[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endogenous RNA-directed RNA polymerases (RdRPs) are cellular components capable of synthesizing new complementary RNAs from existing RNA templates. We present evidence for successive engagement of two different RdRPs in an endogenous siRNA-based mechanism targeting specific mRNAs in C. elegans soma. In the initiation stage of this process, a group of mRNA species are chosen as targets for downregulation, leading to accumulation of rare 26 nt 5'-phosphorylated antisense RNAs that depend on the RdRP homolog RRF-3, the Argonaute ERGO-1, DICER, and a series of associated ("ERI") factors. This primary process leads to production of a much more abundant class of 22 nt antisense RNAs, dependent on a secondary RdRP (RRF-1) and associating with at least one distinct Argonaute (NRDE-3). The requirement for two RdRP/Argonaute combinations and initiation by a rare class of uniquely structured siRNAs in this pathway illustrate the caution and flexibility used as biological systems exploit the physiological copying of RNA.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multiplexed high-throughput pyrosequencing is currently limited in complexity (number of samples sequenced in parallel), and
in capacity (number of sequences obtained per sample). Physical-space segregation of the sequencing platform into a fixed
number of channels allows limited multiplexing, but obscures available sequencing space. To overcome these limitations, we
have devised a novel barcoding approach to allow for pooling and sequencing of DNA from independent samples, and to facilitate
subsequent segregation of sequencing capacity. Forty-eight forward–reverse barcode pairs are described: each forward and each
reverse barcode unique with respect to at least 4 nt positions. With improved read lengths of pyrosequencers, combinations
of forward and reverse barcodes may be used to sequence from as many as n2 independent libraries for each set of ‘n’ forward and ‘n’ reverse barcodes, for each defined set of cloning-linkers. In two pilot series of barcoded sequencing using the GS20 Sequencer
(454/Roche), we found that over 99.8% of obtained sequences could be assigned to 25 independent, uniquely barcoded libraries
based on the presence of either a perfect forward or a perfect reverse barcode. The false-discovery rate, as measured by the
percentage of sequences with unexpected perfect pairings of unmatched forward and reverse barcodes, was estimated to be <0.005%.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2007 · Nucleic Acids Research