Qingshan Liu

Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nan-ching, Jiangsu Sheng, China

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Publications (142)109.09 Total impact

  • Jiankang Deng · Qingshan Liu · Jing Yang · Dacheng Tao
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    ABSTRACT: Automatic face alignment is a fundamental step in facial image analysis. However, this problem continues to be challenging due to the large variability of expression, illumination, occlusion, pose, and detection drift in the real-world face images. In this paper, we present a multi-view, multi-scale and multi-component cascade shape regression(M3CSR) model for robust face alignment. Firstly, face view is estimated according to the deformable facial parts for learning view specified CSR, which can decrease the shape variance, alleviate the drift of face detection and accelerate shape convergence. Secondly, multi-scale HoG features are used as the shape-index features to incorporate local structure information implicitly, and a multi-scale optimization strategy is adopted to avoid trapping in local optimum. Finally, a component-based shape refinement process is developed to further improve the performance of face alignment. Extensive experiments on the IBUG dataset and the 300-W challenge dataset demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method over the state-of-the-art methods.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Image and Vision Computing
  • Qingshan Liu · Jiankang Deng · Dacheng Tao
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    ABSTRACT: Localizing facial landmarks is a fundamental step in facial image analysis. However, the problem continues to be challenging due to the large variability in expression, illumination, and pose, and the existence of occlusions in real-world face images. In this paper, we present a dual sparse constrained cascade regression model for robust face alignment. Instead of using the least-squares method during the training process of regressors, sparse constraint is introduced to select robust features and compress the size of the model. Moreover, sparse shape constraint is incorporated between each cascade regression, and the explicit shape constraints are able to suppress the ambiguity in local features. To improve the model's adaptation to large pose variation, face pose is estimated by five fiducial landmarks located by deep convolutional neuron network, which is used to adaptively design the cascade regression model. To our best knowledge, this is the first attempt to fuse explicit shape constraint (sparse shape constraint) and implicit context information (sparse feature selection) for robust face alignment in the framework of cascade regression. Extensive experiments on nine challenging wild data sets demonstrate the advantages of the proposed method over the state-of-the-art methods.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · IEEE Transactions on Image Processing
  • Ting Yuan · Jian Cheng · Xi Zhang · Qingshan Liu · Hanqing Lu
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    ABSTRACT: Incorporating the influence of social relationships effectively is fundamental to social recommendation (SR). However, most of the SR algorithms are based on the homophily assumption, where they ignored friends' different influence on users and users' different willingness to be influenced, which may make improper influence information integrated and harm the recommendation results. To address this, we propose a unified framework to properly incorporate the influence of social relationships into recommendation by the guidance of buddy (friends who have strong influence on user) and susceptibility (the willingness to be influenced) mining. Specifically, the Social Influence Propagation (SIP) method is proposed to identify each user's buddies and susceptibility and the Social Influence based Recommendation model is proposed to generate the final recommendation. Experiments on the real-world data demonstrate that the proposed framework can better utilize users' social relationships, resulting in increased recommendation accuracy.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Knowledge-Based Systems
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    ABSTRACT: Explicit feature mapping is an appealing way to linearize additive kernels, such as ?? kernel for training large-scale support vector machines (SVMs). Although accurate in approximation, feature mapping could pose computational challenges in high-dimensional settings as it expands the original features to a higher dimensional space. To handle this issue in the context of ?? kernel SVMs learning, we introduce a simple yet efficient method to approximately linearize ?? kernel through random feature maps. The main idea is to use sparse random projection to reduce the dimensionality of feature maps while preserving their approximation capability to the original kernel. We provide approximation error bound for the proposed method. Furthermore, we extend our method to ?? multiple kernel SVMs learning. Extensive experiments on large-scale image classification tasks confirm that the proposed approach is able to significantly speed up the training process of the ?? kernel SVMs at almost no cost of testing accuracy.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · IEEE transactions on neural networks and learning systems
  • Source
    Renlong Hang · Qingshan Liu · Huihui Song · Yubao Sun
