Jun Hashimoto

University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma, United States

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Publications (102)

  • Source
    Yi Yang · Jun Hashimoto · Saeko S. Hayashi · [...] · Tomonori Usuda
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: By performing non-masked polarization imaging with Subaru/HiCIAO, polarized scattered light from the inner region of the disk around the GG Tau A system was successfully detected in the $H$ band with a spatial resolution of approximately 0.07$\arcsec$, revealing the complicated inner disk structures around this young binary. This paper reports the observation of an arc-like structure to the north of GG Tau Ab and part of a circumstellar structure that is noticeable around GG Tau Aa extending to a distance of approximately 28 AU from the primary star. The speckle noise around GG Tau Ab constrains its disk radius to <13 AU. Based on the size of the circumbinary ring and the circumstellar disk around GG Tau Aa, the semi-major axis of the binary's orbit is likely to be 62 AU. A comparison of the present observations with previous ALMA and near-infrared (NIR) H$_2$ emission observations suggests that the north arc could be part of a large streamer flowing from the circumbinary ring to sustain the circumstellar disks. According to the previous studies, the circumstellar disk around GG Tau Aa has enough mass and can sustain itself for a duration sufficient for planet formation; thus, our study indicates that planets can form within close (separation $\lesssim$ 100 AU) young binary systems.
    Full-text available · Article · Oct 2016
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present high signal-to-noise ratio, precise $YJH$ photometry and $Y$ band (\gpiwave~$\mu$m) spectroscopy of HD 1160 B, a young substellar companion discovered from the Gemini NICI Planet Finding Campaign, using the Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics instrument and the Gemini Planet Imager. HD 1160 B has typical mid-M dwarf-like infrared colors and a spectral type of M5.5$^{+1.0}_{-0.5}$, where the blue edge of our $Y$ band spectrum rules out earlier spectral types. Atmospheric modeling suggests HD 1160 B having an effective temperature of 3000--3100 $K$, a surface gravity of log $g$ = 4--4.5, a radius of~\bestfitradius~$R_{\rm J}$, and a luminosity of log $L$/$L_{\odot} = -2.76 \pm 0.05$. Neither the primary's Hertzspring-Russell diagram position nor atmospheric modeling of HD 1160 B show evidence for a sub-solar metallicity. The interpretation of the HD 1160 B depends on which stellar system components are used to estimate an age. Considering HD 1160 A, B and C jointly, we derive an age of 80--125 Myr, implying that HD 1160 B straddles the hydrogen-burning limit (70--90 $M_{\rm J}$). If we consider HD 1160 A alone, younger ages (20--125 Myr) and a brown dwarf-like mass (35--90 $M_{\rm J}$) are possible. Interferometric measurements of the primary, a precise GAIA parallax, and moderate resolution spectroscopy can better constrain the system's age and how HD 1160 B fits within the context of (sub)stellar evolution.
    Article · Oct 2016
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    Daehyeon Oh · Jun Hashimoto · Joseph C. Carson · [...] · Motohide Tamura
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present high-contrast H-band polarized intensity images of the transitional disk around the young solar-like star GM Aur. The near-infrared direct imaging of the disk was derived by polarimetric differential imaging using the Subaru 8.2-m Telescope and HiCIAO. An angular resolution and inner working angle of 0.07" and r~0.05", respectively, were obtained. We clearly resolved a large inner cavity, with a measured radius of 18+/-2 au, which is smaller than that of a submillimeter interferometric image (28 au). This discrepancy in the cavity radii at near-infrared and submillimeter wavelengths may be caused by a 3-4M_Jup planet about 20 au away from the star, near the edge of the cavity. The presence of a near-infrared inner is a strong constraint on hypotheses of inner cavity formation in a transitional disk. Dust filtration mechanism has been proposed to explain the large cavity in the submillimeter image, but our results suggest that this mechanism must be combined with an additional process. We found that the polarized intensity slope of the outer disk is significantly different from the intensity slope obtained from HST/NICMOS, and this difference may indicates the grain growth process in the disk.
