Matthew D Weitzman

The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Filadelfia, Pennsylvania, United States

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Publications (87)817.84 Total impact

  • Daphne C. Avgousti · Matthew D. Weitzman
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    ABSTRACT: Stress-induced reactivation of latent herpesviruses requires disabling of repression, but the mechanism for converting silenced chromatin into an active state is unknown. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Cliffe et al. (2015) suggest a methyl/phospho switch on histone H3 overcomes repression to facilitate reactivation of latent herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1).
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Cell host & microbe

  • No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Cancer Research
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    ABSTRACT: Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites that necessarily rely on hijacking cellular resources to produce viral progeny. The success of viral infection requires manipulation of host chromatin in order to activate genes useful for production of viral proteins as well as suppress antiviral responses. Host chromatin manipulation on a global level is likely reliant on modulation of post-translational modifications (PTMs) on histone proteins. Mass spectrometry (MS) is a powerful tool to quantify and identify novel histone PTMs, beyond the limitations of site-specific antibodies. Here, we employ MS to investigate global changes in histone PTM relative abundance in human cells during infection with adenovirus. Our method reveals several changes in histone PTM patterns during infection. We propose that this method can be used to uncover global changes in histone PTM patterns that are universally modulated by viruses to take over the cell. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Methods
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    ABSTRACT: Telomeres protect the ends of cellular chromosomes. We show here that infection with herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) results in chromosomal structural aberrations at telomeres and the accumulation of telomere dysfunction-induced DNA damage foci (TIFs). At the molecular level, HSV-1 induces transcription of telomere repeat-containing RNA (TERRA), followed by the proteolytic degradation of the telomere protein TPP1 and loss of the telomere repeat DNA signal. The HSV-1-encoded E3 ubiquitin ligase ICP0 is required for TERRA transcription and facilitates TPP1 degradation. Small hairpin RNA (shRNA) depletion of TPP1 increases viral replication, indicating that TPP1 inhibits viral replication. Viral replication protein ICP8 forms foci that coincide with telomeric proteins, and ICP8-null virus failed to degrade telomere DNA signal. These findings suggest that HSV-1 reorganizes telomeres to form ICP8-associated prereplication foci and to promote viral genomic replication. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Cell Reports
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    ABSTRACT: Long INterspersed Element-1 (LINE-1 or L1) retrotransposition poses a mutagenic threat to human genomes. Human cells have therefore evolved strategies to regulate L1 retrotransposition. The APOBEC3 (A3) gene family consists of seven enzymes that catalyze deamination of cytidine nucleotides to uridine nucleotides (C-to-U) in single-strand DNA substrates. Among these enzymes, APOBEC3A (A3A) is the most potent inhibitor of L1 retrotransposition in cultured cell assays. However, previous characterization of L1 retrotransposition events generated in the presence of A3A did not yield evidence of deamination. Thus, the molecular mechanism by which A3A inhibits L1 retrotransposition has remained enigmatic. Here, we have used in vitro and in vivo assays to demonstrate that A3A can inhibit L1 retrotransposition by deaminating transiently exposed single-strand DNA that arises during the process of L1 integration. These data provide a mechanistic explanation of how the A3A cytidine deaminase protein can inhibit L1 retrotransposition. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02008.001
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · eLife Sciences
  • Matthew D Weitzman · Jonathan B Weitzman
