Alice Hadchouel

Université Paris-Sorbonne - Paris IV, Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France

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Publications (28)73.25 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Pediatric eosinophilic pneumonias (EPs) are characterized by a significant infiltration of the alveolar spaces and lung interstitium by eosinophils, with conservation of the lung structure. In developed countries, EPs constitute exceptional entities in pediatric care. Clinical symptoms may be transient (Löffler syndrome), acute (<1 month and mostly <7 days), or chronic (>1 month). Diagnosis relies on demonstration of alveolar eosinophilia on bronchoalveolar lavage, whether or not associated with blood eosinophilia. EPs are a heterogeneous group of disorders divided into: (i) secondary forms (seen mainly in parasitic infections, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, and drug reactions); and (ii) primary forms (eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis, hypereosinophilic syndrome, idiopathic chronic eosinophilic pneumonia, and idiopathic acute eosinophilic pneumonia). Despite their rarity, the etiological approach to EP must be well-defined as some causes can be rapidly life-threatening without initiation of the proper treatment. This approach (i) eliminates secondary forms, with comprehensive history taking and minimal biological assessment, (ii) is oriented in primary forms by the acute or chronic setting, and the existence of extrapulmonary symptoms. Treatment of primary forms has traditionally relied on corticosteroids, usually with a dramatic response. Specific treatments or the adjunction of corticosteroid-sparing treatment or immunosuppressors are currently being evaluated in order to improve the prognosis and the side effects associated with corticosteroid treatment in a pediatric setting. Pediatr Pulmonol. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Pediatric Pulmonology
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: There is a lack of evidence concerning the effectiveness of immunoprophylaxis with palivizumab in children with childhood interstitial lung disease (chILD). In this retrospective study, we evaluated the effectiveness of palivizumab for decreasing the rate of RSV-related hospitalizations in children under the age of 24 months with chILD treated with corticosteroids. Methods: A retrospective national study was conducted in France. Patients born between 2007 and 2013, diagnosed with chILD and on corticosteroid treatment were identified through the French online database for pediatric interstitial lung disease (Respirare(®) ). Data were collected for the etiology and severity of chILD, risk factors and preventive measures for bronchiolitis, palivizumab immunoprophylaxis, and hospitalizations for bronchiolitis and RSV-bronchiolitis. Results: We included and evaluated 24 children during their first two RSV seasons, corresponding to 36 patient-seasons. The observed rate of RSV-related hospitalization (305/1000 patient-seasons), and the median length of stay (7 days), were higher than those for the general population. RSV-related hospitalization rates did not differ significantly between children with and without palivizumab prophylaxis (5/16 vs. 4/18, respectively, P = 0.70). Conclusion: Children with chILD on corticosteroid treatment are at high risk of hospitalization for RSV-bronchiolitis, which tends to be more severe in these children than in the general population. The effectiveness of palivizumab prophylaxis in this population remains to be demonstrated. Pediatr Pulmonol. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Pediatric Pulmonology

  • No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Revue des Maladies Respiratoires Actualites
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    ABSTRACT: Preterm birth is associated with abnormal respiratory functions throughout life. The mechanisms underlying these long-term consequences are still unclear. Shortening of telomeres was associated with many conditions, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We aimed to search for an association between telomere length and lung function in adolescents born preterm. Lung function and telomere length were measured in 236 adolescents born preterm and 38 born full-term from the longitudinal EPIPAGE cohort. Associations between telomere length and spirometric indices were tested in univariate and multivariate models accounting for confounding factors in the study population. Airflows were significantly lower in adolescents born preterm than controls; forced expiratory volume in one second was 12% lower in the extremely preterm born group than controls (p<0.001). Lower birth weight, bronchopulmonary dysplasia and postnatal sepsis were significantly associated with lower airflow values. Gender was the only factor that was significantly associated with telomere length. Telomere length correlated with forced expiratory flow 25-75 in the extremely preterm adolescent group in univariate and multivariate analyses (p = 0.01 and p = 0.02, respectively). We evidenced an association between telomere length