Publications (19)38.47 Total impact
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A novel biomaterial, the Phanerochaete chrysosporium pellet (CP) composed of chlamydospore-like cells (CLCs), was prepared and its potential in treating phenolic resin wastewater was evaluated. CP possesses higher phenol removal ability in contrast with mycelial pellets of P. chrysosporium, and CLC can be seen as the naturally immobilized enzymes. At shake-flask level, the ideal pH value, temperature, and inoculation quantity of CP for treatment of 1430 mg/l phenol wastewater were pH 4-6, 30 °C, and 5.0 g/l, respectively, and the maximum specific removal rate, 41.1 mg phenol/g CP/h, was obtained in fixed bed reactor (FBR) when the flow rate of wastewater was 3.4 l/h. During the treatment, FBR harbored amounts of bacteria (135 genera) and eukaryotes, as analyzed by metagenomic sequencing. Bacterial pollution not only decreased reactor performance but also had a negative impact on reusability of CP. Hot water treatment (80-85 °C) is effective to inhibit bacterial pollution, and heat resistance of CLC makes the repeated regrowing of CP be feasible. This work presents an innovative and low-cost biomaterial for phenol removal and will be helpful for the practical application of P. chrysosporium in wastewater treatment.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A strain of Ganoderma lucidum was separated and identified according to its morphological characteristics and phylogenetic data. The fungus is a laccase producer and it can secrete laccase using the municipal food waste (FW) as carbon and nitrogen supplement. After the statistic optimization, a laccase activity of 42,000 ± 600 U/l was obtained at 500 ml flask level and the activity is 12,000 U/l higher than that obtained by fermenting glucose and peptone, indicating that the use of FW to produce laccase not only reduces production cost, but also improves laccase activity. In 15 l bioreactor, FW is also suitable for laccase production and the maximum laccase activity reached 54,000 U/l. Moreover, some details of laccase overproduction using FW were investigated. The G. lucidum consumes FW by secreting a series of hydrolases and proteases and the improvement of laccase activity is because FW induces over-expression of three isoenzymes by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the present paper, aerobic granules were developed in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) using synthetic wastewater, and 81 % of granular rate was obtained after 15-day cultivation. Aerobic granules have a 96 % BOD removal to the wastewater, and the reactor harbors a mount of biomass including bacteria, fungi and protozoa. In view of the complexity of kinetic behaviors of sludge and biological mechanisms of the granular SBR, a cellular automata model was established to simulate the process of wastewater treatment. The results indicate that the model not only visualized the complex adsorption and degradation process of aerobic granules, but also well described the BOD removal of wastewater and microbial growth in the reactor. Thus, CA model is suitable for simulation of synthetic wastewater treatment. This is the first report about dynamical and visual simulation of treatment process of synthetic wastewater in a granular SBR.
Dataset: Supplementary Material
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this work, a laccase producer, Ganoderma lucidum, was separated and identified according to its morphological characteristics and phylogenetic data. A 4000 U/l and 8500 U/l of laccase activity was obtained in 500 ml flask by submerged culture and biomembrane-surface liquid culture (BSLC), respectively. Furthermore, the novel biomembrane-surface liquid co-culture (BSLCc) was developed by adding Saccharomyces cerevisiae to reactor in order to shorten the fermentation period and improve laccase production. Laccase activity obtained by BSLCc, 23 000 U/l, is 5.8 and 2.7 times of that obtained by submerged culture and BSLC, respectively. In addition, laccase production by BSLCc was successfully scaled-up to 100 l reactor, and 38 000 U/l of laccase activity was obtained on day 8. The mechanism of overproducing laccase by BSLCc was investigated by metabolism pathway analysis of glucose. The results show glucose limitation in fermentation broth induces the secretion of laccase. The addition of S. cerevisiae, on one hand, leads to an earlier occurrence of glucose limitation state, and thus shortens the fermentation time; on the other hand, it also results in the appearance of a series of metabolites of the yeast including organic acids, ethanol, glycerol and so forth in fermentation broth, and both polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis and enzyme activity detection of laccase show that these metabolites contribute to the improvement of laccase activity.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aerobic granules were firstly developed in a completely mixed tank reactor (CMTR) by seeding micro-mycelial pellets (MMPs) of Phanerochaete chrysosporium. During phenol wastewater treatment, sludge granulation rate reached 67 % after 15-day operation. The granules in CMTR are different from aerobic granules described in literature in morphology, and a majority of them are rod-shaped or rodlike sludge besides spherical granules. The polymorphic granules, having no essential difference with aerobic granules previously reported, achieve advantages over conventional activated sludge in settling ability, biomass concentration, density, integrity coefficient and removal ability to phenol wastewater. The optimized parameters for sludge granulation in CMTR including temperature, inoculum quantity, rotary speed and superficial air upflow velocity are 30 °C, 5-7 g/l, 150 rpm, and 0.5 cm/s, respectively. Analysis on sludge granulation mechanism indicates that MMPs not only result in the formation of aerobic granules containing MMPs as nuclei, but also induce the formation of biogranules which do not have MMP at their cores. The work challenges the general belief that the homogenous circular flow pattern of microbial aggregates is necessary for aerobic sludge granulation.
