Heather Strosnider

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Атланта, Michigan, United States

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Publications (6)30 Total impact

  • Yongping Hao · Heather Strosnider · Lina Balluz · Judith R Qualters
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    ABSTRACT: Studies on the association between prenatal exposure to fine particulate matter with ≤ 2.5 micrometers in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) and term low birth weight (LBW) have resulted in inconsistent findings. Most studies were conducted in snapshots of small geographic areas and no national study exists. We investigated geographic variation in the associations between ambient PM2.5 during pregnancy and term LBW in the contiguous United States (US). 3,389,450 term singleton births in 2002 (37 - 44 weeks gestational age and birth weight of 1,000g - 5,500g) were linked to daily PM2.5 via imputed birth days. We generated average daily PM2.5 during the entire pregnancy and each trimester. Multilevel logistic regression models with county-level random effects were used to evaluate the associations between term LBW and PM2.5 during pregnancy. Without adjusting for covariates, the odds of term LBW increased 2% (OR=1.02; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.03) for every 5 µg/m(3) increase in PM2.5 exposure during the second trimester only, which remained unchanged after adjusting for county-level poverty (OR=1.02; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.04). The odds did change to null after adjusting for individual-level predictors (OR=1.00; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.02). Multilevel analyses, stratified by census division, revealed significant positive associations of term LBW and PM2.5 exposure (during the entire pregnancy or a specific trimester) in three census divisions: Middle Atlantic, East North Central, and West North Central, and significant negative association in the Mountain division. Our study provided additional evidence on the associations between PM2.5 exposure during pregnancy and term LBW from a national perspective. The magnitude and direction of the estimated associations between PM2.5 exposure and term LBW varied by geographic locations in the US.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Environmental Health Perspectives
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    ABSTRACT: Short-term effects of air pollution exposure on respiratory disease mortality are well established. However, few studies have examined the effects of long-term exposure and, among those that have, results are inconsistent. To evaluate long-term association between ambient ozone, fine particulate matter (PM2.5, particles with aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 micrometers or less) and chronic lower respiratory disease (CLRD) mortality in the contiguous United States. We fit Bayesian hierarchical spatial Poisson models, adjusting for five county-level covariates (percent adults aged ≥65 years, poverty, lifetime smoking, obesity, and temperature), with random effects at state and county levels to account for spatial heterogeneity and spatial dependence. We derived county-level average daily exposure levels for ambient ozone and PM2.5 for 2001-2008 from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's down-scaled estimates and obtained 2007-2008 CLRD deaths from the National Center for Health Statistics. Exposure to ambient ozone was associated with increased rate of CLRD deaths, with a rate ratio of 1.05 (95% credible interval, 1.01-1.09) per 5-ppb increase in ozone; the association between ambient PM2.5 and CLRD mortality was positive but statistically insignificant (rate ratio 1.068, 95% credible interval, 0.995-1.146). This is the first national study that links air pollution exposure data with CLRD mortality for 3109 contiguous U.S. counties. Ambient ozone may be associated with increased rate of death from CLRD in the contiguous United States.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
  • Judith R Qualters · Heather M Strosnider · Rosalyn Bell
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    ABSTRACT: Public health surveillance includes dissemination of data and information to those who need it to take action to prevent or control disease. The concept of data to action is explicit in the mission of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) National Environmental Public Health Tracking Program (Tracking Program). The CDC has built a National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network (Tracking Network) to integrate health and environmental data to drive public health action (PHA) to improve communities' health. To assess the utility of the Tracking Program and Tracking Network in environmental public health practice and policy making. We analyzed information on how Tracking (all program components hereafter referred to generally as "Tracking") has been used to drive PHAs within funded states and cities (grantees). Two case studies are presented to highlight Tracking's utility. Analyses included all grantees funded between 2005 and 2013. Twenty-seven states, 3 cities, and the District of Columbia ever received funding. We categorized each PHA reported to determine how grantees became involved, their role, the problems addressed, and the overall action. Tracking grantees reported 178 PHAs from 2006 to 2013. The most common overall action was "provided information in response to concern" (n = 42), followed by "improved a public health program, intervention, or response plan" (n = 35). Tracking's role was most often either to enhance surveillance (24%) or to analyze data (23%). In 47% of PHAs, the underlying problem was a concern about possible elevated rates of a health outcome, a potential exposure, or a potential association between a hazard and a health outcome. PHAs were started by a request for assistance (48%), in response to an emergency (8%), and though routine work by Tracking programs (43%). Our review shows that the data, expertise, technical infrastructure, and other resources of the Tracking Program and Tracking Network are driving state and local PHAs.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Journal of public health management and practice: JPHMP
  • Heather Strosnider · Ying Zhou · Lina Balluz · Judith Qualters
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    ABSTRACT: Public health agencies at the federal, state, and local level are responsible for implementing actions and policies that address health problems related to environmental hazards. These actions and policies can be informed by integrating or linking data on health, exposure, hazards, and population. The mission of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention׳s National Environmental Public Health Tracking Program (Tracking Program) is to provide information from a nationwide network of integrated health, environmental hazard, and exposure data that drives actions to improve the health of communities. The Tracking Program and federal, state, and local partners collect, integrate, analyze, and disseminate data and information to inform environmental public health actions. However, many challenges exist regarding the availability and quality of data, the application of appropriate methods and tools to link data, and the state of the science needed to link and analyze health and environmental data. The Tracking Program has collaborated with academia to address key challenges in these areas. The collaboration has improved our understanding of the uses and limitations of available data and methods, expanded the use of existing data and methods, and increased our knowledge about the connections between health and environment. Valuable working relationships have been forged in this process, and together we have identified opportunities and improvements for future collaborations to further advance the science and practice of environmental public health tracking.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Environmental Research
  • Yongping Hao · Lina Balluz · Heather Strosnider

    No preview · Conference Paper · Jun 2014
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    ABSTRACT: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) co-organized a symposium on "Air Pollution Exposure and Health" at Research Triangle Park, North Carolina on September 19-20, 2006. The symposium brought together health and environmental scientists to discuss the state of the science and the cross-jurisdictional and methodological challenges in conducting air pollution epidemiology, environmental public health tracking and accountability research. The symposium was held over 2 days and consisted of technical presentations and breakout group discussions on each of the three principal themes of this meeting: (1) monitoring and exposure modeling information, (2) health effects data and (3) linkage of air quality and health data for research, tracking and accountability. This paper summarizes the symposium presentations and the conclusions and recommendations developed during the meeting. The accompanying two papers, which appear in this issue of the Journal, provide more in-depth discussion of issues pertinent to obtaining and analyzing air pollution exposure and health information. The symposium succeeded in identifying areas where there are critical gaps of knowledge in existing air pollution exposure and health information and in discovering institutional or programmatic barriers, which impede accessing and linking disparate data sets. Several suggestions and recommendations emerged from this meeting, directed toward (1) improving the utility of air monitoring data for exposure quantification, (2) improving access to and the quality of health data, (3) studying emerging air quality and health issues, (4) exploring improved or novel methods for linking data and (5) developing partnerships, building capacity and facilitating interdisciplinary communication. The meeting was successful in promoting an interdisciplinary dialogue around these issues and in formulating strategies to support these recommended activities. Finally, this symposium subsequently led to strengthening and initiating new partnerships or interactions between the EPA, CDC, States, academia and the research community at large.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2008 · Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology