Adekunle Oloyede

Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia

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Publications (121)166.07 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: In this study, the authors examine the influence of joint chemical environment by measuring changes in the tribological properties(friction coefficient and charge density) of contacting surfaces of normal and degenerated cartilage samples in bath solutions of varying pH (2.0–9.0). Bovine articular cartilage samples (n = 54) were subjected to several surface measurements, including interfacial energy, contact angle, and friction coefficient, at varying pH. The samples were delipidized and then subjected to the same measurement protocols. Our results reveal that the interfacial energy and charge density, which have been shown to be related to friction coefficient, decrease with pH in the acidic range and approach constant values at physiological (or synovial fluid) pH of 7.4 and beyond it, i.e., toward basic pH domain. The authors conclude that this rather complex response explains the long-term efficacy with respect to ageing and associated pH changes, of the phospholipid layers that facilitate the almost frictionless, hydration–lubrication involving contact in the mammalian musculoskeletal system.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2016 · Biointerphases
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    ABSTRACT: Interfragmentary movement (IFM) at the fracture site plays an important role in fracture healing, particularly during its early stage, via influencing the mechanical microenvironment of mesenchymal stem cells within the fracture callus. However, the effect of changes in IFM resulting from the changes in the configuration of locking plate fixation on cell differentiation has not yet been fully understood. In this study, mechanical experiments on surrogate tibia specimens, manufactured from specially formulated polyurethane, were conducted to investigate changes in IFM of fractures under various locking plate fixation configurations and loading magnitudes. The effect of the observed IFM on callus cell differentiation was then further studied using computational simulation. We found that during the early stage, cell differentiation in the fracture callus is highly influenced by fracture gap size and IFM, which in turn, is highly sensitive to locking plate fixation configuration. The computational model predicted that a small gap size (e.g. 1 mm) under a relatively flexible configuration of locking plate fixation (larger bone-plate distances and working lengths) could experience excessive strain and fluid flow within the fracture site, resulting in excessive fibrous tissue differentiation and delayed healing. By contrast, a relatively flexible configuration of locking plate fixation was predicted to improve cartilaginous callus formation and bone healing for a relatively larger gap size (e.g. 3 mm). If further confirmed by animal and human studies, the research outcome of this paper may have implications for orthopaedic surgeons in optimising the application of locking plate fixations for fractures in clinical practice. © 2015 Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Australasian physical & engineering sciences in medicine / supported by the Australasian College of Physical Scientists in Medicine and the Australasian Association of Physical Sciences in Medicine
  • Y. N. Xu · M. N. Liu · M. C. Wang · A. Oloyede · J. M. Bell · C. Yan
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    ABSTRACT: Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotube arrays are attracting increasing attention for use in solar cells, lithium-ion batteries, and biomedical implants. To take full advantage of their unique physical properties, such arrays need to maintain adequate mechanical integrity in applications. However, the mechanical performance of TiO2 nanotube arrays is not well understood. In this work, we investigate the deformation and failure of TiO2 nanotube arrays using the nanoindentation technique. We found that the load–displacement response of the arrays strongly depends on the indentation depth and indenter shape. Substrate-independent elastic modulus and hardness can be obtained when the indentation depth is less than 2.5% of the array height. The deformation mechanisms of TiO2 nanotube arrays by Berkovich and conical indenters are closely associated with the densification of TiO2 nanotubes under compression. A theoretical model for deformation of the arrays under a large-radius conical indenter is also proposed.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Journal of Applied Physics
