[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A two-point discrimination test (TPD) is commonly used to investigate lumbar tactile acuity. However, low inter-examiner reliability and difficulties in execution significantly limit its application. Therefore the aim of this study was to compare the inter- and intra-examiner reliability of a new approach, the point-to-point test (PTP), with the TPD. Twenty-one pain-free subjects attended the inter-examiner stage of the study. Eighteen of them were further recruited into an intra-examiner (reproducibility and repeatability) reliability study. PTP was performed on the three points plotted at the L3 spinal level. Point ‘0’ overlapped with the L3 spinous process, from which points ‘1’ and ‘2’ were horizontally separated by 5 and 10 cm, respectively. Participants manually indicated a point previously touched by the examiner, while the distance (error) was measured. Reliability was determined with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC2,3). The results revealed good and moderate inter- and intra-examiner reliability at point ‘1’ (ICC2,3 = 0.68–0.84) and good reliability at point ‘2’ (ICC2,3 = 0.84–0.86). At point ‘0’, reliability was moderate to poor (ICC2,3 = 0.13–0.63). TPD was characterised by a poor to moderate level of inter- (ICC2,1 = 0.51; ICC2,3 = 0.56) and intra-examiner reliability (ICC(2,1) = 0.50; ICC2,3 = 0.74). Our findings suggest that PTP is more reliable than TPD at two investigated points at the L3 spinal level. However, further research on PTP validity data is strongly warranted.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Atlanto-axial instability (AAI) is a developmental anomaly often occurring in persons with Down’s syndrome (DS). According to various reports, AAI affects from 6.8 to 27% of the population with DS. The aim of this review was to illustrate the issue of AAI with regard to the progressively changing state of scientific knowledge. The extended distance between the rear surface of the frontal arcus of the C1 cervical vertebra and the anterior surface of C2 cervical vertebra dens (anterior atlanto-odontoid distance, AAOD) indicates the occurrence of AAI and is detectable through X-ray examination. Hypoplasia of the C2 dens, also detectable through X-ray examination, is another suggested risk factor for AAI. According to current data, the methodology of taking measurements is inconsistent, which leads to errors in interpretation. As research focusing on AAI was progressing, new data emerged from other studies on persons with DS, suggesting that neurological symptoms in persons with DS that indicated the occurrence of spinal cord compression were an important factor in medical imaging detection of AAI. One of the main arguments supporting this thesis is that in isolated cases spinal cord (SC) damage was noted during screening examinations conducted on a large population of subjects. Moreover, cases in which the neurological symptoms indicate spinal cord compression existed long before the occurrence of the actual damage also remain of significant importance. Therefore, it is necessary to promote neurological studies on persons with DS to enable early diagnosis of spinal cord compression and, at the same time, reduce the use of medical imaging in cases of neurological symptoms.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Journal of Human Kinetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: An impact of regular physical activity on the abdominal muscles may be significant when comparing various symptomatic groups. However, there is lack comprehensive information in this field. The objective of this study was to assess the lateral abdominal wall at rest and during abdominal drawing-in manoeuvre in adolescent physically active girls in different body positions.
Methods: Female students, 13–17 years of age, participated in the study. Participants were divided into two groups based on a physical activity statement. Measurements of the thickness of the abdominal muscles at rest and during abdominal drawing-in manoeuvre were made in the supine and standing positions by ultrasound imaging.
Results: Compared to the control group, activities of the obliquus internus and transversus abdominis muscles were higher in the regular physical activity group by 8.9% (95% CI 3.10–14.7) and 36% (95% CI 19.1–47.5), respectively. In the regular physical activity group, the transversus abdominis preferential activation ratio was greater by 0.03 (95% CI 0.01–0.04), and the contraction ratio was greater by a mean value of 0.35 (95% CI 0.18–0.46).
