Young Sik Lee

National Fisheries Research and Development Institution, Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea

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Publications (90)303.25 Total impact

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    Jun Won Kim · Bung-Nyun Kim · Jaewon Lee · Chul Na · Baik Seok Kee · Kyung Joon Min · Doug Hyun Han · Johanna Inhyang Kim · Young Sik Lee
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction: Theta-phase gamma-amplitude coupling (TGC) measurement has recently received attention as a feasible method of assessing brain functions such as neuronal interactions. The purpose of this electroencephalographic (EEG) study is to understand the mechanisms underlying the deficits in attentional control in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by comparing the power spectra and TGC at rest and during a mental arithmetic task. Methods: Nineteen-channel EEGs were recorded from 97 volunteers (including 53 subjects with ADHD) from a camp for hyperactive children under two conditions (rest and task performance). The EEG power spectra and the TGC data were analyzed. Correlation analyses between the Intermediate Visual and Auditory (IVA) continuous performance test (CPT) scores and EEG parameters were performed. Results: No significant difference in the power spectra was detected between the groups at rest and during task performance. However, TGC was reduced during the arithmetic task in the ADHD group compared with the normal group (F = 16.70, p < 0.001). The TGC values positively correlated with the IVA CPT scores but negatively correlated with theta power. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that desynchronization of TGC occurred during the arithmetic task in ADHD children. TGC in ADHD children is expected to serve as a promising neurophysiological marker of network deactivation during attention-demanding tasks.
    Preview · Article · Mar 2016 · PLoS ONE
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and objective: Neuroimaging studies have demonstrated dysfunction in the brain reward circuit in individuals with online gaming addiction (OGA). We hypothesized that virtual reality therapy (VRT) for OGA would improve the functional connectivity (FC) of the cortico-striatal-limbic circuit by stimulating the limbic system. Methods: Twenty-four adults with OGA were randomly assigned to a cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) group or VRT group. Before and after the four-week treatment period, the severity of OGA was evaluated with Young's Internet Addiction Scale (YIAS). Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) and FC from the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) seed to other brain areas were evaluated. Twelve casual game users were also recruited and underwent only baseline assessment. Results: After treatment, both CBT and VRT groups showed reductions in YIAS scores. At baseline, the OGA group showed a smaller ALFF within the right middle frontal gyrus and reduced FC in the cortico-striatal-limbic circuit. In the VRT group, connectivity from the PCC seed to the left middle frontal and bilateral temporal lobe increased after VRT. Conclusion: VRT seemed to reduce the severity of OGA, showing effects similar to CBT, and enhanced the balance of the cortico-striatal-limbic circuit.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Computer methods and programs in biomedicine
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pathogen expulsion from the gut is an important defense strategy against infection, but little is known about how interaction between the intestinal microbiome and host immunity modulates defecation. In Drosophila melanogaster, dual oxidase (Duox) kills pathogenic microbes by generating the microbicidal reactive oxygen species (ROS), hypochlorous acid (HOCl) in response to bacterially excreted uracil. The physiological function of enzymatically generated HOCl in the gut is, however, unknown aside from its anti-microbial activity. Drosophila TRPA1 is an evolutionarily conserved receptor for reactive chemicals like HOCl, but a role for this molecule in mediating responses to gut microbial content has not been described. Here we identify a molecular mechanism through which bacteria-produced uracil facilitates pathogen-clearing defecation. Ingestion of uracil increases defecation frequency, requiring the Duox pathway and TrpA1. The TrpA1(A) transcript spliced with exon10b (TrpA1(A)10b) that is present in a subset of midgut enteroendocrine cells (EECs) is critical for uracil-dependent defecation. TRPA1(A)10b heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes is an excellent HOCl receptor characterized with elevated sensitivity and fast activation kinetics of macroscopic HOCl-evoked currents compared to those of the alternative TRPA1(A)10a isoform. Consistent with TrpA1's role in defecation, uracil-excreting Erwinia carotovora showed higher persistence in TrpA1-deficient guts. Taken together, our results propose that the uracil/Duox pathway promotes bacteria expulsion from the gut through the HOCl-sensitive receptor, TRPA1(A)10b, thereby minimizing the chances that bacteria adapt to survive host defense systems.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2016 · PLoS Genetics
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    Su Jin Kim · Bongseog Kim · Young Sik Lee · Geon Ho Bahn
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Journal of Korean Medical Science
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High uric acid level is related to increased locomotor activities and refractory mood swings. The purpose of this study is to examine the correlation between clinical symptoms of mania, serum uric acid level, and quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) findings.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2016
