[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: tMutan is an extracellular polysaccharide of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) that consists of �-(1,3)-linked glucose residues in main chains and �-(1,6) bonds in side chains. In the present study, mutanwas isolated from S. mutans, and its structural characteristics were determined using Fourier-transforminfrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The effects ofmutan on RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation in RAW 264.7 cells were examined. Furthermore,microCT and morphometric analyses were used to determine the contribution of mutan to alveolar boneloss in the maxilla of a rat periodontitis model. Mutan increased (more than 2-fold) RANKL-inducedosteoclast differentiation in a dose-dependent manner. Mutan also enhanced the alveolar bone loss inthe rat maxilla 2.3-fold. In mutan-treated rats, the bone mineral density, bone volume, trabecular number,and trabecular thickness decreased, whereas trabecular separation significantly increased. In addition,mutan and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced similar microarray profiles in RAW 264.7 cells. A total of 43genes related to osteoclastogenesis were differentially expressed after either mutan or LPS treatment.Five-fold increases in the expression of several genes, including IL-1�, IL-1�, IL-6, and chemokine ligands,were observed in mutan-treated RAW 264.7 cells. These results suggest a molecular mechanism for theinflammation induced by S. mutans during the establishment of periodontal disease.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Carbohydrate Polymers
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Royal jelly has been widely used as a health supplement worldwide. However, royal jelly has been implicated in allergic reactions, and we developed a water-soluble royal jelly (WSRJ) without the allergy inducing protein. In this study, we aimed to identify the anti-melanogenic efficacy of WSRJ. B16F1 melanoma cells were first treated with 10 nM alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) and then with various doses of WSRJ. In addition, we investigated the mRNA and protein expression of melanogenesis-related genes such as tyrosinase, tyrosinase related protein-1 (TRP-1) and TRP-2 by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. WSRJ directly inhibited tyrosinase and cellular tyrosinase activity, which decreased melanin synthesis in a-MSH stimulated B16F1 melanoma cells a level comparable to that observed with arbutin. WSRJ decreased the mRNA and protein expressions of tyrosinase, TRP-1, and TRP-2, which was comparable to that observed with arbutin. WSRJ has strong anti-melanogenic activity, which invoice direct inhibition of tyrosinase enzyme activity and suppression of expression of melanogenesis related genes. Results from this study suggests that WSRJ is a potential candidate for the treatment of skin pigmentation.
No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Hangug chugsan sigpum haghoeji = Korean journal for food science of animal resources
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Children's judgments of gender norm violations in the U.S. (N = 71) and Korea (N = 73) were examined at ages 5, 7 and 9 years. Children made judgments of hypothetical children violating gender norms when the violation was performed for a helping goal and when no helping goal was presented. When there was no helping goal, American children were more accepting of violations than Korean children, and older children were more accepting than younger children. However, when the norm was violated in order to help someone, there were no differences between the countries and age differences were diminished, with the majorities of children at each age judging the violation as acceptable.
No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Cognitive Development
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vanadium pentoxide nanowires (VONs) with a uniform thickness of 15 nm were synthesized to use as an electrode for reversible lithium storage. The VONs after two years of aging time exhibit a high reversible lithium storage capacity and an excellent rate capability at a current density of 37 mAg-1 and 74-740 mAg-1, respectively, in the test voltage range of 0.1-3.0 V versus Li/Li+. Moreover, the VONs show a constant reversible specific capacity ∼945 mAhg-1 after 50 cycles at 74 mAg-1. The good electrochemical performances of VONs are attributed to the robust interlayer structure and improved electrical conductivity. These aging effects in VONs can be exploited to fabricate one-dimensional electrode materials for high-performance Li-ion batteries.
No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Current Applied Physics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) in biological fluids are potential biomarkers for the diagnosis and assessment of urological diseases such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer (PCa). The aim of the study was to identify and validate urinary cell-free miRNAs that can segregate patients with PCa from those with BPH.
