the administration of exogenous XO to normal rats; and c) pretreatment of rats with allopurinol inhibits KC activation and liver leukocyte infiltration. These results suggest that XO, released from the ischemic limb on reperfusion, is taken up by the liver were it mediates KC and PMN neutrophil activation and thus contributes to the development of multiple system organ failure after hind limb reperfusion.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Küpffer cells (KCs) have been implicated in leukocyte recruitment and microvascular dysfunction associated with liver inflammation. The overall objective of this study was to assess the role of KCs and polymorphonuclear (PMN) leukocytes on the oxidative stress elicited in the liver as a consequence of hind limb reperfusion in rats subjected to tourniquet shock, a shock model that differs from other models in that hepatic injury is a consequence of remote organ damage. Colloidal carbon clearance from blood and its incorporation into KCs demonstrate that these cells are activated after the 2 h hind limb reperfusion period and that they are responsible for the observed oxidative stress and for PMN leukocyte recruitment and activation. Liver oxidative stress in this model is evidenced by increased liver tissue GSSG/GSH ratio, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), an index of lipid peroxidation, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, an index of tissue-associated neutrophil accumulation, and a significant loss in total tissue superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), as well as plasma levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), an index of hepatic tissue injury, total SOD activity, plasma levels of alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene, and total plasma nitrite are also affected as a consequence of KC activation after the 2 h hind limb reperfusion period. Inhibition of KC activity by gadolinium chloride (GdCl3) reverted most of the above alterations to values that do no differ from those found in control animals. These results support the hypothesis that hepatic and systemic oxidative stress elicited by hind limb reperfusion in rats subjected to tourniquet shock is both KC and PMN leukocyte dependent.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The role of nitric oxide (NO) on liver oxidative stress and tissue injury in rats subjected to tourniquet shock was investigated. This shock model differs from others in that injury is a consequence of remote organ damage. Liver oxidative stress becomes evident after hind limb reperfusion, as evidenced by the loss of total tissue thiols; by increases in tissue oxidized glutathione (GSSG), lipid peroxidation (LPO), plasma aminotransferases (alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and (aspartate aminotransferase (AST)), and plasma nitrites; and by a 36% loss in total superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Portal blood flow is reduced by 54.1% after 2 h of hind limb reperfusion. Inhibition of NO synthesis with Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester or L-arginine methyl ester increased mean arterial blood pressure; further reduced portal blood flow; and aggravated liver injury as assessed by further loss in total thiols, increased LPO and GSSG content, and further increases in plasma ALT and AST. Total plasma nitrites were lower than in control animals, and total tissue SOD activity decreased by more than 80%. Treatment with the NO donor sodium nitroprusside reverted the decrease in portal blood flow and also reverted tissue thiol loss, LPO, and GSSG increases, as well as the loss of ALT and AST to plasma and of SOD activity to levels comparable to untreated control shock animals. As expected, plasma nitrites were greater than in tourniquet control animals. These data support the hypothesis that endogenous NO formation protects the rat liver from the consequences of oxidative stress elicited by hind limb reperfusion in rats subjected to tourniquet shock.