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    ABSTRACT: The application of decellularized extracellular matrices to aid tissue regeneration in reconstructive surgery and regenerative medicine has been promising. Several decellularization protocols for removing cellular materials from natural tissues such as heart valves are currently in use. This paper evaluates the feasibility of potential extension of this methodology relative to the desirable properties of load bearing joint tissues such as stiffness, porosity and ability to recover adequately after deformation to facilitate physiological function. Two decellularization protocols, namely: Trypsin and Triton X-100 were evaluated against their effects on bovine articular cartilage, using biomechanical, biochemical and microstructural techniques. These analyses revealed that decellularization with trypsin resulted in severe loss of mechanical stiffness including deleterious collapse of the collagen architecture which in turn significantly compromised the porosity of the construct. In contrast, triton X-100 detergent treatment yielded samples that retain mechanical stiffness relative to that of the normal intact cartilage sample, but the resulting construct contained ruminant cellular constituents. We conclude that both of these common decellularization protocols are inadequate for producing constructs that can serve as effective replacement and scaffolds to regenerate articular joint tissue. © 2015, The Korean Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine Society and Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Natural nanopatterned surfaces (nNPS) present on insect wings have demonstrated bactericidal activity [1, 2]. Fabricated nanopatterned surfaces (fNPS) derived by characterization of these wings have also shown superior bactericidal activity [2]. However bactericidal NPS topologies vary in both geometry and chemical characteristics of the individual features in different insects and fabricated surfaces, rendering it difficult to ascertain the optimum geometrical parameters underling bactericidal activity. This situation calls for the adaptation of new and emerging techniques, which are capable of fabricating and characterising comparable structures to nNPS from biocompatible materials. In this research, CAD drawn nNPS representing an area of 10 μm x10 μm was fabricated on a fused silica glass by Nanoscribe photonic professional GT 3D laser lithography system using two photon polymerization lithography. The glass was cleaned with acetone and isopropyl alcohol thrice and a drop of IP-DIP photoresist from Nanoscribe GmbH was cast onto the glass slide prior to patterning. Photosensitive IP-DIP resist was polymerized with high precision to make the surface nanopatterns using a 780 nm wavelength laser. Both moving-beam fixed-sample (MBFS) and fixed-beam moving-sample (FBMS) fabrication approaches were tested during the fabrication process to determine the best approach for the precise fabrication of the required nanotopological pattern. Laser power was also optimized to fabricate the required fNPS, where this was changed from 3mW to 10mW to determine the optimum laser power for the polymerization of the photoresist for fabricating FNPS. The power of 4 mW was the best for the fabrication of CAD drawn pattern by both fabrication approaches (see Figures 2 & 3). The Individual geometrical parameters of fabricated single nanopillars were approximately 200 nm (height), 100 nm (diam,) and 150 nm apart from each other. To fabricate 10 μm x10 μm surface area at 4 mW laser power using MBFS approach took 2 minutes while FBMS approach took 13 minutes. Defects were found in the faster MBFS-fabricated (Figure 3a) in contrast with the FBMS approach that produced defect-free features with high precision (Figure 3b); however, due to limitations in spatial resolution, its fabricate features were limited to 100 nm. The patterns were characterized by FE-SEM. We conclude that photopolymerisation technique is well suited to fabrication of nanotopological features that are aimed at the study of bactericidal activity on nanopatterned surfaces. Acknowledgement:
    Full-text · Conference Paper · Sep 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Due to anatomical and biomechanical similarities to human shoulder, kangaroo was chosen as a model to study shoulder cartilage. Comprehensive enzymatic degradation and indentation tests were applied on kangaroo shoulder cartilage to study mechanisms underlying its strain-rate-dependent mechanical behavior. We report that superficial collagen plays a more significant role than proteoglycans in facilitating strain-rate-dependent behavior of the kangaroo shoulder cartilage. By comparing the mechanical properties of degraded and normal cartilages, it was noted that proteoglycan and collagen degradation significantly compromised strain-rate-dependent mechanical behavior of the cartilage. Superficial collagen contributed equally to the tissue behavior at all strain-rates. This is different to the studies reported on knee cartilage and confirms the importance of superficial collagen on shoulder cartilage mechanical behavior. A porohyperelastic numerical model also indicated that collagen disruption would lead to faster damage of the shoulder cartilage than when proteoglycans are depleted.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Applied Physics Letters