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction: Social network analysis has emerged as a promising tool in modern social psychology. This method can be used to examine friend-based social relationships in terms of network theory, with nodes representing individual students and ties representing relationships between students (e.g., friendships and kinships). Using social network analysis, we investigated whether greater severity of ADHD symptoms is correlated with weaker peer relationships among elementary school students. Methods: A total of 562 sixth-graders from two elementary schools (300 males) provided the names of their best friends (maximum 10 names). Their teachers rated each student's ADHD symptoms using an ADHD rating scale. Results: The results showed that 10.2% of the students were at high risk for ADHD. Significant group differences were observed between the high-risk students and other students in two of the three network parameters (degree, centrality and closeness) used to assess friendship quality, with the high-risk group showing significantly lower values of degree and closeness compared to the other students. Moreover, negative correlations were found between the ADHD rating and two social network analysis parameters. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the severity of ADHD symptoms is strongly correlated with the quality of social and interpersonal relationships in students with ADHD symptoms.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2015 · PLoS ONE
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Theta-phase gamma-amplitude coupling (TGC) between slow and fast oscillations is considered to represent cortico-subcortical interactions. The purpose of this electroencephalographic (EEG) study was to evaluate the diagnostic utility of TGC by comparing the power spectra and TGC at rest between ADHD and control children. Nineteen-channel EEGs were recorded from 97 volunteers (including 53 subjects with ADHD attending a camp for hyperactive children). The EEG power spectra and TGC data were analyzed. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was conducted on the quantitative EEG results between the groups to adjust for sex. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis was conducted to examine the discriminating ability of each parameter for ADHD diagnosis. The ADHD group exhibited significantly decreased TGC in multiple areas, including frontal (Fp1, F3, F7, F6), temporal (T3), and occipital (O2) areas, compared with the control group. The ROC analysis performed on the TGC data generated the most accurate result among the EEG measures, with an overall classification accuracy of 71.7%. TGC, which reflects the degree of neuronal interactions between functional systems, provides information about an individual's attentional network. Therefore, resting-state TGC is a promising neurophysiological marker of ADHD in children. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Neuroscience Letters
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Online gaming addiction has been increasingly recognized as a mental disorder. However, the predictive factors that lead to online gaming addiction are not well established. The aim of this study was to identify factors that may influence the development of online gaming addiction. A total of 263 patients with problematic online gaming addiction (255 males (97%) and 8 females (3%), age: mean = 20.4 ± 5.8 years) and153 healthy comparison subjects (118 males (77%) and 35 females (23%), age: 21.2 ± 5.5 years, range) were recruited for participation in the current study. Hierarchical logistic regression analyses among each set of variables were conducted. Individual factors (sex and age), cognitive factors (IQ and perseverative errors), psychopathological conditions (ADHD, depression, anxiety, and impulsivity), and social interaction factors (family environment, social anxiety, and self-esteem) were evaluated in a stepwise fashion. All four factors were associated with online gaming addiction, with psychopathological conditions being the strongest risk factors for the addiction. Individual factors, psychological factors, and social interactions were associated with the development of pure online gaming addiction. As before, psychological factors (attention, mood, anxiety and impulsivity) were the strongest risk factors for online gaming addiction in patients with pure online gaming addiction. Psychopathologies, including ADHD and depression, were the strongest factors associated with the development of online gaming addiction in individuals.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Computers in Human Behavior
  • Jeong Ha Park · Gi Jung Hyun · Ji Hyun Son · Young Sik Lee
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study examined the effect of fertilizer addition on water quality and loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) fry growth in outdoor ponds for the promotion of loach culture in rice paddy fields. Three ponds received the following treatments: fertilizer with no loach (6-1), fertilizer with loach (6-4), and no fertilizer and no loach (6-2). Concentration of NH4+-N and PO43--P were highest in ponds that received fertilizer. Chl. a concentration was two times higher in ponds 6-1 and -4 than in pond 6-2. Furthermore, Chl. a concentration in pond 6-4 was 78% lower than that in pond 6-1. The density of diatoms and green algae was two times higher in ponds 6-1 and -4 than in pond 6-2, and the average density of diatoms was lower in pond 6-4 than in pond 6-1. Loach cultured with fertilizer in this study were slightly longer than the Chinese loach cultured in an indoor fiber-reinforced plastic tank.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Journal of Environmental Biology
