Michael I. Luster

West Virginia University, MGW, West Virginia, United States

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Publications (308)1036.4 Total impact

  • Berran Yucesoy · Victor J. Johnson · Michael I. Luster
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    ABSTRACT: Molecular epidemiological studies have identified a number of genetic variations within immune/inflammatory genes as susceptibility factors for common immune-mediated/chronic inflammatory diseases, including many pulmonary disorders. Data are now accumulating on their role in diseases of occupational and environmental origin. Some susceptibility factors are shared between different pulmonary disorders, indicating a common immunological and genetic background. This chapter focuses on immunogenetic predisposition to pulmonary disorders, particularly those that can be related to occupational exposures such as occupational asthma, chronic beryllium disease, coal workers' pneumoconiosis, and silicosis.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To investigate whether genetic variants of N-acetyltransferase (NAT) genes are associated with diisocyanate asthma (DA). Methods: The study population consisted of 354 diisocyanate-exposed workers. Genotyping was performed using a 5'-nuclease polymerase chain reaction assay. Results: The NAT2 rs2410556 and NAT2 rs4271002 variants were significantly associated with DA in the univariate analysis. In the first logistic regression model comparing DA+ and asymptomatic worker groups, the rs2410556 (P = 0.004) and rs4271002 (P < 0.001) single nucleotide polymorphisms and the genotype combination, NAT2 rs4271002*NAT1 rs11777998, showed associations with DA risk (P = 0.014). In the second model comparing DA+ and DA- groups, NAT2 rs4271002 variant and the combined genotype, NAT1 rs8190845*NAT2 rs13277605, were significantly associated with DA risk (P = 0.022, P = 0.036, respectively). Conclusions: These findings suggest that variations in the NAT2 gene and their interactions contribute to DA susceptibility.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Journal of occupational and environmental medicine / American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Diisocyanates are the most common cause of occupational asthma, but risk factors are not well defined. A case-control study was conducted to investigate whether genetic variants in inflammatory response genes (TNFα, IL1α, IL1β, IL1RN, IL10, TGFB1, ADAM33, ALOX-5, PTGS1, PTGS2 and NAG-1/GDF15) are associated with increased susceptibility to diisocyanate asthma (DA). These genes were selected based on their role in asthmatic inflammatory processes and previously reported associations with asthma phenotypes. The main study population consisted of 237 Caucasian French Canadians from among a larger sample of 280 diisocyanate-exposed workers in two groups: workers with specific inhalation challenge (SIC) confirmed DA (DA(+), n = 95) and asymptomatic exposed workers (AW, n = 142). Genotyping was performed on genomic DNA, using a 5' nuclease PCR assay. After adjusting for potentially confounding variables of age, smoking status and duration of exposure, the PTGS1 rs5788 and TGFB1 rs1800469 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) showed a protective effect under a dominant model (OR = 0.38; 95% CI = 0.17, 0.89 and OR = 0.38; 95% CI = 0.18, 0.74, respectively) while the TNFα rs1800629 SNP was associated with an increased risk of DA (OR = 2.08; 95% CI = 1.03, 4.17). Additionally, the PTGS2 rs20417 variant showed an association with increased risk of DA in a recessive genetic model (OR = 6.40; 95% CI = 1.06, 38.75). These results suggest that genetic variations in TNFα, TGFB1, PTGS1 and PTGS2 genes contribute to DA susceptibility.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Journal of Immunotoxicology
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    ABSTRACT: A rat carcinogenicity bioassay (CaBio) of quinacrine was reanalyzed to investigate its mode of tumor induction. Quinacrine's effects in the rat uterus when administered as a slurry in methylcellulose were contrasted with the human clinical experience which uses a solid form of the drug, to determine the relevance of the tumors produced in the rat to safe clinical use of quinacrine for permanent contraception (QS). A review was performed of the study report, dose feasibility studies, and clinical evaluations of women who had undergone the QS procedure. The top three doses of quinacrine in the CaBio exceeded the maximum tolerated dose, and produced chronic damage, including inflammation, resulting in reproductive tract tumors. Chronic inflammation was significantly correlated with the tumors; there was no evidence of treatment-related tumors in animals without chronic inflammation or other reproductive system toxicity. Because such permanent uterine damage and chronic toxicity have not been observed in humans under therapeutic conditions, we conclude that this mode of action for tumor production will not occur at clinically relevant doses in women who choose quinacrine for permanent contraception. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology
  • Michael I. Luster