    Full-text available · Article · Oct 2016
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present H-band (1.6 {\mu}m) scattered light observations of the transitional disk RX J1615.3-3255, located in the ~1 Myr old Lupus association. From a polarized intensity image, taken with the HiCIAO instrument of the Subaru Telescope, we deduce the position angle and the inclination angle of the disk. The disk is found to extend out to 68 $\pm$ 12 AU in scattered light and no clear structure is observed. Our inner working angle of 24 AU does not allow us to detect a central decrease in intensity similar to that seen at 30 AU in the 880 {\mu}m continuum observations. We compare the observations with multiple disk models based on the Spectral Energy Distribution (SED) and submm interferometry and find that an inner rim of the outer disk at 30 AU containing small silicate grains produces a polarized intensity signal which is an order of magnitude larger than observed. We show that a model in which the small dust grains extend smoothly into the cavity found for large grains is closer to the actual H-band observations. A comparison of models with different dust size distributions suggests that the dust in the disk might have undergone significant processing compared to the interstellar medium.
    Article · Oct 2016
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report the direct imaging detection of a low-mass companion to a young, moderately active star V450 And, that was previously identified with the radial velocity method. The companion was found in high-contrast images obtained with the Subaru Telescope equipped with the HiCIAO camera and AO188 adaptive optics system. From the public ELODIE and SOPHIE archives we extracted available high-resolution spectra and radial velocity (RV) measurements, along with RVs from the Lick planet search program. We combined our multi-epoch astrometry with these archival, partially unpublished RVs, and found that the companion is a low-mass star, not a brown dwarf, as previously suggested. We found the best-fitting dynamical masses to be $m_1=1.141_{-0.091}^{+0.037}$ and $m_2=0.279^{+0.023}_{-0.020}$ M$_\odot$. We also performed spectral analysis of the SOPHIE spectra with the iSpec code. The Hipparcos time-series photometry shows a periodicity of $P=5.743$ d, which is also seen in SOPHIE spectra as an RV modulation of the star A. We interpret it as being caused by spots on the stellar surface, and the star to be rotating with the given period. From the rotation and level of activity, we found that the system is $380^{+220}_{-100}$ Myr old, consistent with an isochrone analysis ($220^{+2120}_{-90}$ Myr). This work may serve as a test case for future studies of low-mass stars, brown dwarfs and exoplanets by combination of RV and direct imaging data.
    Full-text available · Article · Aug 2016 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We find a new substellar companion to the Pleiades member star, Pleiades HII 3441, using the Subaru telescope with adaptive optics. The discovery is made as part of the high-contrast imaging survey to search for planetary-mass and substellar companions in the Pleiades and young moving groups. The companion has a projected separation of 0".49 +/- 0".02 (66 +/- 2 AU) and a mass of 68 +/- 5 M_J based on three observations in the J-, H-, and K_S-band. The spectral type is estimated to be M7 (~2700 K), and thus no methane absorption is detected in the H band. Our Pleiades observations result in the detection of two substellar companions including one previously reported among 20 observed Pleiades stars, and indicate that the fraction of substellar companions in the Pleiades is about 10.0 +26.1/-8.8 %. This is consistent with multiplicity studies of both the Pleiades stars and other open clusters.
