[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Previous research has shown that both sunflower seed (SF) and sucrose (SC) supplementation can result in variation in milk fat concentration and composition, possibly due to altered fermentation patterns and biohydrogenation of fatty acids in the rumen. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of different sugar concentrations with or without SF supplementation on lactation performance, ruminal fermentation, and milk fatty acid profile in lactating dairy cows. Eight multiparous Holstein dairy cows (body weight = 620 ± 15 kg, 60 ± 10 d in milk, mean ± standard deviation) were randomly assigned to treatments in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Each 21-d period consisted of a 14-d diet adaptation period and 7-d collection period. Dairy cows were fed 1 of the following 4 diets: (1) no additional SC without SF supplementation (NSC-SF), (2) no additional SC with SF supplementation (NSC+SF), (3) SC without SF supplementation (SC-SF), and (4) SC with SF supplementation (SC+SF). The diets contained the same amount of forages (corn silage and alfalfa hay). Four isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated by replacing corn grain with SC and SF and balanced using change in proportions of canola meal and sugar beet pulp. No interaction was detected between SC and SF supplementation with respect to dry matter intake, milk yield, and composition. A tendency was found for an interaction between inclusion of SC and SF on energy-corrected milk with the highest amount in the SC-SF diet. Ruminal pH and the molar proportion of acetate were affected by SC inclusion, with an increase related to the SC-SF diet. Diets containing SF decreased the concentrations of short-chain fatty acids (4:0 to 10:0) and medium-chain fatty acids (12:0 to 16:0) in milk fat. The addition of SC tended to decrease the concentration of total trans-18:1. These data provide evidence that exchanging SC for corn at 4% of dietary dry matter influenced milk fat content and rumen pH, resulting in a tendency for decreased concentration of trans-18:1 in milk fat. Sucrose alone did not alter the milk fatty acid profile when cows were fed a combination of unsaturated fat and sugar, although several significant interactions between sugar and unsaturated fat were observed.
Full-text Article · Jan 2016 · Journal of Dairy Science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to determine in vitro crude protein degradation (IVDP) parameters and effective crude protein degradability (EPD) of various feeds using the modified in vitro gas production (GP) technique. Feed samples were alfalfa hay, soybean meal, soybean, rapeseed meal, sunflower meal and fish meal. Rumen fluid was collected before the morning feeding from four rumen fistulated lambs (49.4 ± 3.5 kg, body weight). Approximately 90 ml of buffered rumen fluid (BRF), 400 mg of feed samples and carbohydrates (maltose, xylose and starch) at four concentrations (100, 200, 300, and 400 mg) were added to screw-cap bottles. Gas production (ml) and ammonia nitrogen concentration (mg) in each bottle were measured at 4, 8, 12, 16, 24, and 30 h post incubation and IVDP was calculated via estimated intercept of linear regression between GP (as main variable, X) and ammonia nitrogen (as dependent variable, Y) using the linear regression procedure. Feed, time and feed × time interaction had significant effect on IVDP (P < 0.001). Estimated EPD values at the outflow rate of 0.06/h for alfalfa hay, soybean meal, soybean, rapeseed meal, sunflower meal and fish meal were 0.56, 0.77, 0.59, 0.45, 0.50 and 0.38, respectively.
Article · Dec 2015 · Iranian Journal of Veterinary Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: This study was carried out to measure truly absorbed microbial protein synthesis, rumen bypass protein and endogenous protein loss, as well as total metabolizable protein from starchy and protein-rich raw feed materials with model comparisons. Predictions by the DVE2010 system as a more mechanistical model were compared with two other models DVE1994 and NRC-2001 that are frequently used in common international feeding practice. DVE1994 predictions for intestinally digestible rumen undegradable protein (ARUP) for starchy concentrates were higher (27 vs. 18 g/kg DM, p<0.05, SEM=1.2) than predictions by the NRC-2001 model, while there was no difference in predictions for ARUP from protein concentrates among the three models. DVE2010 and NRC-2001 had highest estimations of intestinally digestible microbial protein for starchy (92 in DVE2010 vs. 46 in NRC-2001 and 67 g/kg DM in DVE1994, p<0.05 SEM=4) and protein concentrates (69 in NRC-2001 vs. 31 in DVE1994 and 49 g/kg DM in DVE2010, p<0.05 SEM=4), respectively. Intestinally digestible protein was highest for DVE2010 in the case of starchy feedstuffs (p<0.05), but there was no difference between models for protein-rich raw materials. Potential protein supply predicted by tested models from starchy and protein concentrates are widely different and comparable direct measurements are needed to evaluate actual ability of different models to predict the potential protein supply to dairy cows from different feedstuffs.