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    ABSTRACT: While diseases associated with environmental exposures have been described for centuries, particularly of the lung, it was not until the early 1900s that many of these diseases were found to be associated with the immune system. Despite these early studies the term immunotoxicology was not coined until the late 1970s when interest in this area expanded from concerns by scientists within industry and government as well as medical professionals to limit human exposure to agents that can adversely affect human health. In this introductory chapter we will summarize the evolution of immunotoxicology which now includes allergic/hypersensitivity responses, immune dysfunction manifested as suppression or in rare instances, stimulation, autoimmune or autoimmune-like diseases, and chronic inflammatory disorders. While most materials are considered safe, immunotoxicity can occur from exposure to many anthropogenic sources as well as from direct exposure to certain agrochemicals, industrial materials, pharmaceuticals and consumer products.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2014
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located across the major histocompatibility complex and susceptibility to diisocyanate-induced asthma (DA). The study population consisted of 140 diisocyanate-exposed workers. Genotyping was performed using the Illumina GoldenGate major histocompatibility complex panels. The HLA-E rs1573294 and HLA-DPB1 rs928976 SNPs were associated with an increased risk of DA under dominant (odds ratio [OR], 6.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.37 to 16.6; OR, 2.79, 95% CI, 0.99 to 7.81, respectively) and recessive genetic models (OR, 6.27, 95% CI, 1.63 to 24.13; OR, 10.10, 95% CI, 3.16 to 32.33, respectively). The HLA-B rs1811197, HLA-DOA rs3128935, and HLA-DQA2 rs7773955 SNPs conferred an increased risk of DA in a dominant model (OR, 7.64, 95% CI, 2.25 to 26.00; OR, 19.69, 95% CI, 2.89 to 135.25; OR, 8.43, 95% CI, 3.03 to 23.48, respectively). These results suggest that genetic variations within HLA genes play a role in DA risk.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2014 · Journal of occupational and environmental medicine / American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Supported by several epidemiological studies and a large number of animal studies, certain polyfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs) are believed to be immunotoxic, affecting particularly humoral immunity. Our aim was to investigate the relationship between the antibody response following vaccination with an inactivated trivalent influenza vaccine and circulating levels of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS). The study population consisted of 411 adults living in the mid-Ohio region of Ohio and West Virginia where public drinking water had been inadvertently contaminated with PFOA. They participated in a larger cross-sectional study in 2005/6, and were followed up in 2010, by which time serum levels of PFOA had been substantially reduced but were still well above those found in the general population. Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) tests were conducted on serum samples collected pre-influenza vaccination and 21+/- 3 days post-vaccination in 2010. Serum samples were also analyzed for PFOA and PFOS concentrations (median, 31.5 and 9.2 ng/ml respectively). Questionnaires were conducted regarding the occurrence and frequency of recent (during the last 12 months) respiratory infections. Our findings indicated that elevated PFOA serum concentrations are associated with reduced antibody titer rise, particularly to A/H3N2 influenza virus, and an increased risk of not attaining the antibody threshold considered to offer long term protection. Whilst the direct relationship between weakened antibody response and clinical risk of influenza is not clear, we did not find evidence for an association between self-reported colds or influenza and PFOA levels nor between PFOS serum concentrations and any of the endpoints examined.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2013 · Toxicological Sciences
  • Michael I Luster
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract An historical perspective of immunotoxicology is presented beginning from early observations in which exposure to workplace environments led to unexpected immune-mediated lung diseases to its eventual evolution as a sub-discipline in toxicology. As with most toxicology disciplines, immunotoxicology originated from concerns by scientists within industry and government as well as medical professionals to limit human exposure to agents that can potentially effect human health. The basis for these concerns originated from laboratory studies in experimental models and clinical observations that suggested certain industrial and agrochemicals, pharmaceuticals and consumer products were capable of inadvertently interacting with the immune system and cause adverse health effects. The types of immunopathologies observed and mechanisms responsible were found to be broad, being dependent upon the physiochemical properties of an agent, exposure route, and target organ/tissue, and included allergic/hypersensitivity responses, immune dysfunction, manifested by suppression or, in rare instances, stimulation, autoimmune or autoimmune-like diseases, and chronic inflammatory disorders.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2013 · Journal of Immunotoxicology