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigates the relationship between the optical response of human articular cartilage in the visible (VIS) and near infrared (NIR) spectral range and its matrix properties.Full-thickness osteochondral cores (dia. = 16 mm, n = 50) were extracted from human cadaver knees (N = 13) at four anatomical locations and divided into quadrants. Absorption spectra were acquired in the spectral range 400-1100 nm from one quadrant. Reference biomechanical, biochemical composition, histological, and cartilage thickness measurements were obtained from two other quadrants. A multivariate statistical technique based on partial least squares (PLS) regression was then employed to investigate the correlation between the absorption spectra and tissue properties.Our results demonstrate that cartilage optical response correlates with its function, composition and morphology, as indicated by the significant relationship between spectral predicted and measured biomechanical (79.0% ⩽ R(2) ⩽ 80.3%, p < 0.0001), biochemical (65.1% ⩽ R(2) ⩽ 81.0%, p < 0.0001), and histological scores ([Formula: see text] = 83.3%, p < 0.0001) properties. Significant correlation was also obtained with the non-calcified cartilage thickness ([Formula: see text] = 83.2%, p < 0.0001).We conclude that optical absorption of human cartilage in the VIS and NIR spectral range correlates with the overall tissue properties, thus providing knowledge that could facilitate development of systems for rapid assessment of tissue integrity.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Physiological Measurement
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    ABSTRACT: Solid-interstitial fluid interaction, which depends on tissue permeability, is significant to the strain-rate-dependent mechanical behavior of humeral head (shoulder) cartilage. Due to anatomical and biomechanical similarities to that of the human shoulder, kangaroos present a suitable animal model. Therefore, indentation experiments were conducted on kangaroo shoulder cartilage tissues from low (10(-4)/s) to moderately high (10(-2)/s) strain-rates. A porohyperelastic model was developed based on the experimental characterization; and a permeability function that takes into account the effect of strain-rate on permeability (strain-rate-dependent permeability) was introduced into the model to investigate the effect of rate-dependent fluid flow on tissue response. The prediction of the model with the strain-rate-dependent permeability was compared with those of the models using constant permeability and strain-dependent permeability. Compared to the model with constant permeability, the models with strain-dependent and strain-rate-dependent permeability were able to better capture the experimental variation at all strain-rates (p<0.05). Significant differences were not identified between models with strain-dependent and strain-rate-dependent permeability at strain-rate of 5×10(-3)/s (p=0.179). However, at strain-rate of 10(-2)/s, the model with strain-rate-dependent permeability was significantly better at capturing the experimental results (p<0.005). The findings thus revealed the significance of rate-dependent fluid flow on tissue behavior at large strain-rates, which provides insights into the mechanical deformation mechanisms of cartilage tissues. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015
  • Trung Dung Nguyen · Adekunle Oloyede · Sanjleena Singh · YuanTong Gu
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    ABSTRACT: Besides the elastic stiffness, the relaxation behavior of single living cells is also of interest of various researchers when studying cell mechanics. It is hypothesized that the relaxation response of the cells is governed by both intrinsic viscoelasticity of the solid phase and fluid-solid interactions mechanisms. There are a number of mechanical models have been developed to investigate the relaxation behavior of single cells. However, there is lack of model enable to accurately capture both of the mechanisms. Therefore, in this study, the porohyperelastic (PHE) model, which is an extension of the consolidation theory, combined with inverse Finite Element Analysis (FEA) technique was used at the first time to investigate the relaxation response of living chondrocytes. This model was also utilized to study the dependence of relaxation behavior of the cells on strain-rates. The stress-relaxation experiments under the various strain-rates were conducted with the Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The results have demonstrated that the PHE model could effectively capture the stress-relaxation behavior of the living chondrocytes, especially at intermediate to high strain-rates. Although this model gave some errors at lower strain-rates, its performance was acceptable. Therefore, the PHE model is properly a promising model for single cell mechanics studies. Moreover, it has been found that the hydraulic permeability of living chondrocytes reduced with decreasing of strain-rates. It might be due to the intracellular fluid volume fraction and the fluid pore pressure gradients of chondrocytes were higher when higher strain-rates applied. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
  • Tong Li · Ling Liu · Dean Hu · Adekunle Oloyede · Yin Xiao · Prasad Yarlagadda · YuanTong Gu