Article · Jun 2015 · Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Four ruminally cannulated Holstein steers (540 ± 35 kg initial body weight) were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design over 21-day periods to examine effects of supplementing a basal diet (CON) with thyme oil (THY, 500 mg/kg DM) or cinnamon oil (CIN, 500 mg/kg DM) on nutrient digestibility, ruminal fermentation characteristics and rumen microbial populations. Monensin (MON, 33 mg/kg DM) was used as positive control. Steers were fed a basal diet as total mixed ration (TMR) ad libitum. The results indicated that dry matter intake (DMI) and apparent digestibility of nutrients were not affected by additives. Dietary supplementations did not affect ruminal pH and ammonia nitrogen concentration. Total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations and proportions of acetate and butyrate were not affected by essential oils (EO), but there was a trend (P<0.10) for a reduced concentration of total VFA and proportion of butyrate with MON supplementation compared to CON. Propionate proportion increased (P<0.05) with THY and MON supplementation and the ratio of acetate to propionate decreased (P<0.05) with EO and MON. The relative abundances of protozoa and methanogens decreased (P<0.01) in the rumen of steers when supplemented with additives. Ruminal population of Ruminococcus flavefaciens was not affected by treatments, but populations of Fibrobacter succinogenes and Ruminococcus albus decreased (P<0.05) by supplementation of EO or MON, respectively. Results from this study suggest that THY or CIN can be considered as potential alternatives to MON and might be useful as rumen fermentation modifiers in beef production systems.
Full-text Article · Feb 2015 · Animal Feed Science and Technology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The current study was conducted to examine the effect of dietary sucrose with or without sunflower oil on dairy goat performance, ruminal fermentation and milk fatty acid (FA) profile. Sixteen Saanen goats were assigned to the experimental diets control (basal diet without added oil and sucrose (CON), the basal diet supplemented with sunflower oil (SO, 3.7% of diet DM), sucrose (SU, 5.2% of diet DM) and sunflower oil plus sucrose (SO+SU, 3.7% and 5.2% of diet DM respectively). Sucrose and sunflower oil replaced barley grain in the diets. Milk production and composition were analyzed on days 18, 36 and 54 on treatments, and ruminal fermentation parameters and milk FA profile on days 18 and 54. Dry matter intake, milk fat, protein and lactose concentrations were not affected by treatments. The SU increased (P < 0.1) milk yield compared with CON whereas the SU and SO led to higher (P < 0.01) 4% fat-corrected milk yield. The SO and SU diets increased (P < 0.1) the milk lactose yield more than the CON diet. We observed a higher (P < 0.01) content of ruminal acetate in the CON diet, and also higher (P < 0.05) valerate content with the SU and SO+SU diets compared with the CON diet. Feeding SU and SO+SU tended to decrease (P < 0.05) ruminal pH, yet goats fed SU had the highest (P < 0.01) ruminal propionate concentration. There was no effect of diet on ruminal butyrate, isovalerate and ammonia-N concentrations. The acetate:propionate ratio substantially decreased (P < 0.05) with the SU compared with the CON and SO+SU, and did not change with SO diet. Feeding sunflower oil increased (P < 0.01) plasma triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations compared with feeding the CON and SU diets. The majority of fatty acids measured were not affected by inclusion of sucrose compared with the CON diet. The SO and SO+SU diets increased the proportion of total trans-C18:1, total CLA, and C18 family in milk fat compared to CON or SU diets. The current study implies that replacing barley grain with sucrose may improve milk yield and modify ruminal fermentation pattern in dairy goats. Moreover, sucrose did no alter ruminal fatty acid biohydrogenation pathways and following milk fatty acid composition when goats were fed with a combination of unsaturated fat and sugar.
Key words: Sucrose, Sunflower oil, Fatty acid profile, Dairy goat.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of different doses of some
7 natural semi-arid medicinal plants’ essential oils on in vitro ruminal digestion and
fermentation patterns of a mid-forage (alfalfa hay: concentrates, 1:1) diet. Treatments
consisted of either basal diet alone (control) or added with 35, 70, 140 or 280 μl L-1 of
coriander, oregano, caraway, cumin, cinnamon, pistachio hull and thyme essential oils,
incubated for 24 hours at 38.7ºC. The essential oils of cinnamon and pistachio applied as
280 μl L-1 and thyme applied at 140 and 280 μl L-1 caused a decrease in DM
disappearance as compared with control. Thyme and pistachio essential oils (used at 280
μl L-1) resulted in a decrease of NDF disappearance, while caraway (70 μl L-1) and cumin
(140 μl L-1) resulted in an increase in it (14.8% and +18.2%, respectively). Relative to
control, the essential oils applied, did not significantly affect the medium N-NH3
concentration (except thyme at 140 and 280 μl L-1), pH (except thyme and cumin essential
oils, 6.41 and 6.22 vs. 6.3, respectively), gas produced (except thyme at 280 μl L-1) and
Feed Fermentation Efficiency (FFE). Relative to control, addition of all the essential oils
resulted in a decrease of CP disappearance and CH4 (except for cumin) production as
Mm-1 incubated. Findings revealed that these essential oils may allow manipulation of
rumen microbial fermentation.