  • Young Sik Lee · Hyoung Kyun Han · C.-J. Cheong
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Generation of O3 and OH radicals in water and O3 in air, using a low-temperature dielectric barrier plasma reactor was investigated to determine the optimal operating conditions of the plasma reactor in seawater and freshwater for fisheries. For seawater, increase in dissolved O3 concentration at airflows < 3 | min-1 was slow, while the rate increased rapidly at air flows > 4 | min-1. For freshwater, O3 concentration at air flows < 3 | min-1 increased slightly after 1 min and then remained unchanged. O3 concentrations were markedly higher at air flows of 5∼7 | min-1 relative to those at air flows < 3 | min-1, but no further increase occurred after 4 min. The dissolved O3 concentration for 5.00 ppt salinity increased to > 2.5 mg |1 for 20 min, while the concentration with added natural salt and refined salt increased to 0.6 mg |-1 at 5 min and did not increase further. The maximum concentration of dissolved OH radicals in seawater was observed at air flow rates of 5∼7 | min-1, and the rate of OH radical production was affected much less by the air flow rate than O3 generation. The formation of OH radicals was similar in freshwater and seawater. O3 concentration in air increased more rapidly in freshwater than in seawater. An air flow rate of 3∼4 | min-1 appeared to be optimal for minimizing the generation of O3 gas in air and maximizing the generation of OH radicals and O3 for maximum bactericidal effect and water purification.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Journal of Environmental Biology
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is the primary causative agent of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome, which leads to serious economic losses in the pig industry worldwide. While the molecular basis of PCV2 replication and pathogenicity remains elusive, it is increasingly apparent that the microRNA (miRNA) pathway plays a key role in controlling virus-host interactions, in addition to a wide range of cellular processes. Here, we employed Solexa deep sequencing technology to determine which cellular miRNAs were differentially regulated after expression of each of three PCV2-encoded open reading frames (ORFs) in porcine kidney epithelial (PK15) cells. We identified 51 ORF1-regulated miRNAs, 74 ORF2-regulated miRNAs, and 32 ORF3-regulated miRNAs that differed in abundance compared to the control. Gene ontology analysis of the putative targets of these miRNAs identified transcriptional regulation as the most significantly enriched biological process, while KEGG pathway analysis revealed significant enrichment for several pathways including MAPK signaling, which is activated during PCV2 infection. Among the potential target genes of ORF-regulated miRNAs, two genes encoding proteins that are known to interact with PCV2-encoded proteins, zinc finger protein 265 (ZNF265) and regulator of G protein signaling 16 (RGS16), were selected for further analysis. We provide evidence that ZNF265 and RGS16 are direct targets of miR-139-5p and let-7e, respectively, which are both down-regulated by ORF2. Our data will initiate further studies to elucidate the roles of ORF-regulated cellular miRNAs in PCV2-host interactions. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13567-015-0172-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Veterinary Research
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Continuous Performance Test (CPT) is a valuable tool for assessing behavior in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) is a promising tool for the diagnosis of ADHD. Recently, theta-phase gamma-amplitude coupling (TGC) measurement has received attention because it is a feasible method of assessing brain function. We investigated the relationship between CPT performance and EEG measures such as TGC and theta and gamma activity. EEGs were recorded from 68 volunteers from a camp for hyperactive children using a 19-electrode system. Their TGC, theta and 40Hz gamma activity were estimated and compared with results obtained on the Korean ADHD Rating Scale (KARS) and the Intermediate Visual and Auditory (IVA) CPT. The results demonstrated significant negative partial correlations between TGC and the IVA CPT, such as the Response Control Quotient (RCQ) and Attention Quotient (AQ). TGC successfully identified the level of dysfunctional interaction of the attention/arousal system at a multi-scale large network level. It is thought that as the TGC increases, the efficacy of the system is very low or dysfunctional. Compensatory hyper-arousal patterns of the dysfunctional attention/arousal system may account for this effect. TGC is a promising neurophysiological marker for ADHD behavior in children. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Neuroscience Letters