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    ABSTRACT: Spatial–spectral feature fusion is well acknowledged as an effective method for hyperspectral (HS) image classification. Many previous studies have been devoted to this subject. However, these methods often regard the spatial–spectral high-dimensional data as 1-D vector and then extract informative features for classification. In this paper, we propose a new HS image classification method. Specifically, matrix-based spatial–spectral feature representation is designed for each pixel to capture the local spatial contextual and the spectral information of all the bands, which can well preserve the spatial–spectral correlation. Then, matrix-based discriminant analysis is adopted to learn the discriminative feature subspace for classification. To further improve the performance of discriminative subspace, a random sampling technique is used to produce a subspace ensemble for final HS image classification. Experiments are conducted on three HS remote sensing data sets acquired by different sensors, and experimental results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
  • Dong Wang · Jing Yang · Jiankang Deng · Qingshan Liu
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, we propose a new approach of hierarchical convolutional neural network (CNN) for face detection. The first layer of our architecture is a binary classifier built on a deep convolutional neural network with spatial pyramid pooling (SPP). Spatial pyramid pooling reduces the computational complexity and remove the fixed-size constraint of the network. We only need to compute the feature maps from the entire image once and generate a fixed-length representation regardless of the image size and scale. To improve the localization effectiveness, in the second layer, we design a bounding box regression network to refine the relative high scored non-face output from the first layer. The proposed approach is evaluated on the AFW dataset, FDDB dataset and Pascal Faces, and it reaches the state-of-the-art performance. Also, we apply our bounding box regression network to refine the other detectors and find that it has effective generalization.
    No preview · Chapter · Aug 2015
  • Qingshan Liu · Jing Yang · Kaihua Zhang · Yi Wu
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, the compressive tracking (CT) method has attracted much attention due to its high efficiency, but it cannot well deal with the large scale target appearance variations due to its data-independent random projection matrix that results in less discriminative features. To address this issue, in this paper we propose an adaptive CT approach, which selects the most discriminative features to design an effective appearance model. Our method significantly improves CT in three aspects: Firstly, the most discriminative features are selected via an online vector boosting method. Secondly, the object representation is updated in an effective online manner, which preserves the stable features while filtering out the noisy ones. Finally, a simple and effective trajectory rectification approach is adopted that can make the estimated location more accurate. Extensive experiments on the CVPR2013 tracking benchmark demonstrate the superior performance of our algorithm compared over state-of-the-art tracking algorithms.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015
  • Source
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    ABSTRACT: This paper focuses on the problem of simultaneous sample and feature selection for machine learning in a fully unsupervised setting. Though most existing works tackle these two problems separately that derives two well-studied sub-areas namely active learning and feature selection, a unified approach is inspirational since they are often interleaved with each other. Noisy and high-dimensional features will bring adverse effect on sample selection, while `good' samples will be beneficial to feature selection. We present a unified framework to conduct active learning and feature selection simultaneously. From the data reconstruction perspective, both the selected samples and features can best approximate the original dataset respectively, such that the selected samples characterized by the selected features are very representative. Additionally our method is one-shot without iteratively selecting samples for progressive labeling. Thus our model is especially suitable when the initial labeled samples are scarce or totally absent, which existing works hardly address particularly for simultaneous feature selection. To alleviate the NP-hardness of the raw problem, the proposed formulation involves a convex but non-smooth optimization problem. We solve it efficiently by an iterative algorithm, and prove its global convergence. Experiments on publicly available datasets validate that our method is promising compared with the state-of-the-arts.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015
  • Zhenzhen Wang · Xiao-Tong Yuan · Qingshan Liu
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    ABSTRACT: The chi(2) kernel based support vector machines (SVMs) have achieved impressive performances in many image and text classification tasks. As a nonlinear kernel method, however, it does not scale well to large scale data, because the computation of the chi(2) kernel matrix is intractable. To address this challenge, we propose a sparse random projection method to linearly approximate the chi(2) kernel, so that the original nonlinear SVMs could be converted to linear ones. Then we are able to make use of the existing large scale linear SVMs training method efficiently. Experimental results on three popular image data sets (MNIST, rcv1.binary, Caltech-101) show that the proposed method can significantly improve the learning efficiency of the chi(2) kernel SVMs and the improvement comes at almost no cost of accuracy.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Neurocomputing