and abnormal airflow in a population of adolescents born extremely preterm. There was no evident association with perinatal events. This suggests other involved factors, such as a continuing airway oxidative stress leading to persistent inflammation and altered lung function, ultimately increasing susceptibility to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2015 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: Methionyl-tRNA synthetase (MARS) catalyzes the ligation of methionine to tRNA and is critical for protein biosynthesis. We identified biallelic missense mutations in MARS in a specific form of pediatric pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP), a severe lung disorder that is prevalent on the island of Réunion and the molecular basis of which is unresolved. Mutations were found in 26 individuals from Réunion and nearby islands and in two families from other countries. Functional consequences of the mutated alleles were assessed by growth of wild-type and mutant strains and methionine-incorporation assays in yeast. Enzyme activity was attenuated in a liquid medium without methionine but could be restored by methionine supplementation. In summary, identification of a founder mutation in MARS led to the molecular definition of a specific type of PAP and will enable carrier screening in the affected community and possibly open new treatment opportunities. Copyright © 2015 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · The American Journal of Human Genetics
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    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Background Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is very rare in children. Only a few small series have been published, with little information about long-term progression. The objective of our study was to describe the clinical, radiological and pathological features, and the long-term course of PAP in a cohort of 34 children from La Réunion Island. Methods Data were retrospectively collected from medical files. Radiological and pathological elements were reviewed by two pediatric radiologists and three pathologists, respectively. Results Thirteen cases were familial and 32/34 (94%) cases were family connected. Disease onset occurred in the first six months of life in 82% of the patients. Thoracic computed tomography scans showed the typical “crazy-paving” pattern in 94% of cases. Respiratory disease was associated with a liver disorder, with the detection of liver enlargement at diagnosis in 56% of cases. The course of the disease was characterized by frequent progression to chronic respiratory insufficiency, accompanied by the appearance of cholesterol granulomas and pulmonary fibrosis. Overall prognosis was poor, with a mortality of 59% and an overall five-year survival rate from birth of 64%. Whole-lung lavages were performed in 21 patients, with no significant effect on survival. Liver disease progressed to cirrhosis in 18% of children, with no severe complication. Conclusions PAP in children from la Réunion Island is characterized by an early onset, associated liver involvement, poor prognosis and frequent progression to lung fibrosis, despite whole-lung lavages treatment. The geographic clustering of patients and the detection of many familial links between most of the cases strongly suggest a genetic etiology, with an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
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    ABSTRACT: Congenital pulmonary malformations (CPM) are mostly recognized on prenatal ultrasound scans. In a minority of cases, they may impair breathing at birth. The factors predictive of neonatal respiratory distress are not well defined, but an understanding of these factors is essential for decisions concerning the need for the delivery to take place in a tertiary care center. The aim of this study was to identify potential predictors of respiratory distress in neonates with CPM. We selected cases of prenatal diagnosis of hyperechoic and/or cystic lung lesions from RespiRare, the French prospective multicenter registry for liveborn children with rare respiratory diseases (2008-2013). Prenatal parameters were correlated with neonatal respiratory outcome. Data were analyzed for 89 children, 22 (25%) of whom had abnormal breathing at birth. Severe respiratory distress, requiring oxygen supplementation or ventilatory support, was observed in 12 neonates (13%). Respiratory distress at birth was significantly associated with the following prenatal parameters: mediastinal shift (P = .0003), polyhydramnios (P = .05), ascites (P = .0005), maximum prenatal malformation area (P = .001), and maximum congenital pulmonary malformation volume ratio (CVR) (P = .001). Severe respiratory distress, requiring oxygen at birth, was best predicted by polyhydramnios, ascites, or a CVR >0.84. CVR >0.84, polyhydramnios, and ascites increased the risk of respiratory complications at birth in fetuses with CPM, and especially of severe respiratory distress, requiring oxygen supplementation or more intensive intervention. In such situations, the delivery should take place in a tertiary care center.