Conclusion: Regular physical activity does not have any effect on the resting thickness of the abdominal muscles in the supine and standing positions. Girls performing regular physical activity have a greater ability to perform an independent activation and greater contractions of the transversus abdominis.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Journal of Sport and Health Science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Back pain represents one of the most common diseases across various populations of workers worldwide. This study analyzes the prevalence and severity of back pain, based on selected demographic variables, and the relationship with physical activity among school teachers.
Material and methods:
The study included 998 professionally active teachers (840 females and 158 males) from the southern part of Poland. Validated psychometric tools, namely: 1) for evaluation of disability due to back pain - a Polish version of the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and Neck Disability Index (NDI), 2) for physical activity assessment - the Subjective Experience of Work Load (SEWL) as well as the authors' supplementary questionnaire, addressing demographic and anthropometric variables were used.
There was no correlation between age and the NDI scores in females (r = 0.027), in contrast to males (r = 0.202; p ≤ 0.05). Statistically significant correlations (p ≤ 0.05) were reported between: age and the ODI, in both females (r = 0.219) and males (r = 0.180). No associations between the body mass index (BMI)-ODI, and BMI-NDI were found. In the case of women, disability related to low back pain (LBP) had a negative impact on the indicators of their activity during work, sports, and leisure time. In the case of men, the NDI and ODI scores did not differ, based on activity indicators.
Our findings confirm that back pain represents a serious concern among teachers. Age appears to be a prognostic factor, while no association between the BMI and LBP has been revealed. The limitation of physical activity leads to more frequent back pain. Med Pr 2015;66(6):771-778.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Low back pain is a common problem in ballroom dancers. In the United States of America about 23% of all injuries in dancers is low back pain. Low back pain in dancers can be related to the extended position of the spine during dancing. The activity of the abdominal muscles, such as transverse abdominis and multifidus muscles can play significant role in the pathomechanics of the problem. These muscles are important for stability of the pelvis and the lumbar spine. The purpose of the study was to estimate the effectiveness of stability exercises of the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex in reducing low back pain among ballroom dancers.
Material/Methods: 30 professional dancers (mean age of 19 years) both males and females participated in the research. Subjects were randomised into two groups. Dancers from the first group continued normal dance training with extra stability training (the experimental group). Participants from the second group continued normal dance training only, without any modifications (the control group). The pain rate was measured by the Numerical Pain Rating Scale. The stability muscles activity was estimated with the biofeedback pressure unit in supine and prone position.
Results: After 6 weeks of stability trainings in dancers from experimental group low back pain significantly decreased and the stability muscles activity improved (p < 0.05).
Conclusions: Results of the study show that stability exercises can be effective in reducing low back pain in ballroom dancers. However, prolonged observations and research comparing different training regimens (e.g. general exercises or Pilates) are needed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose. Body posture constitutes integral whole, so the formation of the temporomandibular joints should hypothetically correspond to the remaining parts of motor organ. On account of this assumption, an attempt was made to assess the body posture in groups according to presence of malocclusion. Material and methods. 336 children were examined including 1 73 girls and 1 63 boys aged 8-1 4. All the subjects underwent assessment of the body posture with use of Kasperczyk's point classification and assessment of the occlusion according to scale drawn up by Emmerich-Popłatek. Results. There was significant diversification (p<0.01) of mean value of body posture assessment between groups – with and without malocclusions. All parts assessed with use of Kasperczyk's point classification were analyzed and tested if there was a connection with the quality of occlusion. A statistically significant connection of malocclusion was found with shoulders set asymmetrically and protractionally (p=0.03) and the shoulder blades standing out from the back surface (p=0.03). Conclusions. Quality of body posture of children with malocclusions is significantly worse comparing to children without malocclusion. In the compared groups there was significant diversity of shoulders and shoulder blades setting.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Fizjoterapia Polska