  • Huihui Song · Bo Huang · Qingshan Liu · Kaihua Zhang
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    ABSTRACT: To take advantage of the wide swath width of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM)/Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) images and the high spatial resolution of Système Pour l'Observation de la Terre 5 (SPOT5) images, we present a learning-based super-resolution method to fuse these two data types. The fused images are expected to be characterized by the swath width of TM/ETM+ images and the spatial resolution of SPOT5 images. To this end, we first model the imaging process from a SPOT image to a TM/ETM+ image at their corresponding bands, by building an image degradation model via blurring and downsampling operations. With this degradation model, we can generate a simulated Landsat image from each SPOT5 image, thereby avoiding the requirement for geometric coregistration for the two input images. Then, band by band, image fusion can be implemented in two stages: 1) learning a dictionary pair representing the high- and low-resolution details from the given SPOT5 and the simulated TM/ETM+ images; 2) super-resolving the input Landsat images based on the dictionary pair and a sparse coding algorithm. It is noteworthy that the proposed method can also deal with the conventional spatial and spectral fusion of TM/ETM+ and SPOT5 images by using the learned dictionary pairs. To examine the performance of the proposed method of fusing the swath width of TM/ETM+ and the spatial resolution of SPOT5, we illustrate the fusion results on the actual TM images and compare with several classic pansharpening methods by assuming that the corresponding SPOT5 panchromatic image exists. Furthermore, we implement the classification experiments on both actual images and fusion results to demonstrate the benefits of the proposed method for further classification applications.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
  • Jiankang deng · Yubao Sun · Qingshan Liu · Hanqing Lu
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    ABSTRACT: Localizing facial landmarks is an essential prerequisite to facial image analysis. However, due to the large variability in expression, illumination, pose and the existence of occlusions in the real-world face images, how to localize facial landmarks more efficiently is still a challenging problem. In this paper, we present a low-rank driven regression model for robust facial landmark localization. Our approach consists of low-rank face frontalization and sparse shape constrained cascade regression steps, which lies on, (1) in terms of the low rank prior of face image, we recover such a low-rank face from its deformed image and the associated deformation despite significant distortion and corruption. Alignment of the recovered frontal face image is more simple and effective. And (2) in terms of the sparse coding of face shape on the shape dictionary learnt from training data, sparse shape constrained cascade regression model is proposed to simultaneously suppress the ambiguity in local features and outlier caused by occlusion, and sparse residual error deviated from low-rank face texture is also utilized to predict the occlusion area. Extensive results on several wild benchmarks such as COFW, LFPW and Helen demonstrate that the proposed method is robust to facial occlusions, pose variations and exaggerated facial expressions.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Neurocomputing
  • Source
    Kaihua Zhang · Qingshan Liu · Yi Wu · Ming-Hsuan Yang
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    ABSTRACT: Deep networks have been successfully applied to visual tracking by learning a generic representation offline from numerous training images. However the offline training is time-consuming and the learned generic representation may be less discriminative for tracking specific objects. In this paper we present that, even without learning, simple convolutional networks can be powerful enough to develop a robust representation for visual tracking. In the first frame, we randomly extract a set of normalized patches from the target region as filters, which define a set of feature maps in the subsequent frames. These maps measure similarities between each filter and the useful local intensity patterns across the target, thereby encoding its local structural information. Furthermore, all the maps form together a global representation, which maintains the relative geometric positions of the local intensity patterns, and hence the inner geometric layout of the target is also well preserved. A simple and effective online strategy is adopted to update the representation, allowing it to robustly adapt to target appearance variations. Our convolution networks have surprisingly lightweight structure, yet perform favorably against several state-of-the-art methods on a large benchmark dataset with 50 challenging videos.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015
  • Guangcan Liu · Huan Xu · Jinhui Tang · Qingshan Liu · Shuicheng Yan