    Preview · Article · Apr 2014 · PEDIATRICS
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    ABSTRACT: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is the main respiratory sequela of extreme prematurity. Its pathophysiology is complex, involving interactions between host and environment, likely to be significantly influenced by genetic factors. Thus, the clinical presentation and histological lesions have evolved over time, along with the reduction in neonatal injuries, and the care of more immature children. Impaired alveolar growth, however, is a lesion consistently observed in BPD, such that it is a key feature in BPD, and is even the dominant characteristic of the so-called "new" forms of BPD. This review describes the key molecular pathways that are believed to be involved in the genesis of BPD. Much of our understanding is based on animal models, but this is increasingly being enriched by genetic approaches, and long-term respiratory functional studies. Birth Defects Research, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2014 · Birth Defects Research Part A Clinical and Molecular Teratology
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To describe lung manifestations in MPO-ANCA associated vasculitides in children. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with MPO-ANCA associated vasculitis, who were followed in two pediatric nephrology departments from January 2000 to December 2010. Results: Twelve patients were identified with MPO-ANCA over the study period. Their median age (IQR) at diagnosis was 10.5 (6.3-12.0) years, and their median duration of follow-up was 4.8 (1.2-7.5) years. Only five of them had pulmonary involvement with diffuse alveolar hemorrhage. Lung involvement was inaugural for four of five children. One child with severe chronic respiratory disease and renal failure died after 6 years of disease progression. Pulmonary function tests were available for 10 children. They were within normal ranges in four of five patients without clinical lung manifestations, and no significant impairment was observed in children with pulmonary complications. Conclusions: Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage complicates 40% of cases of MPO-ANCA associated vasculitides in children with renal involvement. After an acute potentially severe phase, a complete recovery without significant functional impairment was observed in four of five affected children.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2014 · Pediatric Pulmonology
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    ABSTRACT: Idiopathic eosinophilic pneumonia is extremely rare in children and adults. We present herein the first series describing the specificities of idiopathic chronic (ICEP) and acute (IAEP) eosinophilic pneumonia in children. We retrospectively analyzed all cases of ICEP and IAEP in children that were retrieved from French Reference Centers for rare pediatric lung diseases. Five cases of pediatric ICEP were identified. Corticosteroid or immunosuppressive therapy dramatically improved the outcome in three cases. The remaining two cases had a persistent interstitial pattern with progressive development of cystic airspace lesions. Three cases of IAEP in adolescents were reported, with one requiring four days of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. ICEP is a rare disease with a polymorphic clinical presentation in children. We identified patients with persistent interstitial patterns progressing to cystic airspace regions, for which the boundaries with idiopathic interstitial pneumonias are difficult to establish. We therefore propose a specific pediatric definition and classification algorithm. IAEP in children remains an inflammatory reaction of the lung to an acute toxic exposure, mainly tobacco, as in adults. International studies are required to comprehensively assess the various clinical forms of the disease as well as the appropriate therapeutic regimens.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
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    Alice Hadchouel · Christophe Delacourt

    Preview · Article · Oct 2013 · Medecine sciences: M/S
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    ABSTRACT: Type I pleuropulmonary blastoma (PPB) and congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation of the lung (CCAM) are cystic lung diseases of childhood. Their clinical and radiological presentations are often similar, and pathologic discrimination remains difficult in many cases. As a consequence, type I PPB and CCAM are frequently confused, leading to delayed adequate management for type I PPB. Recent studies have suggested a role for fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 10 signal pathway in CCAM pathogenesis. The objective of our study was to determine whether FGF10 signaling differs between CCAM and type I PPB. Immunohistochemical studies were performed for expression of FGF10, its receptor FGFR2b, and its inhibitor sonic hedgehog (SHH) in focal type I PPB (n=6), CCAM type I (n=7), CCAM type II (n=7), and control lungs (n=5). FGF10, FGFR2b, and SHH expressions differed markedly between type I PPB and both types of CCAM. Type I and type II CCAM cystic walls expressed FGF10, FGFR2b, and SHH, whereas staining was absent or poor in type I PBB cystic walls. Expression of FGF10, FGFR2b, and SHH did not differ between CCAM cystic walls and control airway walls. These findings show that immunohistochemistry with FGF10, FGFR2b, or SHH could be useful in differentiating CCAM from type I PPB, when a child presents with a focal cystic lung lesion. The absence of strong expression of FGF10, FGFR2b, and/or SHH makes the diagnosis of CCAM very doubtful.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