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    ABSTRACT: The influence of genetic variability within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region on variations in immune responses to childhood vaccination was investigated. The study group consisted of 135 healthy infants who had been immunized with hepatitis B (HBV), 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate (PCV7), and diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccines according to standard childhood immunization schedules. Genotype analysis was performed on genomic DNA using Illumina Goldengate MHC panels (Mapping and Exon Centric). At the 1 year post vaccination check-up total, isotypic, and antigen-specific serum antibody levels were measured using multiplex immunoassays. A number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within MHC Class I and II genes were found to be associated with variations in the vaccine specific antibody responses and serum levels of immunoglobulins (IgG, IgM) and IgG isotypes (IgG1, IgG4) (all at p<0.001). Linkage disequilibrium patterns and functional annotations showed that significant SNPs were strongly correlated with other functional regulatory SNPs. These SNPs were found to regulate the expression of a group of genes involved in antigen processing and presentation including HLA-A, HLA-C, HLA-G, HLA-H, HLA-DRA, HLA-DRB1, HLA-DRB5, HLA-DQA1, HLA-DQB1, HLA-DOB, and TAP-2. The results suggest that genetic variations within particular MHC genes can influence immune response to common childhood vaccinations, which in turn may influence vaccine efficacy.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · Vaccine
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    ABSTRACT: Irritant hand dermatitis (IHD) is common in health care workers. We studied endogenous irritant contact dermatitis threshold by patch testing and exogenous factors such as season and hand washing for their association with IHD in health care workers. Irritant patch testing with sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), sodium hydroxide, and benzalkonium chloride at varying concentrations was measured in 113 health care workers. Examination for hand dermatitis occurred at 1-month intervals for a period of 6 months in the Midwestern United States. Positive patch testing to low-concentration SLS was associated with IHD (P = 0.0310) after adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, season, history of childhood flexural dermatitis, mean indoor relative humidity, and glove and hand sanitizer usage. Subjects with a positive patch test to SLS were 78% more likely to have occurrence of IHD (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 1.78; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.92-3.45). Hand washing frequency (≥10 times a day; IRR = 1.55; 95% CI, 1.01-2.39) and cold season (IRR = 2.76; 95% CI, 1.35-5.65) were associated with IHD. No association was found between history of childhood flexural dermatitis and IHD in this population. Both genetic and environmental factors are important in the etiology of IHD and should be considered in designing strategies to protect, educate, and treat susceptible individuals.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2013 · Dermatitis
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Several epidemiological cross-sectional studies have found positive associations between serum concentrations of lipids and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, or C8). A longitudinal study should be less susceptible to biases from uncontrolled confounding or reverse causality. Methods: We investigated the association between within-individual changes in serum PFOA and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and changes in serum lipid levels (low-density lipoprotein [LDL] cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, and triglycerides) over a 4.4-year period. The study population consisted of 560 adults living in parts of Ohio and West Virginia where public drinking water had been contaminated with PFOA. They had participated in a cross-sectional study in 2005-2006, and were followed up in 2010, by which time exposure to PFOA had been substantially reduced. Results: Overall serum concentrations of PFOA and PFOS fell by half from initial geometric means of 74.8 and 18.5 ng/mL, respectively, with little corresponding change in LDL cholesterol (mean increase 1.8%, standard deviation 26.6%). However, there was a tendency for people with greater declines in serum PFOA or PFOS to have greater LDL decrease. For a person whose serum PFOA fell by half, the predicted fall in LDL cholesterol was 3.6% (95% confidence interval = 1.5-5.7%). The association with a decline in PFOS was even stronger, with a 5% decrease in LDL (2.5-7.4%). Conclusions: Our findings from this longitudinal study support previous evidence from cross-sectional studies of positive associations between PFOA and PFOS in serum and LDL cholesterol.