Full-text Article · Sep 2014 · Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation with a mixture of essential oils (MEO), yeast culture (YC) and malate on performance, nutrient digestion, rumen fermentation and blood metabolites of lambs fed high-concentrate growing diets. For this purpose, twenty Baluchi lambs (17.3 ± 0.5 kg body weight and 3 months old) were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments in a completely randomized design with five lambs per treatment. The treatment groups were as follows: (i) control: basal diet without any additive, (ii) basal diet plus 400 mg/day MEO (thymol, carvacrol, eugenol, limonene and cinnamaldehyde), (iii) basal diet with 4 g/day YC and (iv) basal diet plus 4 g/day malate. No differences between the dietary treatments were observed in dry matter intake, average daily gain or feed conversion ratio (p > 0.05). Compared with control and malate treatment, lambs fed MEO and YC had an improved crude protein digestibility (p < 0.05). Yeast culture significantly increased (p > 0.05) cell wall digestibility compared to the other treatments. No differences were observed between treatments with respect to nitrogen balance or ruminal pH and ammonia concentrations (p > 0.05). No differences were observed between treatments with respect to ruminal total volatile fatty acid concentration and molar proportions of acetate, butyrate and valerate. Molar proportion of propionate was higher (p < 0.05) for YC and malate compared to control and MEO. Plasma glucose concentration was higher (p < 0.05) in lambs fed YC and malate than in lambs fed the control or the MEO diet. Blood concentration of triglycerides significantly decreased when feeding the MEO and YC diets (p < 0.05). It was concluded that YC may be more useful as a feed additive for manipulation of rumen fermentation in lambs fed with high-concentrate diets than MEO and malate, because YC enhanced crude protein and cell wall digestibility, ruminal molar proportion of propionate and plasma glucose concentration.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate productive, metabolic and ovarian responses of different timing to start lipogenic diet in dairy cows. Thirty-six multiparous cows were assigned randomly to 1 of 3 treatments in a completely randomized design. All cows were fed a similar glucogenic diet, 21 days before expected calving date. After parturition, they received a glucogenic diet until 42 days in milk (DIM; GGG) or shifted to a lipogenic diet at either 1 (GLL) or 21(GGL) DIM and remained on these diets until 42 DIM. After the day 42 postpartum, all cows returned to a common stall and received a mixed lipogenic and glucogenic (50:50) diet until 100 DIM. Postpartum dry matter intake (DMI) was lower (P<0.05) and body weight, body condition score, milk yield, milk protein, and milk lactose contents tended to be lesser (P<0.1) for the GLL group; however, negativity of energy balance, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), cholesterol, and urea concentrations were significantly higher (P<0.05). Glucose concentration and number of follicles ≥10 mm diameter were significantly higher (P<0.05) but BHBA and NEFA concentrations were lower (P<0.05) for the GLL group compared to other two groups. For the GLL group days to ovulation and cervical diameter were significantly higher (P<0.05). The conclusion is that providing a lipogenic diet immediately after calving has negative effects on energy balance, metabolic status and follicular dynamics of dairy cows. However, offering a glucogenic diet during −21 to +42 days relative to calving was more effective in improving animal performance and ovarian activity. This strategy may be enhancing the pregnancy rate.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: This study tested the effect of urea, urea sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and NaOH + urea on chemical composition and total tract nutrition in sheep. Treated stovers were prepared by mixing stovers with aqueous solution of urea (SU, 3g in 100 ml water /100 g DM), NaOH (SN, 4g in 100 ml water /100g DM) and urea + NaOH (SUN). Five male Balouchi sheep (30 ±1.4 kg) were used in a change-over design. In vivo experimental diets were as follows: alfalfa hay (AH), alfalfa hay + S (AHS), alfalfa hay + SU (AH SU), alfalfa hay + SN (AHSN) and alfalfa hay + SUN (AHSUN). The NDF content significantly (P0.05) in urea and NaOH. The urea caused a significant (P
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Objective: Saffron petal is a by-product that contains flavonoids and anthocyanins. In order to study the effects of saffron petal extract (SPE) on blood parameters, immune system, and spleen histology, five treatments (n=6) were used in a completely randomized design.