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    ABSTRACT: Congenital cystic adenomatoid malformations (CCAM) of the lung are the most frequent congenital lung malformations. Their diagnosis is based on histological features. CCAM consist of bronchopulmonary cystic lesions which are classified according to the presence and cysts size. Type I CCAM are composed of large cysts (> 2 cm) lined by a columnar pseudostratified epithelium. Type II CCAM contain multiple small cystic lesions (< 1 cm) lined by a flattened cuboidal epithelium. Type III CCAM are more solid and contain immature structures resembling the pseudoglandular stage of lung development. Ultrasonography (US) allows early detection during the second trimester of pregnancy as cystic, and/or hyperechoic fetal lung lesions. Although most CCAM remain asymptomatic, CCAM can cause polyhydramnios or fetal hydrops, respiratory distress at birth, infections and pneumothoraces during infancy, and may give rise to malignancies. Serial US allow detection of complications, and planification of delivery. Complicated forms require an urgent treatment. In fetuses with a macrocystic life-threatening lesion, a thoraco-amniotic shunt can be placed. Microcystic compressive forms may respond to prenatal steroids. Post-natal symptomatic lesions require early surgery. The treatment of asymptomatic forms remains controversial. Some recommend a non-operative approach with a long-term clinical and radiological following, whereas other favour a preventive surgical excision. The origin of CCAM remains unknown. Recent advances suggest a transient and focal abnormality in lung development which may result from an airway obstruction. This article reviews the diagnosis, treatment, and pathophysiology of CCAM.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · Revue de Pneumologie Clinique
  • A Hadchouel · C Delacourt
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    ABSTRACT: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is the most common chronic respiratory disease in premature infants. BPD was first described by Northway in 1967 as a chronic respiratory condition that developed in premature infants exposed to mechanical ventilation and high oxygen supplementation. DBP is currently defined by the need for supplemental oxygen at 28 days of life (mild BPD) and at the 36weeks of post-menstrual age (moderate and severe BPD). With the advances of neonatal care, epidemiological characteristics and mechanisms of the disease as well as pathological characteristics and clinical course have profoundly changed within the last two decades, but still no effective curative treatment exists and BPD continue to occur among 10 to 20% of premature infants. Furthermore, BPD is a significant source of respiratory and neuro-cognitive morbidities. Thus, its treatment makes a considerable demand on health services. Regarding its pathophysiological mechanisms, it is now established that BPD is a complex disease combining genetic susceptibility and environmental injuries. The identification of genetic variants involved in BPD is a potential source of innovative development in terms of diagnosis and treatment. Indeed, no curative or effective prophylactic therapeutic exists and BPD treatment is currently symptomatic.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2013 · Revue de Pneumologie Clinique
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    ABSTRACT: The need to systematically remove congenital cystic lung lesions is based on three main arguments. First, cystic malformations are often considered as congenital cystic adenomatoid malformations (CCAM), while other less favorable diagnoses are possible, such as pleuropulmonary blastoma. Only postsurgical pathological analysis allows diagnosis. Second, there are clinical and biological arguments for considering macrocystic lesions as likely to degenerate. The only prevention is surgical removal. Finally, there is no recommendation on how to follow these children, in the absence of removal, causing unnecessary family stress. This seems unjustified, compared to a feasibility of thoracoscopic removal in most cases.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2013 · Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