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the current study was to evaluate the quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) characteristics of patients with un-medicated schizophrenia (SPR) and to investigate the diagnostic utility of QEEG in assessing such patients during resting conditions. The subjects included 90 patients with schizophrenia and 90 normal controls. Spectral analysis was performed on the absolute power of all of the electrodes across five frequency bands following artifact removal. We conducted a repeated-measures ANOVA to examine group differences within the five frequency bands across several brain regions and receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analyses to examine the discrimination ability of each frequency band. Compared with controls, patients with schizophrenia showed increased delta and theta activity and decreased alpha 2 activity, particularly in the frontocentral area. There were no significant differences in the alpha 1 and beta activity. The ROC analysis performed on the delta frequency band generated the best result, with an overall classification accuracy of 62.2%. The results of this study confirmed the characteristics of the QEEG power in un-medicated schizophrenia patients compared with normal controls. These findings suggest that a resting EEG test can be a supportive tool for evaluating patients with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Neuroscience Letters
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We determined risk factors that discriminate between suicide attempt (SA) adolescents and suicidal ideation only (SI only) adolescents using data from the 2010 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (12-19 years; N = 73,238). In males, heavy alcohol use, drug use, and high perceived sadness/hopelessness showed significant effects on the presence of SA versus the presence of SI only. In females, along with these variables, low academic achievement, poor perceived health status, high perceived stress, and unhealthy coping strategy were also significantly related to the presence of SA versus SI only. Therefore, clinical interventions targeting adolescents' psychological distress are warranted to prevent suicide. © 2014 The American Association of Suicidology.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: IntroductionThis article aims to assess the efficacy and safety of atomoxetine in Korean adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).Methods This post hoc double-blind, placebo-controlled study of atomoxetine (40–120 mg/day) over 10 weeks in adults with ADHD at 45 Japanese, Korean, and Taiwanese study sites focused on patient data from Korea (atomoxetine, n = 37; placebo, n = 37). Primary efficacy outcome was change in baseline-to-endpoint Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scale-Investigator-rated: Screening Version (CAARS-Inv:SV) Total ADHD Symptoms score. Secondary efficacy outcomes included changes in Adult ADHD Quality of Life (AAQoL) total, Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version Self-Report (BRIEF-A:Self-Report), and Clinical Global Impression-ADHD-Severity (CGI-ADHD-S) scale scores.ResultsAtomoxetine-treated patients demonstrated a mean 18.9-point reduction in CAARS-Inv:SV total ADHD Symptoms score, compared with the 7.45-point reduction in placebo-treated patients (P ≤ 0.01). Significantly greater improvement was found for atomoxetine versus placebo in CGI-ADHD-S (P ≤ 0.01), BRIEF-A:Self-Report global executive composite (P ≤ 0.05), and metacognition index (P ≤ 0.01) executive function scores. Nausea, decreased appetite, and dry mouth were reported with significantly greater frequency by atomoxetine-treated patients, and only one placebo-treated patient discontinued because of adverse event. A 2.1-kg reduction in weight and a 7.5-beat/minute increase in pulse rate were observed in atomoxetine-treated patients.DiscussionThese data support a significant benefit of 80- to 120-mg once daily atomoxetine versus placebo for treatment of ADHD in adult Korean patients. A high placebo response rate was observed in this adult Korean sample; a higher discontinuation rate was also observed in atomoxetine-treated patients. These observations warrant further investigation.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Asia-Pacific Psychiatry
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent brain imaging studies suggested that both the frontal and temporal cortices are important candidate areas for mediating the symptoms of internet addiction. We hypothesized that deficits of prefrontal and temporal cortical function in patients with on-line game addiction (PGA) would be reflected in decreased levels of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) and cytosolic, choline containing compound (Cho). Seventy three young PGA and 38 age and sex matched healthy control subjects were recruited in the study. Structural MR and 1H MRS data were acquired using a 3.0 T MRI scanner. Voxels were sequentially placed in right frontal cortex and right medial temporal cortices. In the right frontal cortex, the levels of NAA in PGA were lower than those in healthy controls. In the medial temporal cortex, the levels of Cho in PGA participants were lower than those observed in healthy controls. The Young Internet Addiction Scale (YIAS) scores and perseverative responses in PGA were negatively correlated with the level of NAA in right frontal cortex. The Beck Depressive Inventory (BDI) scores in the PGA cohort were negatively correlated with Cho levels in the right temporal lobe. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first MRS study of individuals with on-line game addiction. Although, the subjects with on-line game addiction in the current study were free from psychiatric co-morbidity, patients with on-line game addiction appear to share characteristics with ADHD and MDD in terms of neurochemical changes in frontal and temporal cortices.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Journal of Psychiatric Research