Materials and Methods: The treatments were 0, 75, 150, 225, and 450 mg/kg body weight of SPE. The SPE was injected intraperitoneally to 30 rats (10-week old, weighing 225±15 g) for 14 days. Immunization was performed using 1×108 sheep red blood cells (SRBC) on days 0 and 7 subcutaneously in all treatment groups. On day 15, blood was collected from the heart of rats after anesthesia. One part of samples were poured in heparinized tubes for counting whole blood cells (CBC) and different white blood cells (WBC) and the other part was used to measure IgG using ELISA technique. The spleen was stained by hematoxylin- eosin for histological study. The data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA program and the means evaluation was done using Tukey’s test. Results are presented as mean±SD.
Results: Results showed no significant difference between treatments and control group regarding the amount of RBC, HGB, HCT, and PLT. The level of IgG at 75 mg/kg was significantly increased in comparison with other groups. No changes were observed in spleen histology.
Conclusion: The results indicate that use of SPE at dose of 75 mg/kg causes an increase in antibody response without any change in hematological parameters and spleen histology.
Full-text Article · Mar 2014 · Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: In vitro gas production technique was used to evaluate ruminal fermentation characteristics of a mid-forage total mixed ration (TMR; containing 39.4% corn silage, 6.2% wheat straw and 54.4% concentrate) which was pre-treated with a commercial enzyme mixture (Natuzyme®) applied at the rate of 0.0, 0.84, 1.68 and 2.52 g/kg DM (E0.0, E0.84, E1.68 and E2.52, respectively) and at different times (0, 12 and 24 hr before to the start of the in vitro incubation, namely hr0, hr12 and hr24, respectively). Increasing levels of enzyme from 0.84 to 2.52 g/kg substrate DM linearly (P<0.001) increased gas production volume (GP96). In vitro dry matter disappearance (IVDMD) increased quadratically (P<0.05) with increasing level of enzyme and was highest at E1.68. Fermentation efficiency (FE) increased quadratically (P<0.001) with increasing level of enzyme and the highest (P<0.05) FE was at E0.84. Methane production at (t1/2) increased (P<0.05) linearly with increasing level of enzyme. Gas production volume (GP24) responded quadratically (P<0.001) as the time of enzyme administration increased from hr 0 to hr12 and hr24 and was highest at hr12. IVDMD and FE decreased linearly (P<0.001) as time of pre-incubation increased from 0h to 24 h. Results suggest that the enzyme used and the times of pretreatment are advantageous to improve in vitro fermentation of a mid-forage ration.
Article · Jan 2014 · ANIMAL NUTRITION AND FEED TECHNOLOGY
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Batch cultures of mixed rumen microorganisms were used in a randomized complete block design to study the effects of alfalfa hay-to-concentrate ratio and various non-organic buffering compounds on Acidogenic Value (AV), in vitro dry matter disappearance (IVDMD), medium pH, and AV: IVDMD ratio. Alfalfa hay was included in the experimental diets as: 80% (F80), 60% (F60), 40% (F40), and 20% (F20) on a dry matter (DM) basis. Buffering compounds were added to the experimental diets as: Sodium bicarbonate [SB; 5 or 10 mg.g-1 DM], magnesium oxide (MgO; 5 or 10 mg.g-1 DM), sodium bentonite (bentonite;10 or 20 mg.g-1 DM), Acid Buf® (5, 10 or 20 mg.g-1 DM), Acid Buf + SB in a 3:4 ratio (11 or 16.5 mg.g-1 DM), Acid Buf + SB + MgO in a 3:4:1 ratio (12.5 or 18.75 mg.g-1 DM), and Herod’s Buffer (5, 10 or 20 mg.g-1 DM); keeping one group as control (no supplementation). After 24 h incubation, no significant differences observed in medium pH among SB, MgO, bentonite and the control, but Herod’s Buffer, Acid Buf, Acid Buf + SB, and Acid Buf + SB + MgO kept it up (P≤ 0.05). The lowest AV and AV: IVDMD ratios were observed when SB was used in the cultures (P≤ 0.05). Herod’s buffer IVDMD was the lowest (P≤ 0.05). The results indicated that the diet containing Acid Buf and SB had a relatively low AV and AV: IVDMD, and could maintain a relatively high rumen fluid pH compared with those of the others.