    Full-text available · Article · Aug 2016 · Publications- Astronomical Society of Japan
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present and analyze Subaru/IRCS L' and M' images of the nearby M dwarf VHS J125601.92-125723.9 (VHS 1256), which was recently claimed to have a ~11 M_Jup companion (VHS 1256 b) at ~102 au separation. Our AO images partially resolve the central star into a binary, whose components are nearly equal in brightness and separated by 0.106" +/- 0.001". VHS 1256 b occupies nearly the same near-IR color-magnitude diagram position as HR 8799 bcde and has a comparable L' brightness. However, it has a substantially redder H - M' color, implying a relatively brighter M' flux density than for the HR 8799 planets and suggesting that non-equilibrium carbon chemistry may be less significant in VHS 1256 b. We successfully match the entire SED (optical through thermal infrared) for VHS 1256 b to atmospheric models assuming chemical equilibrium, models which failed to reproduce HR 8799 b at 5 microns. Our modeling favors slightly thick clouds in the companion's atmosphere, although perhaps not quite as thick as those favored recently for HR 8799 bcde. We estimate that the system is at least older than 200 Myr and the masses of the stars comprising the central binary are at least 58 M_Jup each. Moreover, we find some of the properties of VHS 1256 are inconsistent with the recent suggestion that it is a member of the AB Dor moving group. Given the possible ranges in distance (12.7 pc vs. 17.1 pc), the lower mass limit for VHS 1256 b ranges from 10.5 - 26.2 M_Jup. Our detection limits rule out companions more massive than VHS 1256 b exterior to 6-8 au, placing significant limits on and providing some evidence against a second, more massive companion that may have scattered the wide-separation companion to its current location. VHS 1256 is most likely a very low mass hierarchical triple system, and could be the third such system in which all components reside in the brown dwarf mass regime.
    Article · Jul 2016
  • E. Akiyama · J. Hashimoto · H. B. Liu · [...] · M. Tamura
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dust trapping accelerates the coagulation of dust particles, and thus it represents an initial step toward the formation of planetesimals. We report $H$-band (1.6 um) linear polarimetric observations and 0.87 mm interferometric continuum observations toward a transitional disk around LkHa 330. As results, a pair of spiral arms were detected in the $H$-band emission and an asymmetric (potentially arm-like) structure was detected in the 0.87 mm continuum emission. We discuss the origin of the spiral arm and the asymmetric structure, and suggest that a massive unseen planet is the most plausible explanation. The possibility of dust trapping and grain growth causing the asymmetric structure was also investigated through the opacity index (beta) by plotting the observed SED slope between 0.87 mm from our SMA observation and 1.3 mm from literature. The results imply that grains are indistinguishable from ISM-like dust in the east side ($beta = 2.0 pm 0.5$), but much smaller in the west side $beta = 0.7^{+0.5}_{-0.4}$, indicating differential dust size distribution between the two sides of the disk. Combining the results of near-infrared and submillimeter observations, we conjecture that the spiral arms exist at the upper surface and an asymmetric structure resides in the disk interior. Future observations at centimeter wavelengths and differential polarization imaging in other bands (Y to K) with extreme AO imagers are required to understand how large dust grains form and to further explore the dust distribution in the disk.
    Article · Jul 2016
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present new analysis of multi-epoch, H-band, scattered light images of the AB Aur system. We used a Monte Carlo, radiative transfer code to simultaneously model the system's SED and H-band polarized intensity imagery. We find that a disk-dominated model, as opposed to one that is envelope dominated, can plausibly reproduce AB Aur's SED and near-IR imagery. This is consistent with previous modeling attempts presented in the literature and supports the idea that at least a subset of AB Aur's spirals originate within the disk. In light of this, we also analyzed the movement of spiral structures in multi-epoch H-band total light and polarized intensity imagery of the disk. We detect no significant rotation or change in spatial location of the spiral structures in these data, which span a 5.8 year baseline. If such structures are caused by disk-planet interactions, the lack of observed rotation constrains the location of the orbit of planetary perturbers to be >47 AU.
    Article · Jul 2016
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present the first near-infrared scattered-light detection of the transitional disk around V1247 Ori, which was obtained using high-resolution polarimetric differential imaging observations with Subaru/HiCIAO. Our imaging in the H band reveals the disk morphology at separations of ∼0${^{\prime\prime}_{.}}$14–0${^{\prime\prime}_{.}}$86 (54–330 au) from the central star. The polarized intensity image shows a remarkable arc-like structure toward the southeast of the star, whereas the fainter northwest region does not exhibit any notable features. The shape of the arm is consistent with an arc of 0${^{\prime\prime}_{.}}$28 ± 0${^{\prime\prime}_{.}}$09 in radius (108 au from the star), although the possibility of a spiral arm with a small pitch angle cannot be excluded. V1247 Ori features an exceptionally large azimuthal contrast in scattered, polarized light; the radial peak of the southeastern arc is about three times brighter than the northwestern disk measured at the same distance from the star. Combined with the previous indication of an inhomogeneous density distribution in the gap at ≲46 au, the notable asymmetry in the outer disk suggests the presence of unseen companions and/or planet-forming processes ongoing in the arc.
