[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: HIV-infected patients with pulmonary TB (pTB) can have worsening of respiratory symptoms as part of TB-immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS) following antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation. Thus, reconstitution of immune function on ART could drive incident lung damage in HIV/TB. Methods: We hypothesized that increases in matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which can degrade lung matrix, on ART are associated with TB-IRIS among a cohort of advanced, ART naïve, HIV-infected adults with pTB. Furthermore, we related early changes in immune measures and MMPs on ART to lung function in an exploratory subset of patients post-TB cure. This study was nested within a prospective cohort study. Rank sum and chi-square tests, Spearman's correlation coefficient, and logistic regression were used for analyses. Results: Increases in MMP-8 following ART initiation were independently associated with TB-IRIS (p = 0.04; adjusted odds ratio 1.5 [95% confidence interval: 1.0-2.1]; n = 32). Increases in CD4 counts and MMP-8 on ART were also associated with reduced forced expiratory volume in one-second post-TB treatment completion (r = -0.7, p = 0.006 and r = -0.6, p = 0.02, respectively; n = 14). Conclusions: ART-induced MMP increases are associated with TB-IRIS and may affect lung function post-TB cure. End-organ damage due to TB-IRIS and mechanisms whereby immune restoration impairs lung function in pTB deserve further investigation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective Many mobile phone resources have been developed to increase access to health education in the developing world, yet few studies have compared these resources or quantified their performance in a resource-limited setting. This study aims to compare the performance of resident physicians in answering clinical scenarios using PubMed abstracts accessed via the PubMed for Handhelds (PubMed4Hh) website versus medical/drug reference applications (Medical Apps) accessed via software on the mobile phone.
Methods A two-arm comparative study with crossover design was conducted. Subjects, who were resident physicians at the University of Botswana, completed eight scenarios, each with multi-part questions. The primary outcome was a grade for each question. The primary independent variable was the intervention arm and other independent variables included residency and question.
Results Within each question type there were significant differences in ‘percentage correct’ between Medical Apps and PubMed4Hh for three of the six types of questions: drug-related, diagnosis/definitions, and treatment/management. Within each of these question types, Medical Apps had a higher percentage of fully correct responses than PubMed4Hh (63% vs 13%, 33% vs 12%, and 41% vs 13%, respectively). PubMed4Hh performed better for epidemiologic questions.
Conclusions While mobile access to primary literature remains important and serves an information niche, mobile applications with condensed content may be more appropriate for point-of-care information needs. Further research is required to examine the specific information needs of clinicians in resource-limited settings and to evaluate the appropriateness of current resources in bridging location- and context-specific information gaps.
Preview · Article · Mar 2013 · Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Food allergy has been traditionally perceived as being rare in Africa. However, the prevalence of other allergic manifestations such as asthma and atopic dermatitis continue to rise in the higher-income African countries. Since the food allergy epidemic in westernized countries has lagged behind that of allergic respiratory conditions, we hypothesize that food allergy is increasing in Africa. This article systematically reviews the evidence for food allergy in Africa, obtained through searching databases including PubMed, Medline, MD Consult, and scholarly Google. Articles are divided into categories based on strength of methodological diagnosis of food allergy. Information was found for 11 African countries: Botswana, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ghana, Kenya, Morocco, Mozambique, Nigeria, South Africa, Tanzania, Tunisia, and Zimbabwe. Most studies reflect sensitization to food or self-reported symptoms. However, a few studies had more stringent diagnostic testing that is convincing for food allergy, mostly conducted in South Africa. Apart from the foods that commonly cause allergy in westernized countries, other regionally significant or novel food allergens may include pineapple (Ghana), okra (Nigeria), and mopane worm (Botswana). Food allergy is definitely an emerging disease in Africa and resources need to be diverted to study, diagnose, treat, and prevent this important disease.
No preview · Article · Nov 2012 · Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The International Union of Immunological Societies defined transient hypogammaglobulinemia of infancy as decreased IgG and IgA levels. Some others, however, include decreased IgA level alone. We compared infants with decreased levels of IgG and IgA, all isotypes, and IgA alone.
To determine whether infants presenting with diminished IgA only differ clinically and in time of immunoglobulin recovery, from those with decreased levels of IgG and IgA, or of all major isotypes.
Eighty-seven term infants found to have immunoglobulin isotype(s) 2 or more SDs below mean, normal antibody response, intact cellular immunity, and absence of other immunodeficiency syndrome features were evaluated between January 1, 1977 and December 31, 2008. Infants had decreased IgA level (group 1, n = 43), decreased IgA and IgG levels (group 2, n = 39), or low IgA, IgG, and IgM levels (group 3, n = 5).