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Chronic low back pain (LBP) is the most common cause of disability, hence multiple attempts have been undertaken to develop therapeutic strategies aimed at addressing the issue. The most commonly used strategies include motor control exercises of deep core muscles that stabilize the lower back. However, on the practical side, they require application of special devices, such as ultrasonography or electromyography as well as instructions and support provided by trained personnel. Despite the lack of high-quality empirical evidence, these exercises are extensively used in clinical practice. Narrative Review: The vast body of literature collected suggests that the cause of chronic LBP should be sought in the structural and functional alterations within different levels of the central nervous system. These alterations and maladaptations apply to both the molecular and tissue levels. Nevertheless, successful treatment of these changes is currently possible due to an affordable, cognitive therapeutic approach. It encompasses a number of strategies that aim to restore the normal function of the nervous system using brain plasticity processes. These include graded motor imagery, mirror therapy, graded exposure, pain education, sensory training and pain coping strategies. Conclusions: Lack of clear advantage in the application of the core stability exercises over other, potentially cheaper alternatives, implies a shift-paradigm from the existing bio-medical model of chronic LBP treatment towards modern cognitive approaches. As results of numerous studies confirm the validity of the approach aimed at restoring the structure and function of the central nervous system in contrast to the still common concept of treatment of the peripheral tissues of the body, more rigorous systematic reviews and meta-analysis are required. Evidence from this kind of evaluation may contribute to the shift in current beliefs regarding the treatment of chronic LBP.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the effect of a 4-week Nordic walking training on the physical fitness of women of the perimenopausal age and self-assessment of the quality of their health.
Eighty-four women between 48 and 58 years of age were included in the study. Half of the group (42) was assigned to the control group and the other half was assigned to the experimental group. In both groups studied, physical fitness was evaluated using a modified Fullerton's test and a quality of life self-assessment SF-36 (Short Form of Health Status Questionnaire). Similar tests were repeated 4 weeks later. In the experimental group, a Nordic walking training was conducted between the two tests. During 4 weeks, 10 training sessions were performed, each session was 60 minutes long, and there was an interval of 2 days between the sessions.
A 4-week Nordic walking training resulted in a significant improvement (p < 0.001) of physical fitness as demonstrated by an increased strength and flexibility of the upper and lower part of the body and the ability to walk a longer distance during a 6-minute walking test. Women participating in the training also showed a significant improvement in health in terms of both physical health (p < 0.001) and mental health (p < 0.001).
A 4-week Nordic walking training has a positive effect on the physical fitness of the women in the perimenopausal age. Participation in training contributes also to a clearly higher self-assessment of the quality of health.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Menopausal Review
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Pelvic floor dysfunctions, among which urinary incontinence is the most onerous symptom, pose a serious social problem whose significance is probable to grow together with the process of an ageing society and more frequent incontinence episodes in menopausal women. The growing absence of professionally active people suffering from incontinence is prone to result both from plans to raise the retirement age and the process of an ageing society. The concept of Corefit system has been created to meet the incontinent women’s expectations. The above mentioned system is based on an individualized sensomotoric training programme as well as the re-education of incorrect motor patterns resulting in pelvic floor muscle overload. What is also essential for Corefit system effectiveness is monitoring the process of facilitation, which enables constant training plan correction.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Old age is correlated with frequent morbidity, reduced physical fitness and resourcefulness, and often with lack of independence. The risk of falls in the elderly is a serious problem. Gradual adoption of social behavior patterns coming from more wealthy countries can positively influence social attitude towards help and care directed at the elderly. An increasing percentage of these people will benefit from the support of institutions providing 24-hour care and safety. The paper presents the algorithm for determining the level of increased risk of falls. It might be a starting point for preventive and therapeutic policies for the institutions providing care for the elderly. The idea to construct an algorithm was initiated on the basis of professional experience and the literature focusing on the problems of falls in geriatric medicine. Okres starości zawiązany jest z powszechnie występującą chorobowością, mniejszą sprawnością fizyczną i zaradnością, często – z brakiem samodzielności. Ryzyko upadków stanowi w wieku starszym poważny problem. Stopniowe przyjmowanie wzorów zachowań społecznych napływających z krajów bogatszych, zmienia nastawienie do pomocy i opieki skierowanej do ludzi w podeszłym wieku. Osoby te w coraz większym odsetku będą korzystały ze wsparcia instytucji zapewniających całodobową opiekę i bezpieczeństwo. Praca przedstawia algorytm określający poziom zwiększonego ryzyka upadków. Stanowił by on punkt wyjścia do działań profilaktycznych i terapeutycznych w instytucjach zajmujących się opieką ludzi starych. Pomysł skonstruowania algorytmu zrodził się na bazie doświadczeń zawodowych oraz na podstawie piśmiennictwa wskazującego na problemy upadków w geriatrii. Słowa kluczowe: ryzyko upadków, starość, algorytm profilaktyczny
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Range of motion (ROM) and kinesthetic differentiation of movement (KDM) significantly influence hand
functions during work and while performing everyday activities. Because to date ROM and KDM in carpal tunnel
syndrome (CTS) patients and its changes following different forms of physiotherapy have not been thoroughly
assessed, they became the objective of our study. The aim was to assess the influence of two physiotherapeutic
programs on the ROM and KDM in patients with CTS.
140 people participated in the experiment, including 122 (87,15%) women and 18 (,85%) men. Each person
who was not excluded and fulfilled the inclusion criteria to the study was randomly assigned to a group
rehabilitated by means of either manual therapy including neurodynamic techniques (MT) or physical therapy
including electrophysical modalities (EM). ROM and KDM were assessed. The therapy in MT group was based on
manual therapy including neurodynamic techniques and in the EM group on laser therapy and ultrasounds.
Statistically significant improvement was observed in flexion and extension ROM in upper extremities with
CTS only in the MT group (p<0.001). Similar effects were obtained in KDM. Similar results distribution occurred
while comparing extremities with CTS and healthy extremities. Statistically significant improvement in
assessment of ROM and KDM were observed only in the MT group (p<0.001).
Therapeutic program using manual therapy including neurodynamic techniques improves ROM and KDM in
patients with CTS. The cycle of therapy improved the status of symptomatic limbs. A decreased difference in
terms of ROM and KDM in the symptomatic limb in relation to the asymptomatic limb was observed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: [Purpose] The objective of the study was to evaluate the symmetry of the thickness of the abdominal
muscles at rest and while standing in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. [Subjects and Methods] An ultrasound assessment was performed of the side-to-side differences of the external oblique (EO), internal oblique (IO), and transversus abdominalis (TrA) muscles in the supine and standing positions in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) and control groups. [Results] In the AIS group, 64.3% of the patients had left scoliosis with a mean Cobb angle of 10.7°, and 35.7% of the patients had right scoliosis with a mean Cobb angle of 10°. In the supine position, the thickness asymmetry of the TrA was greater in the AIS compared with the control group by an average of 14% (95% CI 3.9–24.2). [Conclusion] Among the abdominal muscles examined, patients with AIS exhibited more asymmetry only for the TrA. In the standing position, the TrA was as symmetric in the patients as in the control group. Mild scoliosis has no impact on the symmetry of the thickness of the OE and OI in the supine and standing positions. The direction of curvature had no effect on the symmetry of the abdominal muscles studied.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Journal of Physical Therapy Science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: In the physiotherapeutic practice, the need for measurements of e.g. range of motion or strength of the cervical spine muscles results from a variety of degenerative processes in the area of the head, cervical spine and shoulder girdle. In Poland, we designed a measurement stand based on the equipment described in foreign literature. Validation of the measurement stand was performed in order to determine the usefulness of this stand for measurements of maximal strength and muscle torques for the isometric contraction of the cervical spine muscles.
Material/Methods: A group of 13 women was examined to validate the device. The criteria for inclusion into the study group were adult age, no back pain and head pain syndromes. Validation of the equipment consisted in the calculation of the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Three measurements were performed for each movement in three planes: initial measurement (I), second measurement after 15 minutes (II) and the third measurement after a week (III). The ICC coefficient was calculated based on the methodology discussed in the study by Shrout and Fleiss (1979).