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    ABSTRACT: Maintaining genome integrity and transmission of intact genomes is critical for cellular, organismal, and species survival. Cells can detect damaged DNA, activate checkpoints, and either enable DNA repair or trigger apoptosis to eliminate the damaged cell. Aberrations in these mechanisms lead to somatic mutations and genetic instability, which are hallmarks of cancer. Considering the long history of host-microbe coevolution, an impact of microbial infection on host genome integrity is not unexpected, and emerging links between microbial infections and oncogenesis further reinforce this idea. In this review, we compare strategies employed by viruses, bacteria, and parasites to alter, subvert, or otherwise manipulate host DNA damage and repair pathways. We highlight how microbes contribute to tumorigenesis by directly inducing DNA damage, inactivating checkpoint controls, or manipulating repair processes. We also discuss indirect effects resulting from inflammatory responses, changes in cellular metabolism, nuclear architecture, and epigenome integrity, and the associated evolutionary tradeoffs.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2014 · Cell host & microbe
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    ABSTRACT: Identifying cellular and molecular differences between human and non-human primates (NHPs) is essential to the basic understanding of the evolution and diversity of our own species. Until now, preserved tissues have been the main source for most comparative studies between humans, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (Pan paniscus). However, these tissue samples do not fairly represent the distinctive traits of live cell behaviour and are not amenable to genetic manipulation. We propose that induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells could be a unique biological resource to determine relevant phenotypical differences between human and NHPs, and that those differences could have potential adaptation and speciation value. Here we describe the generation and initial characterization of iPS cells from chimpanzees and bonobos as new tools to explore factors that may have contributed to great ape evolution. Comparative gene expression analysis of human and NHP iPS cells revealed differences in the regulation of long interspersed element-1 (L1, also known as LINE-1) transposons. A force of change in mammalian evolution, L1 elements are retrotransposons that have remained active during primate evolution. Decreased levels of L1-restricting factors APOBEC3B (also known as A3B) and PIWIL2 (ref. 7) in NHP iPS cells correlated with increased L1 mobility and endogenous L1 messenger RNA levels. Moreover, results from the manipulation of A3B and PIWIL2 levels in iPS cells supported a causal inverse relationship between levels of these proteins and L1 retrotransposition. Finally, we found increased copy numbers of species-specific L1 elements in the genome of chimpanzees compared to humans, supporting the idea that increased L1 mobility in NHPs is not limited to iPS cells in culture and may have also occurred in the germ line or embryonic cells developmentally upstream to germline specification during primate evolution. We propose that differences in L1 mobility may have differentially shaped the genomes of humans and NHPs and could have continuing adaptive significance.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · Nature
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    ABSTRACT: Macrophages play important roles in host immune defense against virus infection. During infection by herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), macrophages acquire enhanced antiviral potential. Restriction of HSV-1 replication and progeny production is important to prevent viral spread but the cellular mechanisms that inhibit the DNA virus in macrophages are unknown. SAMHD1 was recently identified as a retrovirus restriction factor highly expressed in macrophages. The SAMHD1 protein is expressed in both undifferentiated monocytes and differentiated macrophages, but retroviral restriction is limited to differentiated cells by modulation of SAMHD1 phosphorylation. It is proposed to block reverse transcription of retroviral RNA into DNA by depleting cellular deoxynucleotide triphosphates (dNTPs). Viruses with DNA genomes do not employ reverse transcription during infection, but replication of their viral genomes is also dependent on intracellular dNTP concentrations. Here, we demonstrate that SAMHD1 restricts replication of the HSV-1 DNA genome in differentiated macrophage cell lines. Depleting SAMHD1 in THP-1 cells enhanced HSV-1 replication, while ectopic overexpression of SAMHD1 in U937 cells repressed HSV-1 replication. SAMHD1 did not impact viral gene expression from incoming HSV-1 viral genomes. HSV-1 restriction involved the dNTP triphosphohydrolase activity of SAMHD1, and was partially overcome by addition of exogenous deoxynucleosides. Unlike retroviruses, restriction of HSV-1 was not affected by SAMHD1 phosphorylation status. Our results suggest that SAMHD1 functions broadly to inhibit replication of DNA viruses in non-dividing macrophages.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · Journal of Virology