    Full-text available · Article · May 2016 · Publications- Astronomical Society of Japan
  • R. Asensio-Torres · M. Janson · J. Hashimoto · [...] · O. Guyon
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present high-contrast angular differential imaging (ADI) observations of the debris disk around HD32297 in H-band, as well as the first polarimetric images for this system in polarized differential imaging (PDI) mode with Subaru/HICIAO. In ADI, we detect the nearly edge-on disk at ≥5σ levels from ∼0.45″ to ∼1.7″ (50-192AU) from the star and recover the spine deviation from the midplane already found in previous works. We also find for the first time imaging and surface brightness (SB) indications for the presence of a gapped structure on both sides of the disk at distances of ∼0.75″ (NE side) and ∼0.65″ (SW side). Global forward-modelling work delivers a best-fit model disk and well-fitting parameter intervals that essentially match previous results, with high-forward scattering grains and a ring located at 110AU. However, this single ring model cannot account for the gapped structure seen in our SB profiles. We create simple double ring models and achieve a satisfactory fit with two rings located at 60 and 95AU, respectively, low-forward scattering grains and very sharp inner slopes. In polarized light we retrieve the disk extending from ∼0.25-1.6″, although the central region is quite noisy and high S/N are only found in the range ∼0.75-1.2″. The disk is polarized in the azimuthal direction, as expected, and the departure from the midplane is also clearly observed. Evidence for a gapped scenario is not found in the PDI data. We obtain a linear polarization degree of the grains that increases from ∼10% at 0.55″ to ∼25% at 1.6″. The maximum is found at scattering angles of ∼90°, either from the main components of the disk or from dust grains blown out to larger radii.
    Article · May 2016 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present high-contrast angular differential imaging (ADI) observations of the debris disk around HD 32297 in $H$-band, as well as the first polarimetric images for this system in polarized differential imaging (PDI) mode with Subaru/HICIAO. In ADI, we detect the nearly edge-on disk at $\geq$ 5$\sigma$ levels from $\sim$0.45 arcsec to $\sim$1.7 arcsec (50-192 AU) from the star and recover the spine deviation from the midplane already found in previous works. We also find for the first time imaging and surface brightness (SB) indications for the presence of a gapped structure on both sides of the disk at distances of $\sim$0.75 arcsec (NE side) and $\sim$0.65 arcsec (SW side). Global forward-modelling work delivers a best-fit model disk and well-fitting parameter intervals that essentially match previous results, with high-forward scattering grains and a ring located at 110 AU. However, this single ring model cannot account for the gapped structure seen in our SB profiles. We create simple double ring models and achieve a satisfactory fit with two rings located at 60 and 95 AU, respectively, low-forward scattering grains and very sharp inner slopes. In polarized light we retrieve the disk extending from $\sim$0.25-1.6 arcsec, although the central region is quite noisy and high S/N are only found in the range $\sim$0.75-1.2 arcsec. The disk is polarized in the azimuthal direction, as expected, and the departure from the midplane is also clearly observed. Evidence for a gapped scenario is not found in the PDI data. We obtain a linear polarization degree of the grains that increases from $\sim$10$\%$ at 0.55 arcsec to $\sim$25$\%$ at 1.6 arcsec. The maximum is found at scattering angles of $\sim$90$^{\circ}$, either from the main components of the disk or from dust grains blown out to larger radii.
    Article · May 2016
  • Taichi Uyama · Jun Hashimoto · Masayuki Kuzuhara · [...] · Motohide Tamura
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present high-contrast observations of 68 young stellar objects (YSOs) taken as part of the SEEDS survey on the Subaru telescope. Our targets are very young ($<$10 Myr) stars, which often harbor protoplanetary disks where planets may be forming. We achieve typical contransts of $\sim$$10^{-4}$-$10^{-5.5}$ at the angular distance of 1$\arcsec$ from the central star, corresponding to typical mass sensitivities (assuming hot-start evolutionary models) of $\sim$10 ${\rm M_J}$ at 70 AU and $\sim$6 ${\rm M_J}$ at 140 AU. We have detected a stellar companion to HIP 79462 and confirmed the substellar objects GQ Lup b and ROXs 42B b. An additional six companion candidates await follow-up observations to check for common proper-motion. Our SEEDS YSO observations prove the population of planets and brown dwarfs at the very youngest ages, these may be compared to the results of surveys targeting somewhat older stars. We will present a detailed statistical analysis of our sample and its implications for giant planet formation in a future paper.
    Article · Apr 2016
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A radial velocity (RV) survey for intermediate-mass giants has been operated for over a decade at Okayama Astrophysical Observatory (OAO). The OAO survey has revealed that some giants show long-term linear RV accelerations (RV trends), indicating the presence of outer companions. Direct imaging observations can help clarify what objects generate these RV trends. We present the results of high-contrast imaging observations or six intermediate-mass giants with long-term RV trends using the Subaru Telescope and HiCIAO camera. We detected co-moving companions to $\gamma$ Hya B ($0.61^{+0.12}_{-0.14} M_\odot$), HD 5608 B ($0.10 \pm 0.01 M_\odot$), and HD 109272 B ($0.28 \pm 0.06 M_\odot$). For the remaining targets($\iota$ Dra, 18 Del, and HD 14067) we exclude companions more massive than 30-60 $M_\mathrm{Jup}$ at projected separations of 1arcsec-7arcsec. We examine whether these directly imaged companions or unidentified long-period companions can account for the RV trends observed around the six giants. We find that the Kozai mechanism can explain the high eccentricity of the inner planets $\iota$ Dra b, HD 5608 b, and HD 14067 b.
    Full-text available · Article · Mar 2016 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Stars may not accumulate their mass steadily, as was previously thought, but in a series of violent events manifesting themselves as sharp stellar brightening. These events can be caused by fragmentation due to gravitational instabilities in massive gaseous disks surrounding young stars, followed by migration of dense gaseous clumps onto the star. Our high-resolution near-infrared imaging has verified the presence of the key associated features, large-scale arms and arcs surrounding four young stellar objects undergoing luminous outbursts. Our hydrodynamics simulations and radiative transfer models show that these observed structures can indeed be explained by strong gravitational instabilities occurring at the beginning of the disk formation phase. The effect of those tempestuous episodes of disk evolution on star and planet formation remains to be understood.
    Full-text available · Article · Feb 2016 · Science Advances
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    Daehyeon Oh · Jun Hashimoto · Motohide Tamura · [...] · Tomonori Usuda
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present high-contrast H-band polarized intensity images of the transitional disk around the young solar-like star LkCa 15. By utilizing Subaru/HiCIAO for polarimetric differential imaging, both the angular resolution and the inner working angle reach 0.07" and r=0.1", respectively. We obtained a clearly resolved gap (width <~ 27 AU) at ~ 48 AU from the central star. This gap is consistent with images reported in previous studies. We also confirmed the existence of a bright inner disk with a misaligned position angle of 13+/-4 degree with respect to that of the outer disk, i.e., the inner disk is possibly warped. The large gap and the warped inner disk both point to the existence of a multiple planetary system with a mass of <~1Mjup.