Dataset: Supplementary material 2
Dataset: Supplementary material 1
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The behaviors of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) deposited as the dielectric for high-voltage devices are investigated experimentally and theoretically. The devices demonstrate not only high breakdown voltages above 350 V, but also excellent memory behaviors. A drain current—gate voltage (ID—VG) memory window of about 2.2 V is obtained at the sweep voltages of ±10 V for the 350-V laterally diffused metal oxide semiconductor (LDMOS). The retention time of about 270 s is recorded for the LDMOS through a controlled ID—VG measurement. The LDMOS with memory behaviors has potential to be applied in future power conversion circuits to boost the performance of the energy conversion system.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A non-depletion floating layer silicon-on-insulator (NFL SOI) lateral double-diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor (LDMOS) is proposed and the NFL-assisted modulated field (NFLAMF) principle is investigated in this paper. Based on this principle, the floating layer can pin the potential for modulating bulk field. In particular, the accumulated high concentration of holes at the bottom of the NFL can efficiently shield the electric field of the SOI layer and enhance the dielectric field in the buried oxide layer (BOX). At variation of back-gate bias, the shielding charges of NFL can also eliminate back-gate effects. The simulated results indicate that the breakdown voltage (BV) is increased from 315 V to 558 V compared to the conventional reduced surface field (RESURF) SOI (CSOI) LDMOS, yielding a 77% improvement. Furthermore, due to the field shielding effect of the NFL, the device can maintain the same breakdown voltage of 558 V with a thinner BOX to resolve the thermal problem in an SOI device.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Induction mechanism of a potential red pigment (RPc) was investigated in the present paper. A typical competition relationship exists between Penicillium sp. HSD07B and Candida tropicalis during co-culture, and C. tropicalis converts glucose into glycerol, organic acids and other substances, resulting in a stricter glucose limitation and the secretion of RPc. Moreover, a novel eutrophic-oligotrophic transition cultivation system (E-OTCS) was developed to produce red pigment during monoculture of Penicillium sp. HSD07B. However, the monoculture pigment (RPm) is different from RPc in components, and RP3 and RP4 only occur in RPm when glycerol is supplied. In addition, the additions of glycerol and organic acids to glucose exhaustion medium can significantly improve the pigment yield. These facts not only prove the feasibility of producing RPm using E-OTCS, but also reveal that, besides glucose exhaustion, the accumulation of metabolites of glucose including glycerol and organic acids is also an important factor influencing the production of RPc.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A novel antifuse structure with amorphous bismuth zinc niobate (a-BZN) dielectrics was proposed. The characteristics of the a-BZN antifuse were investigated. Programming direction of up to down was chosen to rupture the a-BZN antifuse. The breakdown voltage of the a-BZN antifuse was obtained at a magnitude of 6.56 V. A large off-state resistance of more than 1 GΩ for the a-BZN antifuse was demonstrated. The surface micrograph of the ruptured a-BZN antifuses was illustrated. Programming characteristics with the programming time of 0.46 ms and on-state properties with the average resistance value of 26.1 Ω of the a-BZN antifuse were exhibited. The difference of characteristics of the a-BZN antifuse from that of a cubic pyrochlore bismuth zinc niobate (cp-BZN) antifuse and gate oxide antifuse was compared and analyzed.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A specific self-immobilization biomembrane-surface liquid culture (SIBSLC) was developed to overproduce a potential penicillium red pigment. Statistic analysis shows that both glucose concentration and membrane diameter are important factors influencing the yield of red pigment. After the optimization using central composite experimental design, the maximum yield of red pigment in shake flask reaches 4.25 g/l. The growth of strain HSD07B consists of three phases, and the pigment secreted in the decelerated phase, is originated from the interior of biomembrane where glucose exhaustion occurs. In addition, the batch and continuous SIBSLC were conducted for production of the pigment, and the latter was more competitive in consideration of the fact that it not only increased 61.5 % of pigment productivity, but also simplified the production process. Moreover, the pigment produced by SIBSLC is potentially acceptable for food applications although it is distinguished from the co-cultured red pigment we reported previously in components.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the present paper, a novel method to accelerate sludge granulation is presented. Inoculation with chlamydospores of Phanerochaete sp. HSD accelerated sludge granulation during the treatment process of phenol wastewater, and the sludge granulation rate reached 66 ± 2% on day 7, 32 days earlier than that of the control inoculated with activated sludge only. Aerobic granule in R1 (AG(R1)) showed an annual ring-like multilayer structure and a primary core also existed in the nuclear area of the granule. The mechanism of rapid granulation revealed that the chlamydospore could survive in phenol wastewater and form the primary matrix on which aerobic granule was developed layer by layer. In addition, AG(R1) developed in a phenol uptake system to counteract the adverse effects of phenol inhibition. Higher tolerance toward wastewater with high phenol strength was exhibited, and the maximum specific phenol degradation rate reached 1.54 g phenol g(-1) VSS day(-1).
