[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In mammals, the transcriptional activity of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is regulated by the deacetylase SIRT1. However, whether the newly described nongenomic actions of STAT3 toward mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation are dependent on SIRT1 is unclear. In this study, Sirt1 gene knock-out murine embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells were used to delineate the role of SIRT1 in the regulation of STAT3 mitochondrial function. Here, we show that STAT3 mRNA and protein levels and the accumulation of serine-phosphorylated STAT3 in mitochondria were increased significantly in Sirt1-KO cells as compared with wild-type MEFs. Various mitochondrial bioenergetic parameters, such as the oxygen consumption rate in cell cultures, enzyme activities of the electron transport chain complexes in isolated mitochondria, and production of ATP and lactate, indicated that Sirt1-KO cells exhibited higher mitochondrial respiration as compared with wild-type MEFs. Two independent approaches, including ectopic expression of SIRT1 and siRNA-mediated knockdown of STAT3, led to reduction in intracellular ATP levels and increased lactate production in Sirt1-KO cells that were approaching those of wild-type controls. Comparison of profiles of phospho-antibody array data indicated that the deletion of SirT1 was accompanied by constitutive activation of the pro-inflammatory NF-κB pathway, which is key for STAT3 induction and increased cellular respiration in Sirt1-KO cells. Thus, SIRT1 appears to be a functional regulator of NF-κB-dependent STAT3 expression that induces mitochondrial biogenesis. These results have implications for understanding the interplay between STAT3 and SIRT1 in pro-inflammatory conditions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes is determined by various factors, including defects within the insulin signaling pathway. Mediators of insulin resistance operate through activation of various protein kinase C isoforms, IκB kinase β (IKKβ), and/or c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and subsequent inhibition of the proximal insulin signaling pathway via the insulin receptor substrate 1 and Akt. These mechanisms are still largely unresolved because of the complexity of the molecular events. In this study, an expression and activation state profiling of multiple known key signaling biomolecules involved in insulin metabolic and mitogenic signaling pathways was evaluated using a phosphospecific antibody array platform. The results of the arrayed antibodies were verified by the multiplexed bead array assay and conventional Western blot analysis, and confirmed the well-known inhibitory effects of phorbol esters on insulin signaling pathway activation. Of interest, the increase in protein kinase C signaling responses with phorbol esters was associated with activation of the lipid phosphatase PTEN and a 27 kDa HSP. Thus, this insulin signaling antibody array provides a powerful and effective way to investigate the mechanism of insulin resistance and likely assist the development of innovative therapeutic drugs for type 2 diabetes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Microarray technology allows high-throughput analysis of tens or even hundreds of thousands of genes
in a single experiment, and has been applied broadly to address a wide variety of questions in
basic and applied sciences. The applications of the microarray technology range from gene-expression profiling
and genotyping to DNA–protein interactions and genome sequencing, and the list of applications keeps
growing, especially when combined with other technologies such as proteomic technologies. However, many
steps are involved in each microarray experiment and a number of microarray platforms exist, each with
its unique features. The challenge is how to standardize the methods and materials to allow intra- and
inter-comparison of microarray data collected in the same or different set of experiments. With the challenge
in mind, we address the need for standardization for each step of the microarray experiments with emphasis
on quality control of array fabrication and scanner calibration and verification. The proposed standards
are designed for checking the quality of mRNA, fabricating slides, hybridization, and collecting, analyzing,
and storing data. By implementing standards for each step of the microarray process, the full potential
of the microarray technology will be realized, especially in the area of disease diagnosis and drug development.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A recombinant mouse interleukin-4 (IL-4) and three different purified rat antimouse IL-4 monoclonal antibodies (Mab) with different clonalities were employed as a model system. This system was used to examine monoclonal antibody effectiveness using both conventional and high-throughput measurement techniques to select antibodies for attaining the most sensitive detection of the recombinant IL-4 through the "sandwich-type" immunoassays. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) measurements and two high-throughput methods, suspension arrays (also called multiplexed bead arrays) and forward-phase protein microarrays, predicted the same capture (BVD4-1D11) and detection (BVD6-24G2) antibody pair for the most sensitive detection of the recombinant cytokine. By using this antibody pair, we were able to detect as low as 2 pg/mL of IL-4 in buffer solution and 13.5 pg/mL of IL-4 spiked in 100% normal mouse serum with the multiplexed bead arrays. Due to the large amount of material required for SPR measurements, the study suggests that the multiplexed bead arrays and protein microarrays are both suited for the selection of numerous antibodies against the same analyte of interest to meet the need in the areas of systems biology and reproducible clinical diagnostics for better patient care.
No preview · Article · Jan 2008 · Journal of Proteome Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gene expression technology offers great potentials to generate new insights into human disease pathogenesis; however, the data quality remains a major obstacle for realizing its potentials. In the present study 60-mers oligonucleotide target immobilized on coated glass slides were utilized as a model system to investigate parameters, such as target concentration, retention, signal linearity, and fluorescence properties of fluorophores, which likely affect the quality of microarray results. An array calibration slide was used to calibrate an Axon GenePix 4000A scanner and ensure the dynamic range of the instrument. The work is a first step toward our goal of quantitative gene expression measurements.
No preview · Article · Feb 2007 · Methods in Molecular Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Over the last decade, the introduction of microarray technology has had a profound impact on gene expression research. The publication of studies with dissimilar or altogether contradictory results, obtained using different microarray platforms to analyze identical RNA samples, has raised concerns about the reliability of this technology. The MicroArray Quality Control (MAQC) project was initiated to address these concerns, as well as other performance and data analysis issues. Expression data on four titration pools from two distinct reference RNA samples were generated at multiple test sites using a variety of microarray-based and alternative technology platforms. Here we describe the experimental design and probe mapping efforts behind the MAQC project. We show intraplatform consistency across test sites as well as a high level of interplatform concordance in terms of genes identified as differentially expressed. This study provides a resource that represents an important first step toward establishing a framework for the use of microarrays in clinical and regulatory settings.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2006 · Nature Biotechnology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We employed ovalbumin (a simulant used for ricin and botulism toxins in biodefense applications) and its high affinity polyclonal antibody as a model system to examine the sensitivity, dynamic range, linearity, and reproducibility of forward-phase array results in comparison to suspension arrays. It was found that protein microarrays had a dynamic range of 4 orders of magnitude and a sensitivity of less than 1 pg/mL, respectively. The dynamic range and sensitivity of suspension arrays were close to 2 orders of magnitude and 0.25 ng/mL, respectively. The sensitivity we observed for the suspension arrays is comparable to that reported for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) in the literature. We used ovalbumin samples with two different purities, 38.0% and 76.0% (w/w), as determined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). These samples were used to evaluate the effect of impure samples on detection. The data obtained from the forward-phase protein arrays gave values that were consistent with the PAGE data. The data from the suspension arrays were not as consistent and may indicate that this format may not give as reliable data with impure samples. Knowledge of the advantages and disadvantages of the two proteomic methods would allow their more rational use in clinical diagnosis.
No preview · Article · Aug 2006 · Journal of Proteome Research