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    ABSTRACT: Rheological property of F-actin cytoskeleton is significant to the restructuring of cytoskeleton under a variety of cell activities. This study numerically validates the rheological property of F-actin cytoskeleton is not only a result of kinetic energy dissipation of F-actin, but also greatly depends on the configuration remodeling of networks structure. Both filament geometry and crosslinker properties can affect the remodeling of F-actin cytoskeleton. The crosslinker unbinding is found to dissipate energy and induce prominent stress relaxation in the F-actin adjacent to cross-linkages. Coupled with F-actin elasticity, the energy dissipation and stress relaxation are more significant in bundled F-actin networks than in single F-actin networks.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering
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    ABSTRACT: Diagnosis of articular cartilage pathology in the early disease stages using current clinical diagnostic imaging modalities is challenging, particularly because there is often no visible change in the tissue surface and matrix content, such as proteoglycans (PG). In this study, we propose the use of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy to spatially map PG content in articular cartilage. The relationship between NIR spectra and reference data (PG content) obtained from histology of normal and artificially induced PG-depleted cartilage samples was investigated using principal component (PC) and partial least squares (PLS) regression analyses. Significant correlation was obtained between both data (R2 = 91.40%, p<0.0001). The resulting correlation was used to predict PG content from spectra acquired from whole joint sample, this was then employed to spatially map this component of cartilage across the intact sample. We conclude that NIR spectroscopy is a feasible tool for evaluating cartilage contents and mapping their distribution across mammalian joint.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Biomedical Optics Express
  • Trung Dung Nguyen · Adekunle Oloyede · Yuantong Gu
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this paper is to use a poroviscohyperelastic (PVHE) model, which is developed based on the porohyperelastic (PHE) model to explore the mechanical deformation properties of single chondrocytes. Both creep and relaxation responses are investigated by using finite element analysis models of micropipette aspiration and atomic force microscopy experiments, respectively. The newly developed PVHE model is compared thoroughly with the standard neo-Hookean solid and PHE models. It has been found that the PVHE can accurately capture both creep and stress relaxation behaviors of chondrocytes better than other two models. Hence, the PVHE is a promising model to investigate mechanical properties of single chondrocytes.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
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    ABSTRACT: Living cells are the functional unit of organs that controls reactions to their exterior. However, the mechanics of living cells can be difficult to characterize due to the crypticity of their microscale structures and associated dynamic cellular processes. Fortunately, multiscale modelling provides a powerful simulation tool that can be used to study the mechanical properties of these soft hierarchical, biological systems. This paper reviews recent developments in hierarchical multiscale modeling technique that aimed at understanding cytoskeleton mechanics. Discussions are expanded with respects to cytoskeletal components including: intermediate filaments, microtubules and microfilament networks. The mechanical performance of difference cytoskeleton components are discussed with respect to their structural and material properties. Explicit granular simulation methods are adopted with different coarse-grained strategies for these cytoskeleton components and the simulation details are introduced in this review.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015
  • Trung Dung Nguyen · Yuantong Gu · Adekunle Oloyede · Wijitha Senadeera
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    ABSTRACT: Various studies have been conducted to investigate the effects of impact loading on cartilage damage and chondrocyte death. These have shown that the rate and magnitude of the applied strain significantly influence chondrocyte death, and that cell death occurred mostly in the superficial zone of cartilage suggesting the need to further understand the fundamental mechanisms underlying the chondrocytes death induced at certain levels of strain-rate. To date there is no comprehensive study providing insight on this phenomenon. The aim of this study is to examine the strain-rate dependent behavior of a single chondrocyte using a computational approach based on finite element method (FEM). An FEM model was developed using various mechanical models, which were standard Neo-Hookean solid (SnHS), porohyperelastic (PHE) and poroviscohyperelastic (PVHE) to simulate atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments of chondrocyte. The PVHE showed, it can capture both relaxation and loading rate dependent behaviors of chondrocytes, accurately compared to other models.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · International Journal of Computational Methods