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Co-culture of Penicillium sp. HSD07B and Candida tropicalis resulted in the production of a red pigment consisting of six components as determined by TLC and HPLC. The pigment showed no acute toxicity in mice and was mot mutagenic in the Ames test. The pigment was stable between pH 2 and 10 and temperatures of 10-100°C and exhibited good photo-stability and resistance to oxidization by hydrogen peroxide and reduction by Na(2)SO(3). Glucose and ratio of C. tropicalis to strain HSD07B (w/w) in the inoculum were the important factors influencing production of the pigment. Under optimized conditions, a pigment yield of 2.75 and 7.7 g/l was obtained in a shake-flask and a 15 l bioreactor, respectively. Thus, co-culture of strain HSD07B and C. tropicalis is a promising way to produce a red pigment potentially useful for coloring applications.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this paper, an interesting phenomenon is revealed. Mn2+ has a significant influence on the morphologies of hypha and mycelium of Phanerochaete sp. HSD, and under the higher Mn2+ concentration, strain HSD can form very small micro-mycelium pellets (MMPs). Based on this phenomenon, a specific method to cultivate aerobic granules is presented. By seeding MMPs to bioreactor, bioaugmented aerobic granules (BAGs) were cultivated successfully, and granulation rate reached 53 ± 2% on day 15. MMPs result in the formation of aerobic granules containing MMPs as nuclei and also induce the formation of self-immobilized biogranules which do not have the MMP at their core. Furthermore, the feasibility of using BAGs to degrade eriochrome black T (EBT) wastewater is investigated too. The results prove that the treatment of EBT wastewater using BAGs is a feasible and promising way. BAGs not only can tolerate higher EBT loads, but also have better decolourization efficiency compared with conventional sludge and aerobic granules. Furthermore, the introduction of MMPs leads to the appearance of manganese peroxidase (MnP) in reactor, and MnP plays an important role in the treatment process of EBT wastewater.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the present paper, a strain of higher MnP producer, Phanerochaete sp. HSD, was screened and the important medium components influencing MnP production were optimized using fractional factorial design and central composite experimental design; statistical analysis suggested diammonium tartrate and Mn2+ were the important factors and under the optimum conditions, MnP activity reached 2613 ± 22 U/l, accorded with the predicted value from response surface analysis. The feasibility of using this fungus to decolourize azo dyes was examined too. Results indicated that crude enzyme solution of it could decolourize three azo dyes efficiently and speedily: for 120 and 350 mg/l of Congo red, 95% decolourization rate was observed at the 5th and 8th hour; for 200, 350 and 600 mg/l methyl orange, 95% decolourization rate was obtained at the 5th, 6th and 9th hour; furthermore, the decolourization rates of 150 and 300 mg/l of Eriochrome black T were up to 97.1% and 91.4% at the 7th and 13th hour, respectively. In addition, MnP played a crucial role in the decolourization process.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the present paper, overproduction of laccase by microbe interaction was studied. When Trametes versicolor was co-cultured with Candida sp. HSD07A in submerged fermentation, laccase activity could be improved significantly and reached 10500 ± 160 U/l, 11.8 times more than that of the contrast group. Fermentation tests of the yeast indicated that it could produce amylase and cellulase, but couldn’t excrete laccase and the overproductive laccase was produced by T. versicolor; the interaction mechanism between T. versicolor and Candida sp. HSD07A was investigated and the results showed that amylase and cellulose could hydrolyze cell walls of T. versicolor; however, the degree of hydrolysis was at a very low level, could not lead to overproduction of laccase; glucose starvation state made by the yeast was the real reason why T. versicolor could overproduce laccase; moreover, this study also proved that making glucose starvation using the yeast was a novel and effective method.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this paper, the differences between reinforced sequencing batch reactor, which was inoculated with superior mixed flora, and conventional sequencing batch reactor were compared in the process of treating papermaking wastewater under similar conditions. The results showed that the addition of superior mixed flora could not only shorten the sludge acclimation time, but also improve the treatment efficiency of reactor as well as make the reactor have higher ability to withstand high volume loading rate; the phenomenon of aerobic granulation only occurred in reinforced sequencing batch reactor, and superior mixed flora were the key reason that aerobic granular sludge could shape; aerobic granular sludge had many advantages over conventional activated sludge such as it possessed compacter microbial structure, better settling performance, and lower water content.