In total, 1,052 urine, 150 serum, and 150 prostate tissue samples from patients with PCa or BPH were used in the study. A urine-based miRNA microarray analysis suggested the presence of differentially expressed urinary miRNAs in patients with PCa, and these were further validated in three independent PCa cohorts, using a quantitative reverse transcriptionpolymerase chain reaction analysis.
The expression levels of hsa-miR-615-3p, hsv1-miR-H18, hsv2-miR-H9-5p, and hsa-miR-4316 were significantly higher in urine samples of patients with PCa than in those of BPH controls. In particular, herpes simplex virus (hsv)-derived hsv1-miR-H18 and hsv2-miR-H9-5p showed better diagnostic performance than did the serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test for patients in the PSA gray zone. Furthermore, a combination of urinary hsv2-miR-H9-5p with serum PSA showed high sensitivity and specificity, providing a potential clinical benefit by reducing unnecessary biopsies.
Our findings showed that hsv-encoded hsv1-miR-H18 and hsv2-miR-H9-5p are significantly associated with PCa and can facilitate early diagnosis of PCa for patients within the serum PSA gray zone.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · International neurourology journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: AimTo improve long-term prognosis in schizophrenia, enhancing medication adherence is essential. The aim of this study is thus to identify the association between medication non-adherence and possible risk factors in a large sample of patients with chronic schizophrenia.Methods
One hundred and four patients with schizophrenia with a disease duration of over 10 years were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. The subjects were assessed by the Scales to Assess Unawareness of Mental Disease–Korean version (SUMD-K), the Korean version of Medication Adherence Rating Scale (KMARS), a neurocognition battery designed for this study, and the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS). An analysis of variance and multiple regression models were conducted to identify the relationship between variables and the factors that contribute to medication adherence.ResultsThe adherence score measured on the KMARS was 7.60 ± 2.12; 88 (84.62%) patients were categorized as well-adherent and 16 (15.38%) as poorly adherent to their medication. Patients with good insight were more likely to maintain their medication (p = 0.0005), and better executive function was associated with increased medication adherence (p = 0.0008). Furthermore, fewer depressive symptoms were associated with good medication adherence (p = 0.0304).Conclusions
This study is the first in Republic of Korea to identify the relationship between medication adherence, insight, and neurocognition in a large sample of patients with chronic schizophrenia. These results could be used to establish a strategy for improving the prognosis of chronic schizophrenia.
No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The potential use of urinary nucleic acids as diagnostic markers in prostate cancer (PCa) was evaluated. Ninety-five urine samples and 234 prostate tissue samples from patients with PCa and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) were analyzed. Micro-array analysis was used to identify candidate genes, which were verified by the two-gene expression ratio and validated in tissue mRNA and urinary nucleic acid cohorts. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used to measure urinary nucleic acid levels and tissue mRNA expression. The TSPAN13-to-S100A9 ratio was selected to determine the diagnostic value of urinary nucleic acids in PCa (P = 0.037) and shown to be significantly higher in PCa than in BPH in the mRNA and nucleic acid cohort analyses (P < 0.001 and P = 0.013, respectively). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis showed that the area under the ROC curve was 0.898 and 0.676 in tissue mRNA cohort and urinary nucleic acid cohort, respectively. The TSPAN13-to-S100A9 ratio showed a strong potential as a diagnostic marker for PCa. The present results suggest that the analysis of urine supernatant can be used as a simple diagnostic method for PCa that can be adapted to the clinical setting in the future.
Preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Journal of Korean Medical Science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Urokinase receptor interacts with α5β1-integrin and enhances cancer cell proliferation and metastasis. Activation of α5β1-integrin requires caveolin-1 and is regulated by uPAR, which upregulates persistently the activated ERK necessary for tumor growth. In this study, we show that the ganglioside GT1b induces proapoptotic signaling through two uPAR-ERK signaling pathways in A549 lung cancer cells. GT1b downregulated the expression of α5β1 integrin, caveolin-1, fibronectin, FAK, and ERK, whereas GT1b upregulated the expression of p53 and uPAR, suggesting GT1b mediated depletion of caveolin-1 in uPAR-expressing A549 cells also disrupts uPAR/integrin complexes, resulting in downregulation of fibronectin-α5β1-integrin-ERK signaling. Following p53 siRNA treatment, FAK and ERK expression was recovered, meaning the presence of reentry uPAR-FAK-ERK signaling pathway. These findings reveal that GT1b is involved in both caveolin-1-dependent uPAR-α5β1-integrin-ERK signaling and caveolin-1-independent uPAR-FAK-ERK signaling. These results suggest a novel function of GT1b as a dual regulator of ERK by modulating caveolin-1 and p53.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · American Journal of Cancer Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) inhibit activated hepatic stellate cell contraction and are thought to reduce the dynamic portion of intrahepatic resistance. This study compared the effects of combined treatment using the ARB candesartan and propranolol versus propranolol monotherapy on portal pressure in patients with cirrhosis in a prospective, randomized controlled trial.
Between January 2008 and July 2009, 53 cirrhotic patients with clinically significant portal hypertension were randomized to receive either candesartan and propranolol combination therapy (26 patients) or propranolol monotherapy (27 patients). Before and 3 months after the administration of the planned medication, the hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) was assessed in both groups. The dose of propranolol was subsequently increased from 20 mg bid until the target heart rate was reached, and the candesartan dose was fixed at 8 mg qd. The primary endpoint was the HVPG response rate; patients with an HVPG reduction of >20% of the baseline value or to <12 mmHg were defined as responders.
The mean portal pressure declined significantly in both groups, from 16 mmHg (range, 12-28 mmHg) to 13.5 mmHg (range, 6-20 mmHg) in the combination group (P<0.05), and from 17 mmHg (range, 12-27 mmHg) to 14 mmHg (range, 7-25 mmHg) in the propranolol monotherapy group (P<0.05). However, the medication-induced pressure reduction did not differ significantly between the two groups [3.5 mmHg (range, -3-11 mmHg) vs. 3 mmHg (range, -8-10 mmHg), P=0.674]. The response rate (55.6% vs. 61.5%, P=0.435) and the reductions in mean blood pressure or heart rate also did not differ significantly between the combination and monotherapy groups.
The addition of candesartan (an ARB) to propranolol confers no benefit relative to classical propranolol monotherapy for the treatment of portal hypertension, and is thus not recommended.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Clinical and molecular hepatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Natural killer (NK) cells are innate immune effector cells that protect against cancer and some viral infections. Until recently, most studies have investigated the molecular signatures of human or mouse NK cells to identify genes that are specifically expressed during NK cell development. However, the mechanism regulating NK cell development remains unclear. Here, we report a regulatory network of potential interactions during in vitro differentiation of human NK cells, identified using genome-wide mRNA and miRNA databases through hierarchical clustering analysis, gene ontology analysis and a miRNA target prediction program. The microRNA (miR)-583, which demonstrated the largest ratio change in mature NK cells, was highly correlated with IL2 receptor gamma (IL2Rγ) expression. The overexpression of miR-583 had an inhibitory effect on NK cell differentiation. In a reporter assay, the suppressive effect of miR-583 was ablated by mutating the putative miR-583 binding site of the IL2Rγ 3' UTR. Therefore, we show that miR-583 acts as a negative regulator of NK cell differentiation by silencing IL2Rγ. Additionally, we provide a comprehensive database of genome-wide mRNA and miRNA expression during human NK cell differentiation, offering a better understanding of basic human NK cell biology for the application of human NK cells in immunotherapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alimentary tract duplications are uncommon congenital abnormalities that usually have an anatomical connection with some part of the gastrointestinal tract and have a common blood supply with the adjacent segment of intestine. A completely isolated duplication cyst (CIDC) is a very rare type of gastrointestinal duplication that does not communicate with the normal bowel segment and possesses its own exclusive blood supply. Only 5 CIDC cases in adults have been reported in the English medical literature. Additionally, only 1 case of mucinous cystadenoma from an infected CIDC of the ileum has been reported. This report describes a 52-year-old male patient with a peritoneal CIDC, which upon curative excision was found to have given rise to an adenocarcinoma. The latter was lined internally with malignant glandular cells and contained a smooth muscular outer layer as determined by microscopic examination of the tissue. We believe that this is the first reported case of an adenocarcinoma originating from a CIDC in an adult.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Free radicals are involved in neuronal cell death in human neurodegenerative diseases. Since ancient times, honeybee venom has been used in a complementary medicine to treat various diseases and neurologic disorders. Melittin, the main component of honeybee venom, has various biologic effects, including anti-bacterial, anti-viral, and anti-inflammatory activities.