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the potential of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for characterizing the health and degenerative state of articular cartilage based on the components of the Mankin score. Methods Three models of osteoarthritic degeneration induced in laboratory rats by anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) transection, meniscectomy (MSX), and intra-articular injection of monoiodoacetate (1 mg) (MIA) were used in this study. Degeneration was induced in the right knee joint; each model group consisted of 12 rats (N = 36). After 8 weeks, the animals were euthanized and knee joints were collected. A custom-made diffuse reflectance NIR probe of 5-mm diameter was placed on the tibial and femoral surfaces, and spectral data were acquired from each specimen in the wave number range of 4,000 to 12,500 cm−1. After spectral data acquisition, the specimens were fixed and safranin O staining (SOS) was performed to assess disease severity based on the Mankin scoring system. Using multivariate statistical analysis, with spectral preprocessing and wavelength selection technique, the spectral data were then correlated to the structural integrity (SI), cellularity (CEL), and matrix staining (SOS) components of the Mankin score for all the samples tested. Results ACL models showed mild cartilage degeneration, MSX models had moderate degeneration, and MIA models showed severe cartilage degenerative changes both morphologically and histologically. Our results reveal significant linear correlations between the NIR absorption spectra and SI (R2 = 94.78%), CEL (R2 = 88.03%), and SOS (R2 = 96.39%) parameters of all samples in the models. In addition, clustering of the samples according to their level of degeneration, with respect to the Mankin components, was also observed. Conclusions NIR spectroscopic probing of articular cartilage can potentially provide critical information about the health of articular cartilage matrix in early and advanced stages of osteoarthritis (OA). Clinical Relevance This rapid nondestructive method can facilitate clinical appraisal of articular cartilage integrity during arthroscopic surgery.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Arthroscopy The Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery
  • Trung Dung Nguyen · Adekunle Oloyede · Yuantong Gu
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    ABSTRACT: Based on atomic force microscopytechnique, we found that the chondrocytes exhibits stress relaxation behavior. We explored the mechanism of this stress relaxation behavior and concluded that the intracellular fluid exuding out from the cells during deformation plays the most important role in the stress relaxation. We applied the inverse finite element analysis technique to determine necessary material parameters for porohyperelastic (PHE) model to simulate stress relaxation behavior as this model is proven capable of capturing the non-linear behavior and the fluid-solid interaction during the stress relaxation of the single chondrocytes. It is observed that PHE model can precisely capture the stress relaxation behavior of single chondrocytes and would be a suitable model for cell biomechanics.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014
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    ABSTRACT: It is widely accepted that bone healing is influenced by biomechanical microenvironment of the fracture site. However achieving an optimal biomechanical microenvironment is challenging in clinical practice and depends on numerous factors such as fracture fixation, fracture geometry and loading. Application of locking compression plates (LCP) for fracture fixation has recently become popular as it leads to early mobility of injured extremity. However clinical studies have suggested that the LCP might not be flexible enough to reliably induce interfragmentary movement (IFM). In addition, the IFM is not uniform for fractures under LCP and is much smaller at the near cortex than that at the far cortex resulting in asymmetric callus formation and possibly delayed healing. To investigate bone healing under LCP we have conducted a series of mechanical experiments on surrogate fractures stabilized by LCP to measure the IFM at the near and far cortex of fractures under different configurations of LCP. Following the experiments, the geometry of surrogate fracture was reconstructed by its CT scan images and exported into finite element software COMSOL Multiphysics for computational simulation. After validation of fracture IFM predicted by the model with that of the experiment, a poroelastic callus tissue was incorporated into the model to investigate the biomechanical microenvironment of the tissue and to simulate early-stage bone healing by using the mechanoregulation theories. The simulation results indicate that under rigid configurations of LCP, the formation of cartilaginous callus is very small at the near cortex which is an indication of delayed healing. Adjusting the flexibility of LCP via increasing the plate working length and the bone-plate distance under adequate external loadings can increase the IFM at the near cortex and result in symmetric callus development and improved healing. The developed model can potentially assist orthopaedic surgeons in designing surgical procedure for individual patient.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Aug 2014