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    ABSTRACT: The intracellular parasite Theileria is the only eukaryote known to transform its mammalian host cells. We investigated the host mechanisms involved in parasite-induced transformation phenotypes. Tumour progression is a multistep process, yet 'oncogene addiction' implies that cancer cell growth and survival can be impaired by inactivating a single gene, offering a rationale for targeted molecular therapies. Furthermore, feedback loops often act as key regulatory hubs in tumorigenesis. We searched for microRNAs involved in addiction to regulatory loops in leukocytes infected with Theileria parasites. We show that Theileria transformation involves induction of the host bovine oncomiR miR-155, via the c-Jun transcription factor and AP-1 activity. We identified a novel miR-155 target, DET1, an evolutionarily-conserved factor involved in c-Jun ubiquitination. We show that miR-155 expression led to repression of DET1 protein, causing stabilization of c-Jun and driving the promoter activity of the BIC transcript containing miR-155. This positive feedback loop is critical to maintain the growth and survival of Theileria-infected leukocytes; transformation is reversed by inhibiting AP-1 activity or miR-155 expression. This is the first demonstration that Theileria parasites induce the expression of host non-coding RNAs and highlights the importance of a novel feedback loop in maintaining the proliferative phenotypes induced upon parasite infection. Hence, parasite infection drives epigenetic rewiring of the regulatory circuitry of host leukocytes, placing miR-155 at the crossroads between infection, regulatory circuits and transformation.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2013 · PLoS Pathogens
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    ABSTRACT: In mammals, one of the most pronounced consequences of viral infection is the induction of type I interferons, cytokines with potent antiviral activity. Schlafen (Slfn) genes are a subset of interferon-stimulated early response genes (ISGs) that are also induced directly by pathogens via the interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) pathway. However, many ISGs are of unknown or incompletely understood function. Here we show that human SLFN11 potently and specifically abrogates the production of retroviruses such as human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1). Our study revealed that SLFN11 has no effect on the early steps of the retroviral infection cycle, including reverse transcription, integration and transcription. Rather, SLFN11 acts at the late stage of virus production by selectively inhibiting the expression of viral proteins in a codon-usage-dependent manner. We further find that SLFN11 binds transfer RNA, and counteracts changes in the tRNA pool elicited by the presence of HIV. Our studies identified a novel antiviral mechanism within the innate immune response, in which SLFN11 selectively inhibits viral protein synthesis in HIV-infected cells by means of codon-bias discrimination.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2012 · Nature
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    ABSTRACT: Viral hijacking of cellular processes relies on the ability to mimic the structure or function of cellular proteins. Many viruses encode ubiquitin ligases to facilitate infection, although the mechanisms by which they select their substrates are often unknown. The Herpes Simplex Virus type-1-encoded E3 ubiquitin ligase, ICP0, promotes infection through degradation of cellular proteins, including the DNA damage response E3 ligases RNF8 and RNF168. Here we describe a mechanism by which this viral E3 hijacks a cellular phosphorylation-based targeting strategy to degrade RNF8. By mimicking a cellular phosphosite, ICP0 binds RNF8 via the RNF8 forkhead associated (FHA) domain. Phosphorylation of ICP0 T67 by CK1 recruits RNF8 for degradation and thereby promotes viral transcription, replication, and progeny production. We demonstrate that this mechanism may constitute a broader viral strategy to target other cellular factors, highlighting the importance of this region of the ICP0 protein in countering intrinsic antiviral defenses.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · Molecular cell