Key words: Acidogenic value, in vitro dry matter disappearance, buffers.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Essential oils have been shown to favorably effect in vitro ruminal fermentation, but there are few in vivo studies that have examined animal responses. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of thyme (THY) and cinnamon (CIN) essential oils on feed intake, growth performance, ruminal fermentation and blood metabolites in feedlot calves fed high-concentrate diets. Twelve growing Holstein calves (213±17 kg initial BW) were used in a completely randomized design and received their respective dietary treatments for 45 d. Treatments were: 1-control (no additive), 2-THY (5 g/d/calf) and 3-CIN (5 g/d/calf). Calves were fed ad libitum diets consisting of 15% forage and 85% concentrate, and adapted to the finishing diet by gradually increasing the concentrate ratio with feeding a series of transition diets 5 wk before the experiment started. Supplementation of THY or CIN did not affect DMI and ADG, and feed efficiency was similar between treatment groups. There were no effects of additives on ruminal pH and rumen concentrations of ammonia nitrogen and total VFA; whereas molar proportion of acetate and ratio of acetate to propionate decreased, and the molar proportion of propionate increased with THY and CIN supplementation. Rumen molar concentration of butyrate was significantly increased by adding CIN compared to control; but no change was observed with THY compared with control group. No effects of THY, or CIN were observed on valerate, isobutyrate or isovalerate proportions. Plasma concentrations of glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, urea-N, β-hydroxybutyrate, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were not changed by feeding THY or CIN. Results from this study suggest that supplementing a feedlot finishing diet with THY or CIN essential oil might be useful as ruminal fermentation modifiers in beef production systems, but has minor impacts on blood metabolites.
Full-text Article · Jul 2013 · Asian Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: To describe proportion and pattern of culling in commercial dairy herds of Torbat-e-Jam region in northeastern of Iran, this survey was carried out over a period of 15 years from 1997 to 2011 in industrialized dairy herd. In total, the data of 4149 lactating cows have been used in this study. Overall, 415 (09.0%) cows were culled. The involuntary culling were mainly from infertility or reproductive disorders (4%), followed by metabolic and digestive disorders (3%), infection disease (1%) and lameness (1%). Infertility accounted for 55% of disposals in culled cows. Milk fever was the most important reason (26%) for culling due to metabolic and digestive track disorders. Pneumonia was the most common infectious disease that contributed to culling, and on average, it was responsible for 43% of disposals. Subacute mastitis accunted 88% of infection disease disposal. Bone fracture, vagal syndrome and foreign body accunted 19%, 31% and 38% of other disorders disposal, respectively. Aproximately, 13% of the recorded cullings were for unknown reasons. High proportion of infertility or reproductive culling specially poor fertility should be considered as an important economic loss and precaution measures are necessary to reduce this loss.
Article · Jun 2013 · Journal of Agricultural Studies
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The aim of the current study was to determine the effect of chemically treatment of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) residues including stem, capsules and leaves on chemical composition, in vitro gas production parameters and in situ disappearance. Samples were taken from different forms and then composited to provide two different type of the residues as high leaves and low leaves. Chemically treated samples were prepared by adding NaOH (NaOH as 4g in 100 ml water/ 100g DM), keeping for 48 h, followed by adding urea (urea as 4g in 100 ml water/ 100g DM). Experimental treatments were high leaves and low leaves in forms of untreated and chemically treated in a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Gas production and in situ DM disappearance were measured at 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 24, 36, 48, 72 and 96 h of incubation. In vitro gas production and in situ DM degradation kinetics were described using the exponential equation. Chemical treatment increased (P < 0.05) crude protein (CP) content of both high leaves and low leaves. In addition, neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) of the residues significantly (P < 0.05) decreased following the chemically treatment. Whereas, organic matter content of the samples treated was not affected (P > 0.05) by the chemical treatment. Slowly degradable fraction (b) and constant rate (c) of the gas production were significantly higher in high leaves untreated samples than those of the low leaves (P < 0.05). High leaves sample had higher the in situ quickly DM degradable fraction (a) than those of the low leaves sample. Chemically treatment positively affected on the gas production and in situ DM degradation parameters. In the way that NaOH + urea treatment increased (P < 0.05) the in situ soluble DM fraction and slowly degradable fraction of gas production. Our result indicates that high leaves residual had higher degradability potential than those of the low leaves residual. Also, chemically treatment is an effective method of altering the rumen degradation characteristics of DM in by products.
Article · Dec 2012 · Livestock Research for Rural Development