We investigated the neuroprotective effects of melittin against H2O2-induced apoptosis in the human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y. The neuroprotective effects of melittin on H2O2-induced apoptosis were investigated using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenylterazolium bromide assay, caspase 3 activity, 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining, a lactate dehydrogenase release assay, Western blots, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.
The H2O2-treated cells had decreased cell viability with apoptotic features and increased production of caspase-3. On the other hand, melittin treatment increased cell viability and decreased apoptotic DNA fragmentation. Melittin attenuated the H2O2-induced decrease in mRNA and protein production of the anti-apoptotic factor Bcl-2. In addition, melittin inhibited both the H2O2-induced mRNA and protein expression of Bax-associated pro-apoptotic factor and caspase-3.
These findings suggest that melittin has potential therapeutic effects as an agent for the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases.
Preview · Article · Aug 2014 · BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Since ancient times, honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) venom (BV) has been applied to the skin as an anti-ageing remedy. To further access BV as an effective whitening agent for cosmetics and potential external treatment for topical use, we investigated its ability to inhibit tyrosinase activity and subsequent melanin biosynthesis. B16F1 melanoma cells were treated with 10 nM α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) and then with various doses of BV. BV inhibited direct tyrosinase activity and cellular tyrosinase activity, which decreased melanin synthesis in α-MSH-stimulated B16F1 melanoma cells. In addition, we used reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting for melanogenesis-related genes such as tyrosinase-related protein (TRP)-1 and TRP-2 to examine the mechanisms underlying the inhibitory effects of BV on melanogensis. BV decreased the mRNA and protein expression of TRP-1 and TRP-2. These findings suggest that BV induced the downregulation of melanogenesis by inhibiting TRP-1 and TRP-2 activation.
No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Food and Agricultural Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background/Aims
This study was conducted to identify microRNAs (miRNAs) that are differentially expressed in Helicobacter pylori-infected patients with an intestinal type of gastric cancer using miRNA microarray and to confirm the candidate miRNA expression levels.
Total RNA was extracted from the cancerous and noncancerous regions of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues of H. pylori-positive (n=8) or H. pylori-negative (n=8) patients with an intestinal type of gastric cancer. RNA expression was analyzed using a 3,523 miRNA profiling microarray based on the Sanger miRBase. Validation analysis was performed using TaqMan miRNA assays.
A total of 219 miRNAs in the aberrant miRNA profiles across the miRNA microarray showed at least a 2-fold change differential expression in H. pylori-positive and H. pylori-negative cancer tissues. After candidate miRNAs were selected using online miRNA databases, TaqMan miRNA assays confirmed that three miRNAs (miR-99b-3p, miR-564, and miR-638) were significantly increased in three H. pylori-positive cancer tissues compared to the H. pylori-negative cancer tissues. Additionally, four miRNAs (miR-204-5p, miR-338-5p, miR-375, and miR-548c-3p) were significantly increased in H. pylori-negative cancer tissues compared to H. pylori-positive cancer tissues.
miRNA expression in the intestinal type of H. pylori infection-dependent gastric cancer suggests that different gastric cancer pathogenesis mechanisms could exist between H. pylori-positive and H. pylori-negative gastric cancer. Additional functional studies are required.