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    ABSTRACT: Adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV2) is a human parvovirus that relies on a helper virus for efficient replication. Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) supplies helper functions and changes the environment of the cell to promote AAV2 replication. In this study, we examined the accumulation of cellular replication and repair proteins at viral replication compartments (RCs) and the influence of replicating AAV2 on HSV-1-induced DNA damage responses (DDR). We observed that the ATM kinase was activated in cells coinfected with AAV2 and HSV-1. We also found that phosphorylated ATR kinase and its cofactor ATR-interacting protein were recruited into AAV2 RCs, but ATR signaling was not activated. DNA-PKcs, another main kinase in the DDR, was degraded during HSV-1 infection in an ICP0-dependent manner, and this degradation was markedly delayed during AAV2 coinfection. Furthermore, we detected phosphorylation of DNA-PKcs during AAV2 but not HSV-1 replication. The AAV2-mediated delay in DNA-PKcs degradation affected signaling through downstream substrates. Overall, our results demonstrate that coinfection with HSV-1 and AAV2 provokes a cellular DDR which is distinct from that induced by HSV-1 alone.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2012 · Journal of Virology
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    Iñigo Narvaiza · Sébastien Landry · Matthew D Weitzman
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    ABSTRACT: The human APOBEC3 family of cytidine deaminases constitutes a cellular intrinsic defense mechanism that is effective against a range of viruses and retro-elements. While it is well established that these enzymes are powerful mutators of viral DNA, the possibility that their activity could threaten the integrity of the host genome has only recently begun to be investigated. Here, we discuss the implications of new evidence suggesting that APOBEC3 proteins can mediate the deamination of cellular DNA. The maintenance of genomic integrity in the face of this potential off-target activity must require high fidelity DNA repair and strict regulation of APOBEC3 gene expression and enzyme activity. Conversely, the ability of specific members of the APOBEC3 family to activate DNA damage signaling pathways might also reflect another way that these proteins contribute to the host immune response.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2012 · Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.)
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    ABSTRACT: Cellular restriction factors responding to herpesvirus infection include the ND10 components PML, Sp100 and hDaxx. During the initial stages of HSV-1 infection, novel sub-nuclear structures containing these ND10 proteins form in association with incoming viral genomes. We report that several cellular DNA damage response proteins also relocate to sites associated with incoming viral genomes where they contribute to the cellular front line defense. We show that recruitment of DNA repair proteins to these sites is independent of ND10 components, and instead is coordinated by the cellular ubiquitin ligases RNF8 and RNF168. The viral protein ICP0 targets RNF8 and RNF168 for degradation, thereby preventing the deposition of repressive ubiquitin marks and counteracting this repair protein recruitment. This study highlights important parallels between recognition of cellular DNA damage and recognition of viral genomes, and adds RNF8 and RNF168 to the list of factors contributing to the intrinsic antiviral defense against herpesvirus infection.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2011 · PLoS Pathogens
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    Matthew D Weitzman · Caroline E Lilley · Mira S Chaurushiya
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    ABSTRACT: Viruses often induce signaling through the same cellular cascades that are activated by damage to the cellular genome. Signaling triggered by viral proteins or exogenous DNA delivered by viruses can be beneficial or detrimental to viral infection. Viruses have therefore evolved to dissect the cellular DNA damage response pathway during infection, often marking key cellular regulators with ubiquitin to induce their degradation or change their function. Signaling controlled by ubiquitin or ubiquitin-like proteins has recently emerged as key regulator of the cellular DNA damage response. Situated at the interface between DNA damage signaling and the ubiquitin system, viruses can reveal key convergence points in this important cellular pathway. In this review, we examine how viruses harness the diversity of the cellular ubiquitin system to modulate the DNA damage signaling pathway. We discuss the implications of viral infiltration of this pathway for both the transcriptional program of the virus and for the cellular response to DNA damage.