    No preview · Article · May 2013 · Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.)
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    ABSTRACT: Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, 'C8') and perfluoroctane sulphonate (PFOS) are environmentally stable compounds with industrial and consumer uses and long half-lives in humans. Concern has been raised over chronic exposure effects to human health, especially in relation to cholesterol metabolism. Here, we explore the association between exposure to PFOA and PFOS and the in vivo expression of genes involved in cholesterol metabolism. We studied 290 individuals exposed to background levels of PFOS and elevated concentrations of PFOA through drinking water. Using adjusted linear regression models, we found inverse associations between serum PFOA levels and the whole blood expression level of genes involved in cholesterol transport (NR1H2, NPC1 and ABCG1; p=0.002, 0.026 and 0.014 respectively). A positive association was seen between PFOS and a transcript involved in cholesterol mobilisation (NCEH1; p=0.018), and a negative relationship with a transcript involved in cholesterol transport (NR1H3; p=0.044). When sexes were analysed separately, reductions in the levels of mRNAs involved in cholesterol transport were seen with PFOA in men (NPC1, ABCG1, and PPARA; p=0.025, 0.024 and 0.012 respectively) and in women (NR1H2 expression; p=0.019), whereas an increase in the levels of a cholesterol mobilisation transcript (NCEH1; p=0.036) was noted in women alone. PFOS was positively associated with expression of genes involved in both cholesterol mobilisation and transport in women (NCEH1 and PPARA; p=0.003 and 0.039 respectively), but no effects were evident in men. This is the first report of associations between the in vivo expression of genes involved in cholesterol metabolism and exposure to PFOA or PFOS, suggested that exposure to these compounds may promote a hypercholesterolaemic environment, with wider implications for human disease.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2013 · Environment international
  • Roger G Growe · Michael I Luster · Patricia A Fail · Jack Lippes
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    ABSTRACT: Quinacrine has been widely used in treatment of parasitic diseases such as malaria and giardiasis, and in the treatment of autoimmune diseases. Quinacrine has also been used as an effective substitute for surgical contraception by causing occlusion of the fallopian tube. This minimally invasive treatment protocol involves intrauterine insertion of the drug in the form of pellets and has been studied in humans in a number of countries, including the United States. Despite its development in the 1970s, the cellular and molecular events induced by quinacrine in the human fallopian tube have not been described. Here we describe a plausible mechanism for quinacrine action in the fallopian tube. This is manifested as an acute pro-inflammatory response in the uterus and fallopian tube, characterized by loss of epithelial cell adhesion. This response relies on properties of gated channels found on the surface of epithelial cells in the reproductive tract. While the uterus returns to normal, the inflammatory response affects the uterotubal junction and transmural segment of the human fallopian tube, and initiates formation of mature collagen in the lumen of the fallopian tube, resulting in its permanent occlusion. The response within the fallopian tube appears similar to the protective mechanisms that have evolved in women to minimize the likelihood of systemic infection from Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and to some extent from Chlamydia trachomatis. This review could assist in development of experimental models used in investigating the mechanisms of fibrotic responses in humans as well as development of techniques for permanent non-surgical female contraception.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2013 · Journal of Reproductive Immunology