Results: The results of the measurements reached the "excellent" level of the ICC coefficient between the first and the second test. In the case of the first and the third tests, the ICC coefficient reached the "good" level for the movements in the sagittal and transverse planes and the "excellent" level for the movements in the frontal plane.
Conclusions: The measurement system used in the measurement stand designed by the authors of the present study can be successfully used for comparative studies of several groups or repeated examinations of the same study group after application of a specific therapeutic procedure.The stand cannot be used for evaluation whether the results obtained are consistent with the standards for specific populations or for comparison with the results obtained from other devices.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a connection between the weather and the capacity of people with severe disabilities to undertake physical activity, their mental disposition and the occurrence of the epileptic seizures.
The observation was carried out on a group of ten male subjects with severe intellectual disabilities. The observation of the persons was carried out by three pedagogues. The method of direct observation was used in the research.
In the course of the conducted studies, a dependence between physical activity and temperature, atmospheric pressure and atmospheric humidity was discovered.
The mental disposition and physical activity of the people with severe intellectual disabilities showed a dependence on the temperature and atmospheric pressure.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In contrast to a normal gait, the locomotion of people with infantile cerebral palsy (ICP) is characterized by great variability. An experiment was conducted to determine if the use of whole-body vibrations changes the time of support by each of the extremities as well as the range of flexion of the hip and knee articulations. Three women with ICP were involved in the whole-body vibration experiment. The parameters of the vibration adopted during training were a frequency of 20 Hz and an amplitude of 2 mm. The BTS Smart system for three-plane movement analysis paired with a desktop computer was used for the evaluation of gait parameters. The vibration procedure improved the range of flexion in knee articulation but did not change the range of flexion in hip articulation. The equalization of time disparities in the load of both extremities was obtained after the first treatment procedure. In this investigated group, the vibration procedure may be a complement to the rehabilitation process.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background This study aimed to analyse the self-evaluations of physicians and physiotherapists, from different specialisations, about their preparedness for work with people with intellectual disability (ID), and what they considered were the most significant barriers in working with people with ID. Both the physicians and physiotherapists pointed to initiatives that they found useful, such as the Healthy Athletes Program of the Special Olympics, which prepares them for everyday work with people with disability.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Civilizacne ochorenia a ich vplyv na kvalitu zivota, zdravia a socialno-ekonomicku oblast. : Socialna praca, dobrovolnictvo marginalizovane skupiny, etika, varia. / Ed.: S. Bugri, P. Beno, M. Sramka. Presov : Ustav socialnych vied a zdravotnictva bl. P.P Gojdica, 2014 Summary: Spinal ailments put limitation on functional one's possibilities. Working with the disabled, taking forced and often disadvantageous positions of the body cause dysfunctions or increase the degree of the existing ones. In this article preventive actions are shown that can be taken to maintain indispensable physical health. Therefore, it is crucial for both persons taking care of the sick and people working with the disabled to learn principles of ergonomics as a basis of their general education. The main task of ergonomics is to develop the most optimal way working system, both its individual elements and the relation between them. This should be understood not only as assurance of working in full safety but also as comprehensive development of an employee-intellectual, mental and social. These optimal working conditions create further possibilities for an employee and motivate them to be more efficient at work. Social background – the scale of the disability problem Disability is one of the key problems of the modern world, the proof of which is the scale of the problem – over 650 million people in the world are disabled; the number constitutes c.a. 10% of the world's population. The problem of disability is also present in Poland. According to the data collected during national census in Poland, the number of the disabled reached the level of 4,7 million people, 3,1 million of whom had legal confirmation of their disability. The results of the Study of Economic Activity of the Population (BAEL), conducted by Central Statistical Office in Poland, indicate that 27,4% of the disabled in Poland are those with its severe level (GUS, 2011). Those figures need to be treated as underestimated – due to the methodology of the study (voluntary character of the responses). The other reason, which indicates underestimation of the number of the disabled, is the percentage of the elderly. Poland is demographically an old society, with over 5 million people at the age of over 65 in 2010, which constitutes 14% of the society (according to United Nations, the threshold of demographically advanced aged society is when 7% of the