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Microprocessor plays an essential role in canonical miRNA biogenesis by facilitating cleavage of stem-loop structures in primary transcripts to yield pre-miRNAs. Although miRNA biogenesis has been extensively studied through biochemical and molecular genetic approaches, it has yet to be addressed to what extent the current miRNA biogenesis models hold true in intact cells. To address the issues of in vivo recognition and cleavage by the Microprocessor, we investigate RNAs that are associated with DGCR8 and Drosha by using immunoprecipitation coupled with next-generation sequencing. Here, we present global protein–RNA interactions with unprecedented sensitivity and specificity. Our data indicate that precursors of canonical miRNAs and miRNA-like hairpins are the major substrates of the Microprocessor. As a result of specific enrichment of nascent cleavage products, we are able to pinpoint the Microprocessor-mediated cleavage sites per se at single-nucleotide resolution. Unexpectedly, a 2-nt 3′ overhang invariably exists at the ends of cleaved bases instead of nascent pre-miRNAs. Besides canonical miRNA precursors, we find that two novel miRNA-like structures embedded in mRNAs are cleaved to yield pre-miRNA-like hairpins, uncoupled from miRNA maturation. Our data provide a framework for in vivo Microprocessor-mediated cleavage and a foundation for experimental and computational studies on miRNA biogenesis in living cells.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Nucleic Acids Research
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lymphocyte activation gene-3 (LAG-3; CD223), a structural homolog of CD4, binds to MHC class II molecules. Recent research indicated that signaling mediated by LAG-3 inhibits T cell proliferation, and LAG-3 serves as a key surface molecule for the function of regulatory T cells. Previous reports demonstrated that the majority of LAG-3 is retained in the intracellular compartments and is rapidly translocated to the cell surface upon stimulation. However, the mechanism by which LAG-3 translocates to the cell surface was unclear. In this study, we examined the trafficking of human LAG-3 under unstimulated as well as stimulated conditions of T cells. Under the unstimulated condition, the majority of LAG-3 did not reach the cell surface, but rather degraded within the lysosomal compartments. After stimulation, the majority of LAG-3 translocated to the cell surface without degradation in the lysosomal compartments. Results indicated that the cytoplasmic domain without Glu-Pro repetitive sequence is critical for the translocation of LAG-3 from lysosomal compartments to the cell surface. Moreover, protein kinase C signaling leads to the translocation of LAG-3 to the cell surface. However, two potential serine phosphorylation sites from the LAG-3 cytoplasmic domain are not involved in the translocation of LAG-3. These results clearly indicate that LAG-3 trafficking from lysosomal compartments to the cell surface is dependent on the cytoplasmic domain through protein kinase C signaling in activated T cells.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · The Journal of Immunology
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective Previous studies have reported comorbidity of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and allergic diseases. The current study investigated ADHD like behavioral symptoms and parenting stress in pediatric allergic rhinitis. Methods Eighty-seven children (6-13 years old) with allergic rhinitis and 73 age- and sex-matched children of control group were recruited. Diagnosis and severity assessments of allergic rhinitis were determined by a pediatric allergist. The Parenting Stress Index-Short Form (PSI-SF), ADHD Rating Scale (ARS), and Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) were completed by their mothers. Results In the allergic rhinitis group, the total PSI-SF score (p<0.01), ARS score (p<0.01), the subscale scores of the CBCL including somatization, attentional problems and emotional instability (p=0.01; p<0.01; p<0.01) and prevalence of ADHD (p=0.03) were significantly higher than those of the control group. Among mothers of children with allergic rhinitis, those of children with comorbid ADHD demonstrated significantly higher parenting stress than those without comorbid ADHD (p<0.01). Parenting stress was correlated with severity of child's allergic symptoms and the ARS total score (beta=0.50, p<0.01; beta=0.39, p<0.01). There was a significant correlation between allergic symptom severity and the ARS total score (B=8.4, SD=2.5, t=3.3, p<0.01). Conclusion This study demonstrated that ADHD symptoms were common in children with allergic rhinitis, and this factor increased parenting stress and disrupted the parent-child relationship. Routine evaluation and early management of ADHD symptoms in pediatric allergic rhinitis may benefit families of children with allergic rhinitis.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Psychiatry investigation

Publication Stats

3k Citations
303.25 Total Impact Points


  • 2008-2015
    • National Fisheries Research and Development Institution
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2005-2015
    • Chung-Ang University Hospital
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2000-2015
    • Korea University
      • • College of Life Sciences
      • • Department of Biotechnology
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2014
    • University of Utah
      • The Brain Institute
      Salt Lake City, Utah, United States
  • 2004-2008
    • Chung-Ang University
      • Department of Medicine
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Hanyang University
      • Division of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2003
    • Northwestern University
      • Department of Cell and Molecular Biology
      Evanston, Illinois, United States
  • 1988
    • Yonsei University Hospital
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea