[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) populations in Florida (T. m. latirostris) and Puerto Rico (T. m. manatus) are considered distinct subspecies and are listed together as endangered under the United States Endangered Species Act. Sustained management and conservation efforts for the Florida subspecies have led to the suggested reclassification of the species to a threatened or delisted status. However, the two populations are geographically distant, morphologically distinct, and habitat degradation and boat strikes continue to threaten the Puerto Rico population. Here, 15 microsatellite markers and mitochondrial control region sequences were used to determine the relatedness of the two populations and investigate the genetic diversity and phylogeographic organization of the Puerto Rico population. Highly divergent allele frequencies were identified between Florida and Puerto Rico using microsatellite (FST = 0.16; RST = 0.12 (P < 0.001)) and mitochondrial (FST = 0.66; ФST = 0.50 (P < 0.001)) DNA. Microsatellite Bayesian cluster analyses detected two populations (K = 2) and no admixture or recent migrants between Florida (q = 0.99) and Puerto Rico (q = 0.98). The microsatellite genetic diversity values in Puerto Rico (HE = 0.45; NA = 3.9), were similar, but lower than those previously identified in Florida (HE = 0.48, NA = 4.8). Within Puerto Rico, the mitochondrial genetic diversity values (π = 0.001; h = 0.49) were slightly lower than those previously reported (π = 0.002; h = 0.54) and strong phylogeographic structure was identified (FST
global = 0.82; ФST global = 0.78 (P < 0.001)). The genetic division with Florida, low diversity, small population size (N = 250), and distinct threats and habitat emphasize the need for separate protections in Puerto Rico. Conservation efforts including threat mitigation, migration corridors, and protection of subpopulations could lead to improved genetic variation in the endangered Puerto Rico manatee population.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2012 · Conservation Genetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Species of management concern that have been affected by human activities typically are characterized by low genetic diversity, which can adversely affect their ability to adapt to environmental changes. We used 18 microsatellite markers to genotype 362 Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris), and investigated genetic diversity, population structure, and estimated genetically effective population size (Ne). The observed and expected heterozygosity and average number of alleles were 0.455 ± 0.04, 0.479 ± 0.04, and 4.77 ± 0.51, respectively. All measures of Florida manatee genetic diversity were less than averages reported for placental mammals, including fragmented or nonideal populations. Overall estimates of differentiation were low, though significantly greater than zero, and analysis of molecular variance revealed that over 95% of the total variance was among individuals within predefined management units or among individuals along the coastal subpopulations, with only minor portions of variance explained by between group variance. Although genetic issues, as inferred by neutral genetic markers, appear not to be critical at present, the Florida manatee continues to face demographic challenges due to anthropogenic activities and stochastic factors such as red tides, oil spills, and disease outbreaks; these can further reduce genetic diversity of the manatee population.
No preview · Article · Dec 2012 · Journal of Mammalogy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Species of management concern that have been affected by human activities typically are characterized by low genetic diversity, which can adversely affect their ability to adapt to environmental changes. We used 18 microsatellite markers to genotype 362 Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris), and investigated genetic diversity, population structure, and estimated genetically effective population size (N e ). The observed and expected heterozygosity and average number of alleles were 0.455 ± 0.04, 0.479 ± 0.04, and 4.77 ± 0.51, respectively. All measures of Florida manatee genetic diversity were less than averages reported for placental mammals, including fragmented or nonideal populations. Overall estimates of differentiation were low, though significantly greater than zero, and analysis of molecular variance revealed that over 95% of the total variance was among individuals within predefined management units or among individuals along the coastal subpopulations, with only minor portions of variance explained by between group variance. Although genetic issues, as inferred by neutral genetic markers, appear not to be critical at present, the Florida manatee continues to face demographic challenges due to anthropogenic activities and stochastic factors such as red tides, oil spills, and disease outbreaks; these can further reduce genetic diversity of the manatee population.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2012 · Journal of Mammalogy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We reconstructed the demographic history of the plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae) on the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau by using genetic variation data obtained from spatially distributed populations across much of the plateau. We obtained sequence data, including cob (1,140 bp) and D-loop sequences (732 bp), from 144 individuals at sites ranging from the high-altitude interior to the relatively low-altitude northeastern plateau, and identified 37 and 42 unique haplotypes, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis and haplotype networks based on the individual and the combined datasets of cob and D-loop sequences clustered all populations into four well-supported major groups, and the interaction between vicariance, dispersal, and habitat fragmentation resulted in the current geographical distribution and genetic diversity of O. curzoniae on the plateau. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) and mismatch distribution suggested that the recent continuous uplifts of the plateau contributed to the radiation and diversification of the O. curzoniae populations occurring there.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2012 · ZOOLOGICAL SCIENCE
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Managers faced with decisions on threatened and endangered wildlife populations often are lacking detailed information about the species of concern. Integration of genetic applications will provide management teams with a better ability to assess and monitor recovery efforts on imperiled species. The field of molecular biology continues to progress rapidly and many tools are currently available. Currently, little guidance is available to assist researchers and managers with the appropriate selection of genetic tools to study the status of wild manatee populations. We discuss several genetic tools currently employed in the application of conservation genetics, and address the utility of using these tools to determine population status to aid in conservation efforts. As an example, special emphasis is focused on the endangered West Indian manatee (Order Sirenia). All four extant species of sirenians are imperiled throughout their range, predominately due to anthropogenic sources; therefore, the need for genetic information on their population status is direly needed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus) occupies the tropical coastal waters of the Greater Antilles and Caribbean, extending from Mexico along Central and South America to Brazil. Historically, manatees were abundant in Mexico, but hunting during the pre-Columbian period, the Spanish colonization and throughout the history of Mexico, has resulted in the significantly reduced population occupying Mexico today. The genetic structure, using microsatellites, shows the presence of two populations in Mexico: the Gulf of Mexico (GMx) and Chetumal Bay (ChB) on the Caribbean coast, with a zone of admixture in between. Both populations show low genetic diversity (GMx: N(A) = 2.69; H(E) = 0.41 and ChB: N(A) = 3.0; H(E) = 0.46). The lower genetic diversity found in the GMx, the largest manatee population in Mexico, is probably due to a combination of a founder effect, as this is the northern range of the sub-species of T. m. manatus, and a bottleneck event. The greater genetic diversity observed along the Caribbean coast, which also has the smallest estimated number of individuals, is possibly due to manatees that come from the GMx and Belize. There is evidence to support limited or unidirectional gene flow between these two important areas. The analyses presented here also suggest minimal evidence of a handful of individual migrants possibly between Florida and Mexico. To address management issues we suggest considering two distinct genetic populations in Mexico, one along the Caribbean coast and one in the riverine systems connected to the GMx.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Antillean subspecies of the West Indian manatee Trichechus manatus is found throughout Central and South America and the Caribbean. Because of severe hunting pressure during the 17th through 19th centuries, only small populations of the once widespread aquatic mammal remain. Fortunately, protections in Belize reduced hunting in the 1930s and allowed the country's manatee population to become the largest breeding population in the Wider Caribbean. However, increasing and emerging anthropogenic threats such as coastal development, pollution, watercraft collision and net entanglement represent challenges to this ecologically important population. To inform conservation and management decisions, a comprehensive molecular investigation of the genetic diversity, relatedness and population structure of the Belize manatee population was conducted using mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA. Compared with other mammal populations, a low degree of genetic diversity was detected (HE=0.455; NA=3.4), corresponding to the small population size and long-term exploitation. Manatees from the Belize City Cayes and Southern Lagoon system were genetically different, with microsatellite and mitochondrial FST values of 0.029 and 0.078, respectively (P≤0.05). This, along with the distinct habitats and threats, indicates that separate protection of these two groups would best preserve the region's diversity. The Belize population and Florida subspecies appear to be unrelated with microsatellite and mitochondrial FST values of 0.141 and 0.63, respectively (P≤0.001), supporting the subspecies designations and suggesting low vagility throughout the northern Caribbean habitat. Further monitoring and protection may allow an increase in the Belize manatee genetic diversity and population size. A large and expanding Belize population could potentially assist in the recovery of other threatened or functionally extinct Central American Antillean manatee populations.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2010 · Animal Conservation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Australian dugong (Dugong dugon) and Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) are threatened species of aquatic mammals in the order Sirenia. Sirenian conservation and management actions would benefit from a more complete understanding of genetic diversity and population structure. Generally, species-specific microsatellite markers are employed in conservation genetic studies; however, robust markers can be difficult and costly to isolate. To increase the number of available markers, dugong and manatee microsatellite primers were evaluated for cross-species amplification. Furthermore, one manatee and four dugong novel primers are reported. After polymerase chain reaction optimization, 23 (92%) manatee primers successfully amplified dugong DNA, of which 11 (48%) were polymorphic. Of the 32 dugong primers tested, 27 (84%) yielded product in the manatee, of which 17 (63%) were polymorphic. Dugong and manatee primers were compared and the most informative markers were selected to create robust and informative marker-panels for each species. These cross-species microsatellite marker-panels can be employed to assess other sirenian populations and can provide beneficial information for the protection and management of these unique mammals.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2010 · Molecular Ecology Resources
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Analyses of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (1140 bp) showed that Dremomys lokriah, D. pernyi, D. pyrrhomerus, D. rufigenis and D. gularis all are separate species. Dremomys pyrrhomerus showed 8.5% sequence variation from D. rufigenis, and the level of estimated sequence divergence observed among D. gularis, D. lokriah and D. pernyi was > 11%. With Tamiops and Callosciurus as the outgroup taxa, in both maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses, the five Dremomys species formed one strongly supported monophyletic group and D. pyrrhomerus is closely related to D. rufigenis. The derived divergence times and fossil record suggested that the present geographical distributions of Dremomys owe much to the uplifting of the Himalayas and the successive glacial and interglacial in the Pliocene–Pleistocene.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2008 · Zoologica Scripta
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have investigated the cytotoxic and antitumour activity of an octadecenoic acid extract, mainly containing oleic and linoleic acids, from Euphorbia kansui on human gastric (SGC-7901), hepatocellular carcinoma (BEL-7402), and leukaemia (HL-60) tumour cell strains. Significant and dose-dependent antiproliferation effects were observed on tumour cells from the dose of 3.2 microg mL(-1), which were comparable with or better than those of the common antitumour agent 5-fluorouracil. Results from the clone formation assay and flow cytometry indicated that the mixture of octadecenoic acids resulted in a dose-dependent reduction in the number of tumour cells and significantly inhibited cell proliferation, with induced apoptosis and G(0)/G(1) phase cell cycle arrest. Also, the octadecenoic acids could not only cause cell apoptosis/necrosis but also functionally and structurally damage the tumour cell membrane and cell ultra-structures. These observations encourage further clinical evaluation of the inhibitory effects of octadecenoic acids on various forms of cancer.
No preview · Article · Mar 2008 · Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) are marine mammals that inhabit the coastal waters and rivers of the southeastern USA, primarily Florida. Previous studies have shown that Florida manatees have low mitochondrial DNA variability, suggesting that nuclear DNA loci are necessary for discriminatory analyses. Here we report 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci with an average of 4.2 alleles per locus, and average heterozygosity of 50.1%. These loci have been developed for use in population studies, parentage assignment, and individual identification.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper describes the effects of an ethanolic extract of Hydrocotyle sibthorpioides on transplanted tumors and immunologic function in mice. When the H. sibthorpioides extract was administered orally at a dose of 1.5 or 3.0 g/kg body wt./day for 10 days, the inhibition rates for murine hepatic carcinoma clone (Hep), sarcoma 180 crocker clone (S(180)), and uterine cervical carcinoma clone (U(14)) were significantly enhanced. The antitumor activity of H. sibthorpioides is comparable to that of the common antitumor agent 5-fluorouracil. Also, our results indicate that the H. sibthorpioides extract promoted the thymus and spleen indices, and humoral immunity of mice. These observations demonstrated that H. sibthorpioides exerted a potent inhibitory effect on the growth of tumors, in addition to mediating immunomodulatory effects in mice.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Sirenia (manatees, dugongs and Stellar's sea cow) have no evolutionary relationship with other marine mammals, despite similarities in adaptations and body shape. Recent phylogenomic results place Sirenia in Afrotheria and with elephants and rock hyraxes in Paenungulata. Sirenia and Hyracoidea are the two afrotherian orders as yet unstudied by comparative molecular cytogenetics. Here we report on the chromosome painting of the Florida manatee.
The human autosomal and X chromosome paints delimited a total of 44 homologous segments in the manatee genome. The synteny of nine of the 22 human autosomal chromosomes (4, 5, 6, 9, 11, 14, 17, 18 and 20) and the X chromosome were found intact in the manatee. The syntenies of other human chromosomes were disrupted in the manatee genome into two to five segments. The hybridization pattern revealed that 20 (15 unique) associations of human chromosome segments are found in the manatee genome: 1/15, 1/19, 2/3 (twice), 3/7 (twice), 3/13, 3/21, 5/21, 7/16, 8/22, 10/12 (twice), 11/20, 12/22 (three times), 14/15, 16/19 and 18/19.
There are five derived chromosome traits that strongly link elephants with manatees in Tethytheria and give implicit support to Paenungulata: the associations 2/3, 3/13, 8/22, 18/19 and the loss of the ancestral eutherian 4/8 association. It would be useful to test these conclusions with chromosome painting in hyraxes. The manatee chromosome painting data confirm that the associations 1/19 and 5/21 phylogenetically link afrotherian species and show that Afrotheria is a natural clade. The association 10/12/22 is also ubiquitous in Afrotheria (clade I), present in Laurasiatheria (clade IV), only partially present in Xenarthra (10/12, clade II) and absent in Euarchontoglires (clade III). If Afrotheria is basal to eutherians, this association could be part of the ancestral eutherian karyotype. If afrotherians are not at the root of the eutherian tree, then the 10/12/22 association could be one of a suite of derived associations linking afrotherian taxa.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2007 · BMC Evolutionary Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study examined the effects of derivatives of galactosides and glucosides in a polysaccharide extract from Euphorbia kansui (Euphorbiaceae) on exercise-induced oxidative stress in mice. Exhaustive swimming exercise significantly increases the degree of lipid peroxidation in terms of malondialdehyde content and reduces the antioxidant activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Our findings revealed that chronic oral treatment with the extract elevates enzymatic activities of SOD and GPx accompanied by a corresponding decrease in malondialdehyde. The antioxidative activities of these compounds against exercise-induced oxidative stress are correlated with various activities such as reducing the production of superoxide and hydroxyl radicals, inhibiting lipid peroxidation, enhancing antioxidative defenses, and increasing the production of SOD and GPx activity and expression in different tissues. These compounds may be involved in glycogen metabolism to meet the requirement of working skeletal muscles and act as antioxidants by terminating the chain reaction of lipid peroxidation to maintain the morphological stability of mitochondria in spinal motor neurons. These observations suggest that E. kansui has antioxidative and antifatigue properties and can be given as prophylactic and (or) therapeutic supplements for increasing antioxidant enzyme activities and preventing lipid peroxidation during strenuous exercise.
Preview · Article · Nov 2006 · Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Published cytogenetic data for extant cetacean species remain incomplete. In a review of the literature, we found karyotypic information for 6 of the 13 tentatively recognized species of the suborder Mysticeti (baleen whales). Among those yet to be described is the critically endangered North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis). Herein, we describe and propose a first-generation G-banded karyotype and ideogram for this species (2n = 42), obtained from peripheral blood chromosome preparations from a stranded male calf. This information may prove useful for future genetic mapping projects and for interspecific and intraspecific genomic comparisons by techniques such as zoo-FISH.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2006 · Journal of Heredity
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: With modified DNA extraction and purification protocols, the complete cytochrome b gene sequences (1140 bp) were determined from degraded museum specimens. Molecular analysis and morphological examination of cranial characteristics of the giant flying squirrels of Petaurista philippensis complex (P. grandis, P. hainana, and P. yunanensis) and other Petaurista species yielded new insights into long-standing controversies in the Petaurista systematics. Patterns of genetic variations and morphological differences observed in this study indicate that P. hainana, P. albiventer, and P. yunanensis can be recognized as distinct species, and P. grandis and P. petaurista are conspecific populations. Phylogenetic relationships reconstructed by using parsimony, likelihood, and Bayesian methods reveal that, with P. leucogenys as the basal branch, all Petaurista groups formed two distinct clades. Petaurista philippensis, P. hainana, P. yunanensis, and P. albiventer are clustered in the same clade, while P. grandis shows a close relationship to P. petaurista. Deduced divergence times based on Bayesian analysis and the transversional substitution at the third codon suggest that the retreating of glaciers and upheavals or movements of tectonic plates in the Pliocene-Pleistocene were the major factors responsible for the present geographical distributions of Petaurista groups.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, the inhibitory activity of the methyl esters and derivatives extracted from Euphorbia kansui (Euphorbiaceae) and their effect on apoptosis and cell cycle distribution in the human gastric cancer cell line (SGC-7901) were evaluated.
The inhibitory activity of the methyl esters and derivatives was evaluated by using trypan-blue, MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethyl thiazol-2yl) - 2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide), and FCM (flow cytometry) assays. 5-fluorouracile (5-FU) was used for a positive control.
Six new methyl esters and derivatives were extracted from the root of E. kansui. Subjecting the SGC-7901 cell line to the extract indicated that methyl ester derivatives could initiate growth inhibition and induce apoptosis in these tumor cells. The inhibitory rates as measured from trypan-blue and MTT assays were significantly increased and are comparable to those of the common antitumor agent 5-FU. In addition, the methyl ester extract effectively inhibited the proliferation of SGC-7901 cells by interfering with the progression of the cells through the G1 phase of the cell cycle.
The current study indicates that methyl esters might be a promising chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agent for treating various forms of cancer by causing apoptosis and proliferation inhibition.
No preview · Article · Feb 2005 · Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the genetic diversity between the populations of woolly flying squirrels (Eupetaurus) from the eastern and western extremes of the Himalayas, partial mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences (390-810 bp) that were determined from the museum specimens were analyzed using maximum parsimony (MP) and maximum likelihood (ML) methods. The molecular data reveal that the two specimens that were collected in northwestern Yunnan (China) are members of the genus Eupetaurus. Reconstructed phylogenetic relationships show that the populations of Eupetaurus in the eastern and western extremes of the Himalayas are two distinct species with significant genetic differences (12%) and diverged about 10.8 million years ago. Eupetaurus is significantly different from Petaurista and Pteromys. The level of estimated pairwise-sequence divergence observed between Eupetaurus and Petaurista or Pteromys is greater than that observed between Eupetaurus and Trogopterus, Belomys, Glaucomys, or Hylopetes. Considering the divergence time of the two Eupetaurus groups, the glaciations and the uplift of the Himalayas and Qinghai-Tibet plateau during the Pliocene-Pleistocene period might be the major factors affecting the present distribution of Eupetaurus along the Himalayas.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2005 · Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To elucidate the phylogeny of the genus Paramesotriton (Caudata: Salamandridae), we investigated three mitochondrial DNA gene fragments (1207 bp in total) of cytochrome b, ND2, and ND4 for its six recognized species. The phylogenetic relationships within Paramesotriton were reconstructed by maximum parsimony (MP) and maximum likelihood (ML) methods. Phylogenetic trees (MP and ML trees) that were constructed from the combined data set of the three gene fragments indicated that all six species of Paramesotriton formed a monophyletic group, with P. caudopunctatus as basal to the other five species. This result suggests that P. fuzhongensis is a valid species in Paramesotriton.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Detailed chromosome studies were conducted for the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) utilizing primary chromosome banding techniques (G- and Q-banding). Digital microscopic imaging methods were employed and a standard G-banded karyotype was constructed for both sexes. Based on chromosome banding patterns and measurements obtained in these studies, a standard karyotype and ideogram are proposed. Characterization of additional cytogenetic features of this species by supplemental chromosome banding techniques, C-banding (constitutive heterochromatin), Ag-NOR staining (nucleolar organizer regions), and DA/DAPI staining, was also performed. These studies provide detailed cytogenetic data for T. manatus latirostris, which could enhance future genetic mapping projects and interspecific and intraspecific genomic comparisons by techniques such as zoo–FISH.