    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
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    Changsheng Li · Weishan Dong · Qingshan Liu · Xin Zhang
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    ABSTRACT: Online multiple-output regression is an important machine learning technique for modeling, predicting, and compressing multi-dimensional correlated data streams. In this paper, we propose a novel online multiple-output regression method, called MORES, for streaming data. MORES can \emph{dynamically} learn the structure of the regression coefficients to facilitate the model's continuous refinement. We observe that limited expressive ability of the regression model, especially in the preliminary stage of online update, often leads to the variables in the residual errors being dependent. In light of this point, MORES intends to \emph{dynamically} learn and leverage the structure of the residual errors to improve the prediction accuracy. Moreover, we define three statistical variables to \emph{exactly} represent all the seen samples for \emph{incrementally} calculating prediction loss in each online update round, which can avoid loading all the training data into memory for updating model, and also effectively prevent drastic fluctuation of the model in the presence of noise. Furthermore, we introduce a forgetting factor to set different weights on samples so as to track the data streams' evolving characteristics quickly from the latest samples. Experiments on three real-world datasets validate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014
  • Source
    Changsheng Li · Qingshan Liu · Weishan Dong · Xin Zhang · Lin Yang
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, we propose a new max-margin based discriminative feature learning method. Specifically, we aim at learning a low-dimensional feature representation, so as to maximize the global margin of the data and make the samples from the same class as close as possible. In order to enhance the robustness to noise, a $l_{2,1}$ norm constraint is introduced to make the transformation matrix in group sparsity. In addition, for multi-class classification tasks, we further intend to learn and leverage the correlation relationships among multiple class tasks for assisting in learning discriminative features. The experimental results demonstrate the power of the proposed method against the related state-of-the-art methods.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · IEEE transactions on neural networks and learning systems
  • Chaoyang Zhao · Wei Fu · Jinqiao Wang · Xiao Bai · Qingshan Liu · Hanqing Lu
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    ABSTRACT: Context information has been widely studied for recognizing collective activities. Most existing works assume that all individuals in a single image share the same activity label. However, in many cases, multiple activities can be coexisted and serve as the context for each other in real-world scenarios. Based on this observation, we propose a novel approach to model both the intra-class and inter-class behavior interactions among persons in the scenario. By introducing the intra-class and inter-class context descriptors, we propose a unified discriminative model to jointly capture the individual appearance information and the context patterns around the focal person in a max-margin framework. Finally, a greedy forward search method is utilized to optimally label the activities in the testing scene. Experimental results demonstrate the superiority of our approach in activity recognition.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2014
  • Kaihua Zhang · Qingshan Liu · Huihui Song · Xuelong Li
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    ABSTRACT: This paper presents a novel variational approach for simultaneous estimation of bias field and segmentation of images with intensity inhomogeneity. We model intensity of inhomogeneous objects to be Gaussian distributed with different means and variances, and then introduce a sliding window to map the original image intensity onto another domain, where the intensity distribution of each object is still Gaussian but can be better separated. The means of the Gaussian distributions in the transformed domain can be adaptively estimated by multiplying the bias field with a piecewise constant signal within the sliding window. A maximum likelihood energy functional is then defined on each local region, which combines the bias field, the membership function of the object region, and the constant approximating the true signal from its corresponding object. The energy functional is then extended to the whole image domain by the Bayesian learning approach. An efficient iterative algorithm is proposed for energy minimization, via which the image segmentation and bias field correction are simultaneously achieved. Furthermore, the smoothness of the obtained optimal bias field is ensured by the normalized convolutions without extra cost. Experiments on real images demonstrated the superiority of the proposed algorithm to other state-of-the-art representative methods.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Cybernetics, IEEE Transactions on
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, we present a simple yet fast and robust algorithm which exploits the dense spatio-temporal context for visual tracking. Our approach formulates the spatio-temporal relationships between the object of interest and its locally dense contexts in a Bayesian framework, which models the statistical correlation between the simple low-level features (i.e., image intensity and position) from the target and its surrounding regions. The tracking problem is then posed by computing a confidence map which takes into account the prior information of the target location and thereby alleviates target location ambiguity effectively. We further propose a novel explicit scale adaptation scheme, which is able to deal with target scale variations efficiently and effectively. The Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) is adopted for fast learning and detection in this work, which only needs 4 FFT operations. Implemented in MATLAB without code optimization, the proposed tracker runs at 350 frames per second on an i7 machine. Extensive experimental results show that the proposed algorithm performs favorably against state-of-the-art methods in terms of efficiency, accuracy and robustness.
    No preview · Chapter · Sep 2014
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, we propose a new method to learn the regression coefficient matrix for multiple-output regression, which is inspired by multi-task learning. We attempt to incorporate high-order structure information among the regression coefficients into the estimated process of regression coefficient matrix, which is of great importance for multiple-output regression. Meanwhile, we also intend to describe the output structure with noise covariance matrix to assist in learning model parameters. Taking account of the real-world data often corrupted by noise, we place a constraint of minimizing norm on regression coefficient matrix to make it robust to noise. The experiments are conducted on three public available datasets, and the experimental results demonstrate the power of the proposed method against the state-of-the-art methods.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Aug 2014
  • Changsheng Li · Qingshan Liu · Jing Liu · Hanqing Lu
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, distance metric learning (DML) has attracted much attention in image retrieval, but most previous methods only work for image classification and clustering tasks. In this brief, we focus on designing ordinal DML algorithms for image ranking tasks, by which the rank levels among the images can be well measured. We first present a linear ordinal Mahalanobis DML model that tries to preserve both the local geometry information and the ordinal relationship of the data. Then, we develop a nonlinear DML method by kernelizing the above model, considering of real-world image data with nonlinear structures. To further improve the ranking performance, we finally derive a multiple kernel DML approach inspired by the idea of multiple-kernel learning that performs different kernel operators on different kinds of image features. Extensive experiments on four benchmarks demonstrate the power of the proposed algorithms against some related state-of-the-art methods.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · IEEE transactions on neural networks and learning systems

Publication Stats

2k Citations
109.09 Total Impact Points


  • 2014-2015
    • Nanjing University of Science and Technology
      Nan-ching, Jiangsu Sheng, China
  • 2011-2015
    • Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology
      Nan-ching, Jiangsu, China
  • 2002-2015
    • Chinese Academy of Sciences
      • • National Pattern Recognition Laboratory
      • • Institute of Automation
      Peping, Beijing, China
  • 2005-2012
    • The Chinese University of Hong Kong
      • Department of Information Engineering
      Hong Kong, Hong Kong
  • 2007-2011
    • Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey
      • Department of Computer Science
      Нью-Брансуик, New Jersey, United States