    Full-text available · Article · Jan 2016 · Publications- Astronomical Society of Japan
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report Submillimeter Array (SMA) 1.3 mm high angular resolution observations towards the four EXor type outbursting young stellar objects (YSOs) VY Tau, V1118 Ori, V1143 Ori, and NY Ori. The data mostly show low dust masses $M_{dust}$ in the associated circumstellar disks. Among the sources, NY Ori possesses a relatively massive disk with $M_{dust} \sim 9 \times 10^{-4}$ $M_{\odot}$. V1118 Ori has a marginal detection equivalent to $M_{dust} \sim 6 \times 10^{-5}$ $M_{\odot}$. V1143 Ori has a non-detection also equivalent to $M_{dust} < 6 \times 10^{-5}$ $M_{\odot}$. For the nearest source VY Tau, we get a surprising non-detection which provides a stringent upper limit $M_{dust} < 6 \times 10^{-6}$ $M_{\odot}$. We interpret our findings as suggesting that the gas and dust reservoirs that feed the short duration, repetitive optical outbursts seen in some EXors may be limited to the small scale, innermost region of their circumstellar disks. This hot dust may have escaped our detection limits. Follow-up, more sensitive millimeter observations are needed to improve our understanding of the triggering mechanisms of EXor type outbursts.
    Full-text available · Article · Dec 2015
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present the first spatially resolved polarized scattered light H-band detection of the DoAr 28 transitional disk. Our two epochs of imagery detect the scattered light disk from our effective inner working angle of 0.10" (13 AU) out to 0.50" (65 AU). This inner working angle is interior to the location of the system's gap inferred by previous studies using SED modeling (15 AU). We detected a candidate point source companion 1.08" northwest of the system; however, our second epoch of imagery strongly suggests that this object is a background star. We constructed a grid of Monte Carlo Radiative Transfer models of the system, and our best fit models utilize a modestly inclined (50 deg), 0.01 Msun disk that has a partially depleted inner gap from the dust sublimation radius out to ~8 AU. Subtracting this best fit, axi-symmetric model from our polarized intensity data reveals evidence for two small asymmetries in the disk, which could be attributable to variety of mechanisms.
    Full-text available · Article · Jul 2015 · The Astronomical Journal
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Coronagraphic imagery of the circumstellar disk around HD 169142 in H-band polarized intensity (PI) with Subaru/HiCIAO is presented. The emission scattered by dust particles at the disk surface in 0${^{\prime\prime}_{.}}$2 ≤ r ≤ 1${^{\prime\prime}_{.}}$2, or 29 ≤ r ≤ 174 au, is successfully detected. The azimuthally averaged radial profile of the PI shows a double power-law distribution, in which the PIs in r = 29–52 au and r = 81.2–145 au respectively show r−3 dependence. These two power-law regions are connected smoothly with a transition zone (TZ), exhibiting an apparent gap in r = 40–70 au. The PI in the inner power-law region shows a deep minimum whose location seems to coincide with the point source at λ = 7 mm. This can be regarded as another sign of a protoplanet in the TZ. The observed radial profile of the PI is reproduced by a minimally flaring disk with an irregular surface density distribution, an irregular temperature distribution, or with a combination of both. The depletion factor of surface density in the inner power-law region (r < 50 au) is derived to be ≥ 0.16 from a simple model calculation. The obtained PI image also shows small-scale asymmetries in the outer power-law region. Possible origins for these asymmetries include corrugation of the scattering surface in the outer region, and a shadowing effect by a puffed-up structure in the inner power-law region.
    Full-text available · Article · May 2015 · Publications- Astronomical Society of Japan
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present new high-resolution ($\sim$0\farcs09) $H$-band imaging observations of the circumstellar disk around the T Tauri star SU Aur. Our observations with Subaru-HiCIAO have revealed the presence of scattered light as close as 0\farcs15 ($\sim$20 AU) to the star. Within our image, we identify bright emission associated with a disk with a minimum radius of $\sim$90 AU, an inclination of $\sim$35$\degr$ from the plane of the sky, and an approximate P.A. of 15$\degr$ for the major axis. We find a brightness asymmetry between the northern and southern sides of the disk due to a non-axisymmetric disk structure. We also identify a pair of asymmetric tail structures extending east and west from the disk. The western tail extends at least 2\farcs5 (350 AU) from the star, and is probably associated with a reflection nebula previously observed at optical and near-IR wavelengths. The eastern tail extends at least 1\arcsec (140 AU) at the present signal-to-noise. These tails are likely due to an encounter with an unseen brown dwarf, but our results do not exclude the explanation that these tails are outflow cavities or jets.
    Full-text available · Article · May 2015