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    ABSTRACT: Congenital cystic adenomatoid malformations (CCAM) of the lung are the most frequent congenital lung malformations. Their diagnosis is based on histological features. CCAM consist of bronchopulmonary cystic lesions which are classified according to the presence and cysts size. Type I CCAM are composed of large cysts (>2cm) lined by a columnar pseudostratified epithelium. Type II CCAM contain multiple small cystic lesions (<1cm) lined by a flattened cuboidal epithelium. Type III CCAM are more solid and contain immature structures resembling the pseudoglandular stage of lung development. Ultrasonography (US) allows early detection during the second trimester of pregnancy as cystic, and/or hyperechoic fetal lung lesions. Although most CCAM remain asymptomatic, CCAM can cause polyhydramnios or fetal hydrops, respiratory distress at birth, infections and pneumothoraces during infancy, and may give rise to malignancies. Serial US allow detection of complications, and planification of delivery. Complicated forms require an urgent treatment. In fetuses with a macrocystic life-threatening lesion, a thoraco-amniotic shunt can be placed. Microcystic compressive forms may respond to prenatal steroids. Post-natal symptomatic lesions require early surgery. The treatment of asymptomatic forms remains controversial. Some recommend a non-operative approach with a long-term clinical and radiological following, whereas other favour a preventive surgical excision. The origin of CCAM remains unknown. Recent advances suggest a transient and focal abnormality in lung development which may result from an airway obstruction. This article reviews the diagnosis, treatment, and pathophysiology of CCAM.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2013 · Revue de Pneumologie Clinique
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    ABSTRACT: Idiopathic acute eosinophilic pneumonia (IAEP) is characterized by febrile hypoxic respiratory failure with diffuse radiographic infiltrates and peripheral and pulmonary eosinophilia in a previously healthy child. Diagnosis is by exclusion, but promptness is imperative, as IAEP can lead to life-threatening acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Prognosis is usually good after steroid treatment with total recovery and absence of relapse in reported cases. We report a case of a previously healthy 14-year-old boy with this diagnosis who presented with acute hypoxia and characteristic radiographic and bronchoalveolar lavage findings. He had full recovery after corticosteroid treatment. This case report highlights the diagnostic approach to a patient with IAEP, an uncommon diagnosis, and one of the exclusions, in children.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2013 · Pediatric Allergy, Immunology, and Pulmonology
  • A. Hadchouel · C. Delacourt
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    ABSTRACT: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is the most common chronic respiratory disease in premature infants. BPD was first described by Northway in 1967 as a chronic respiratory condition that developed in premature infants exposed to mechanical ventilation and high oxygen supplementation. DBP is currently defined by the need for supplemental oxygen at 28 days of life (mild BPD) and at the 36 weeks of post-menstrual age (moderate and severe BPD). With the advances of neonatal care, epidemiological characteristics and mechanisms of the disease as well as pathological characteristics and clinical course have profoundly changed within the last two decades, but still no effective curative treatment exists and BPD continue to occur among 10 to 20% of premature infants. Furthermore, BPD is a significant source of respiratory and neuro-cognitive morbidities. Thus, its treatment makes a considerable demand on health services. Regarding its pathophysiological mechanisms, it is now established that BPD is a complex disease combining genetic susceptibility and environmental injuries. The identification of genetic variants involved in BPD is a potential source of innovative development in terms of diagnosis and treatment. Indeed, no curative or effective prophylactic therapeutic exists and BPD treatment is currently symptomatic.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2013 · Revue de Pneumologie Clinique
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    ABSTRACT: Intrathoracic congenital malformations may be associated with long-term pulmonary morbidity. This certainly is the case for congenital diaphragmatic hernia, esophageal atresia and cardiac and aortic arch abnormalities. These conditions have variable degrees of impaired development of both the airways and lung vasculature, with a postnatal impact on lung function and bronchial reactivity. Pulmonary complications are themselves frequently associated to non-pulmonary morbidities, including gastrointestinal and orthopaedic complications. These are best recognized in a structured multidisciplinary follow-up clinic so that they can be actively managed.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2012 · Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine

Publication Stats

142 Citations
73.25 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2015
    • Université Paris-Sorbonne - Paris IV
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2008-2015
    • Unité Inserm U1077
      Caen, Lower Normandy, France
  • 2014
    • Hôpitaux Universitaires La Pitié salpêtrière - Charles Foix
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2011-2014
    • Université René Descartes - Paris 5
      • Faculté de Médecine
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
    • Hôpital Henri Mondor (Hôpitaux Universitaires Henri Mondor)
      Créteil, Île-de-France, France
  • 2013
    • Hôpital Universitaire Necker
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
    • French Institute of Health and Medical Research
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
    • The PremUp Foundation
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France