  • Tong Li · Yuan Tong Gu · Adekunle Oloyede
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    ABSTRACT: A multiscale approach that bridges the biophysics of the actin molecules at nanoscale and the biomechanics of actin filament at microscale level is developed and used to evaluate the mechanical performances of actin filament bundles. In order to investigate the contractile properties of skeletal muscle which is induced by the protein motor of myosin, a molecular model is proposed in the prediction of the dynamic behaviors of skeletal muscle based on classic sliding filament model. Randomly distributed myosin motors are applied on a 2.2 μm long sarcomere, whose principal components include actin and myosin filaments. It can be found that, the more myosin motors on the sarcomere, the faster the sarcomere contracts. The result demonstrates that the sarcomere shortening speed cannot increase infinitely by the modulation of myosin, thus providing insight into the self-protective properties of skeletal muscles. This molecular filament sliding model provides a theoretical way to evaluate the properties of skeletal muscles, and contributes to the understandings of the molecular mechanisms in the physiological phenomenon of muscular contraction.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Science of Advanced Materials
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    ABSTRACT: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers the opportunity to study biological tissues and processes in a non-disruptive manner. The technique shows promise for the study of the load-bearing performance (consolidation) of articular cartilage and changes in articular cartilage accompanying osteoarthritis. Consolidation of articular cartilage involves the recording of two transient characteristics: the change over time of strain and the hydrostatic excess pore pressure (HEPP). MRI study of cartilage consolidation under mechanical load is limited by difficulties in measuring the HEPP in the presence of the strong magnetic fields associated with the MRI technique. Here we describe the use of MRI to image and characterize bovine articular cartilage deforming under load in an MRI compatible consolidometer while monitoring pressure with a Fabry-Perot interferometer-based fiber-optic pressure transducer.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Sensors
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    ABSTRACT: Articular cartilage is the load-bearing tissue that consists of proteoglycan macromolecules entrapped between collagen fibrils in a three-dimensional architecture. To date, the drudgery of searching for mathematical models to represent the biomechanics of such a system continues without providing a fitting description of its functional response to load at micro-scale level. We believe that the major complication arose when cartilage was first envisaged as a multiphasic model with distinguishable components and that quantifying those and searching for the laws that govern their interaction is inadequate. To the thesis of this paper, cartilage as a bulk is as much continuum as is the response of its components to the external stimuli. For this reason, we framed the fundamental question as to what would be the mechano-structural functionality of such a system in the total absence of one of its key constituents-proteoglycans. To answer this, hydrated normal and proteoglycan depleted samples were tested under confined compression while finite element models were reproduced, for the first time, based on the structural microarchitecture of the cross-sectional profile of the matrices. These micro-porous in silico models served as virtual transducers to produce an internal noninvasive probing mechanism beyond experimental capabilities to render the matrices micromechanics and several others properties like permeability, orientation etc. The results demonstrated that load transfer was closely related to the microarchitecture of the hyperelastic models that represent solid skeleton stress and fluid response based on the state of the collagen network with and without the swollen proteoglycans. In other words, the stress gradient during deformation was a function of the structural pattern of the network and acted in concert with the position-dependent compositional state of the matrix. This reveals that the interaction between indistinguishable components in real cartilage is superimposed by its microarchitectural state which directly influences macromechanical behavior.
    Full-text · Conference Paper · Apr 2014

Publication Stats

1k Citations
166.07 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1996-2015
    • Queensland University of Technology
      • • Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation
      • • School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering
      • • School of Civil Engineering and Built Environment
      Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
  • 2014
    • Society for Biomaterials
      Society Hill, New Jersey, United States
  • 1991-1996
    • University of Auckland
      • Department of Mechanical Engineering
      Окленд, Auckland, New Zealand