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    ABSTRACT: The Immunotoxicology Specialty Section of the Society of Toxicology (SOT) celebrated the 50(th) Anniversary of the SOT by constructing a poster to highlight the milestones of Immunotoxicology during that half-century period. This poster was assembled by an ad hoc committee and intertwines in words, citations, graphics, and photographs our attempts to capture a timeline reference of the development and progressive movement of immunotoxicology across the globe. This poster was displayed during the 50(th) Annual SOT Meeting in Washington DC in March, 2011. The poster can be accessed by any Reader at the SOT Website via the link http://www.toxicology.org/AI/MEET/AM2011/posters_rcsigss.asp#imss. We dedicate this poster to all of the founders and the scientists that followed them who have made the discipline of Immunotoxicology what it is today.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2012 · Journal of Immunotoxicology
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, a genome wide association study (GWAS) conducted in Korean subjects identified three CTNNA3 (alpha-T catenin) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs10762058, rs7088181, and rs4378283) associated with diisocyanate induced occupational asthma (DA). The CTNNA3 gene codes for a cadherin involved in formation of stretch-resistant cell-cell adhesions. We conducted a candidate gene association study to replicate these findings in Caucasian workers. Genotyping was performed on DNA using a 5' nuclease PCR assay collected from 410 diisocyanate exposed and predominantly Canadian workers including: 132 workers with DA confirmed by a specific inhalation challenge (DA+); 131 symptomatic workers in whom DA was excluded by a negative challenge (DA-); and 147 HDI-exposed asymptomatic workers (AWs). As in the Korean study, highly linked CTNNA3 rs7088181 and rs10762058 SNPs were significantly associated with DA+ when compared to AWs but not in comparison to DA- workers (p≤ 0.05). After adjusting for potentially confounding variables of age, smoking status and duration of exposure, minor allele homozygotes of rs7088181 and rs10762058 SNPs were at increased risk for DA compared with AWs [OR= 9.05 (95% CI:1.69, 48.54) and OR = 6.82 (95% CI:1.65, 28.24), respectively]. In conclusion, we replicated results from the only reported GWAS study of DA demonstrating an association between two closely linked CTNNA3 gene SNPs and DA. These findings lend further support to the clinical relevance of these genotypes in predicting susceptibility to DA and the potential importance of cadherins in the disease process.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2012 · Toxicological Sciences
  • Article: O-064

    No preview · Article · Sep 2012 · Epidemiology
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    ABSTRACT: Diisocyanates are a common cause of occupational asthma, but risk factors are not well defined. A case-control study was conducted to investigate whether genetic variants of antioxidant defense genes, glutathione S-transferases (GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTM3, GSTP1), manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2), and microsomal epoxide hydrolase (EPHX1) are associated with increased susceptibility to diisocyanate-induced asthma (DA). The main study population consisted of 353 Caucasian French-Canadians from among a larger sample of 410 diisocyanate-exposed workers in three groups: workers with specific inhalation challenge (SIC) confirmed DA (DA+, n = 95); symptomatic diisocyanate workers with a negative SIC (DA−, n = 116); and asymptomatic exposed workers (AW, n = 142). Genotyping was performed on genomic DNA, using a 5′-nuclease PCR assay. The SOD2 rs4880, GSTP1 rs1695, and EPHX1 rs2740171 variants were significantly associated with DA in both univariate and multivariate analyses. In the first logistic regression model comparing DA+ and DA− groups, SOD2 rs4880, GSTM1 (null), GSTP1 rs762803, and EPHX1 rs2854450 variants were associated with DA (p = 0.004, p = 0.047, p = 0.021, p <0.001, respectively). Genotype combinations GSTT1*GSTP1 rs762803, GSTM1*EPHX1 rs2854450, EPHX1 rs2740168*EPHX1 rs1051741, and GSTP1 rs762803*EPHX1 rs2740168 were also associated with DA in this model (p = 0.027, p = 0.002, p = 0.045, p = 0.044, respectively). The GSTP1 rs1695 and EPHX1 rs1051741 and rs2740171 variants showed an association with DA in the second model comparing DA+ and AW groups (p = 0.040, p = 0.019, p = 0.002, respectively). The GSTM3 rs110913*EPHX1 rs1051741 genotype combination was also associated with DA under this model (p = 0.042). The results suggest that variations in SOD2, GST, and EPHX1 genes and their interactions contribute to DA susceptibility.