    Full-text · Article · May 2011 · FEBS letters
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    ABSTRACT: Human apolipoprotein-B mRNA-editing catalytic polypeptide-like 3 (APOBEC3) proteins constitute a family of cytidine deaminases that mediate restriction of retroviruses, endogenous retro-elements and DNA viruses. It is well established that these enzymes are potent mutators of viral DNA, but it is unclear whether their editing activity is a threat to the integrity of the cellular genome. We show that expression of APOBEC3A can lead to induction of DNA breaks and activation of damage responses in a deaminase-dependent manner. Consistent with these observations, APOBEC3A expression induces cell-cycle arrest. These results indicate that cellular DNA is vulnerable to APOBEC3 activity and deregulated expression of APOBEC3A could threaten genomic integrity.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2011 · EMBO Reports
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    Nicole I Orazio · Colleen M Naeger · Jan Karlseder · Matthew D Weitzman
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    ABSTRACT: The adenovirus (Ad) E1b55K and E4orf6 gene products assemble an E3 ubiquitin ligase complex that promotes degradation of cellular proteins. Among the known substrates are p53 and the Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 (MRN) complex. Since members of the RecQ helicase family function together with MRN in genome maintenance, we investigated whether adenovirus affects RecQ proteins. We show that Bloom helicase (BLM) is degraded during adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) infection. BLM degradation is mediated by E1b55K/E4orf6 but is independent of MRN. We detected BLM localized at discrete foci around viral replication centers. These studies identify BLM as a new substrate for degradation by the adenovirus E1b55K/E4orf6 complex.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2011 · Journal of Virology
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    ABSTRACT: Members of the human APOBEC3 family of editing enzymes can inhibit various mobile genetic elements. APOBEC3A (A3A) can block the retrotransposon LINE-1 and the parvovirus adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV-2) but does not inhibit retroviruses. In contrast, APOBEC3G (A3G) can block retroviruses but has only limited effects on AAV-2 or LINE-1. What dictates this differential target specificity remains largely undefined. Here, we modeled the structure of A3A based on its homology with the C-terminal domain of A3G and further compared the sequence of human A3A to those of 11 nonhuman primate orthologues. We then used these data to perform a mutational analysis of A3A, examining its ability to restrict LINE-1, AAV-2, and foreign plasmid DNA and to edit a single-stranded DNA substrate. The results revealed an essential functional role for the predicted single-stranded DNA-docking groove located around the A3A catalytic site. Within this region, amino acid differences between A3A and A3G are predicted to affect the shape of the polynucleotide-binding groove. Correspondingly, transferring some of these A3A residues to A3G endows the latter protein with the ability to block LINE-1 and AAV-2. These results suggest that the target specificity of APOBEC3 family members is partly defined by structural features influencing their interaction with polynucleotide substrates.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2011 · Journal of Virology
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    Matthew D Weitzman · R Michael Linden
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    ABSTRACT: Adeno-associated virus (AAV) was first discovered as a contaminant of adenovirus stocks in the 1960s. The development of recombinant AAV vectors (rAAV) was facilitated by early studies that generated infectious molecular clones, determined the sequence of the genome, and defined the genetic elements of the virus. The refinement of methods and protocols for the production and application of rAAV vectors has come from years of studies that explored the basic biology of this virus and its interaction with host cells. Interest in improving vector performance has in turn driven studies that have provided tremendous insights into the basic biology of the AAV lifecycle. In this chapter, we review the background on AAV biology and its exploitation for vectors and gene delivery.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2011 · Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.)
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    Caroline E Lilley · Matthew D Weitzman
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    ABSTRACT: Oncogenic viruses infect many cells but rarely lead to tumorigenesis. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Nikitin et al. describe how a protective DNA damage response acts to suppress transformation in the majority of cells latently infected with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV).
    Preview · Article · Dec 2010 · Cell host & microbe

Publication Stats

7k Citations
817.84 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2012-2015
    • The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia
      • • Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
      • • Center for Cellular and Molecular Therapeutics
      Filadelfia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2000-2012
    • Salk Institute
      • Laboratory of Genetics
      لا هویا, California, United States
  • 2004-2007
    • University of California, San Diego
      • Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery
      San Diego, California, United States
    • Utrecht University
      • Department of Physiological Chemistry
      Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands
  • 2001
    • Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai
      Borough of Manhattan, New York, United States
  • 1994-1996
    • Wistar Institute
      Filadelfia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 1993
    • Molecular and Cellular Biology Program
      • Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Biology
      Seattle, Washington, United States