    Full-text · Article · May 2012 · Toxicological Sciences
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    Kim E Innes · Alan M Ducatman · Michael I Luster · Anoop Shankar
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    ABSTRACT: Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are persistent environmental contaminants that affect metabolic regulation, inflammation, and other factors implicated in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA). However, the link between these compounds and OA remains unknown. In this study, the authors investigated the association of OA with PFOA and PFOS in a population of 49,432 adults from 6 PFOA-contaminated water districts in the mid-Ohio Valley (2005-2006). Participants completed a comprehensive health survey; serum levels of PFOA, PFOS, and a range of other blood markers were also measured. Medical history, including physician diagnosis of osteoarthritis, was assessed via self-report. Analyses included adjustment for demographic and lifestyle characteristics, body mass index, and other potential confounders. Reported OA showed a significant positive association with PFOA serum levels (for highest quartile of PFOA vs. lowest, adjusted odds ratio = 1.3, 95% confidence interval: 1.2, 1.5; P-trend = 0.00001) and a significant inverse association with PFOS (for highest quartile vs. lowest, adjusted odds ratio = 0.8, 95% confidence interval: 0.7, 0.9; P-trend = 0.00005). The relation between PFOA and OA was significantly stronger in younger and nonobese adults. Although the cross-sectional nature of this large, population-based study limits causal inference, the observed strong, divergent associations of reported OA with PFOA and PFOS may have important public health and etiologic implications and warrant further investigation.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2011 · American journal of epidemiology
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    Full-text · Article · Apr 2011 · The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology
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    ABSTRACT: This companion article offers an alternative interpretation for the quinacrine-induced uterine tumors observed in a 2-year bioassay in rats (CaBio, Cancel et al., 2010), and provides additional data from two new experiments that support a different interpretation and analysis. Our major premise is that the design of the Cancel et al. bioassay was flawed, particularly regarding dose selection that allowed for misinterpretation of carcinogenic activity. We feel the totality of the information provided herein dictates that the doses (70/70, 70/250 and 70/350 mg/kg quinacrine) causing uterine tumors in their study clearly exceeded the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) typically administered in chronic cancer studies. Our new data support this conclusion and serve to explain the development of lesions, especially the uterine tumors, they have reported. We argue that the rat uterus is not a valid surrogate for the human fallopian tube. Further, we maintain that quinacrine is not genotoxic in vivo, as suggested in their paper. In summary, we believe that quinacrine is not carcinogenic in rats at doses that do not exceed the MTD.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2010 · Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology

Publication Stats

12k Citations
1,036.40 Total Impact Points


  • 2011-2015
    • West Virginia University
      • • School of Public Health
      • • Department of Community Medicine
      • • Department of Medicine
      MGW, West Virginia, United States
  • 2008
    • United States National Transportation Safety Board
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
    • East Carolina University
      North Carolina, United States
  • 1996-2008
    • National Institute of Occupational Health
      Amadavad, Gujarat, India
  • 1978-2008
    • National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
      • Cellular & Molecular Pathology Branch
      Durham, North Carolina, United States
  • 2007
    • Molecular Toxicology, Inc.
      North Carolina, United States
  • 2002-2007
    • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
      • Health Effects Laboratory Division
      Атланта, Michigan, United States
    • Georgia State University
      • Division of Physical Therapy
      Atlanta, GA, United States
  • 2004
    • Honolulu University
      Honolulu, Hawaii, United States
  • 2001
    • Utrecht University
      Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands
  • 2000
    • University of Pittsburgh
      • Department of Environmental and Occupational Health
      Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 1986-1999
    • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
      • Department of Pharmacology
      North Carolina, United States
  • 1978-1996
    • National Institutes of Health
      Maryland, United States
  • 1995
    • University of Michigan
      • Department of Dermatology
      Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States
  • 1991-1992
    • Virginia Commonwealth University
      • Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology
      Ричмонд, Virginia, United States
  • 1980-1992
    • North Carolina State University
      • Department of Animal Science
      Raleigh, North Carolina, United States
  • 1984-1990
    • Northern Inyo Hospital
      BIH, California, United States