Groups had similar histories. Immunoglobulins normalized in a similar percentage of all groups during infancy but earlier for group 1 (P = .005).
Little reason exists to separate infants with isolated decreased IgA levels from those with decreased levels of IgA and IgG or all isotypes.
No preview · Article · Oct 2010 · Annals of allergy, asthma & immunology: official publication of the American College of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypertrophied adenoid glands are a common finding in pediatric patients with obstructive nasal symptoms. Recurrence of the symptoms following adenoidectomy is reported. One possible etiology for recurrent symptoms is regrowth of the adenoid tissue; however, prevalence of and risk factors for regrowth are not well delineated. The study was undertaken to determine the frequency of regrowth of adenoid tissue in a population of post-adenoidectomy patients presenting to a pediatric allergy office with obstructive nasal complaints, as well as to identify potential contributing risk factors in this population. Patients presenting with obstructive nasal symptoms, status post-adenoidectomy were retrospectively identified. Charts were reviewed for evidence of adenoid regrowth on imaging studies. A retrospective analysis was then performed comparing the presence and absence of adenoid regrowth with aeroallergen sensitivity, sinusitis, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), tobacco exposure, asthma, and immunodeficiency disorders. One hundred and six patients' histories were reviewed for this study. Forty-five percent of patients had evidence of adenoid regrowth on imaging studies, while 55% did not. The presence of GERD was more common in the group with adenoid regrowth (P = 0.012). Otherwise, the groups did not differ significantly. Among patients presenting with obstructive nasal symptoms following adenoidectomy, GERD was significantly more prevalent in those with regrowth of adenoid tissue.
No preview · Article · Dec 2009 · Pediatric Asthma Allergy & Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Costly microbiological assays are frequently performed in patients with rotavirus gastroenteritis (RGE) to exclude concurrent serious bacterial infection (SBI). The incidence of concurrent SBI in this population is unknown but estimated to be low. The primary objective was to describe the incidence of SBI in children with RGE. The secondary objective was to elucidate risk factors for prolonged length of stay (LOS) in the cohort.
All children < or =18 years seen at a community hospital for laboratory-confirmed RGE over a 4-year period were included in a retrospective cohort study to describe the incidence of concurrent SBI and to identify risk factors for prolonged LOS. Prolonged LOS was defined as hospitalization for > or =3 days.
Ninety-four cases of RGE were identified; 58 (61.7%) males and 80 (85.1%) African Americans. The median age was 8 months (interquartile range [IQR], 1 month to 16 years) and 83 patients (88.3%) required admission. There were no cases of SBI. The median LOS was 2 days. Age < or = 6 months (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 3.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-7.7; P = 0.022) and collection of a peripheral blood culture (adjusted OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.0-7.1; P = 0.043) were associated with LOS > or = 3 days.
In children evaluated at a community hospital with laboratory-confirmed RGE, no episodes of SBI occurred. This finding challenges the need to perform invasive, costly, microbiological assays to exclude concurrent SBI in this population. Children 6 months and younger were at increased risk of prolonged hospitalization from RGE.
No preview · Article · Sep 2009 · Journal of Hospital Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome is a common chromosomal disorder with highly variable phenotypic expression and immunologic defects. Humoral immunity is mostly unaffected, but selective IgA deficiency occurs in up to 13% of patients. Selective IgM deficiency associated with 22q11.2 deletion has been reported in 1 patient.
To describe another 2 patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome and IgM deficiency.
Patient 1 was a 6-year-old boy with recurrent otitis media, sinopulmonary infections, wheezing, and speech delay. His serum IgM level was 18 mg/dL, and his IgA and IgG levels were normal. Antibody titers to protein and carbohydrate antigens were protective. Workup for velopharyngeal insufficiency resulted in the diagnosis of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome 3 years later. Patient 2 was a 14-year-old girl diagnosed as having 22q11.2 deletion at 9 years of age after presenting with neonatal seizures, atrial and ventricular septal defects, recurrent otitis media, mental retardation, and asthma. Her serum IgM level was 11 mg/dL, with normal IgG and IgA levels. Antibody titers to protein and carbohydrate antigens were protective. Patient 3 was a previously described 15-year-old girl with persistently draining ears, 22q11.2 deletion, and an IgM level less than 6 mg/dL. Her clinical and laboratory features are summarized.
Results of further testing on the patients, including lymphocyte enumeration, were normal. The literature is reviewed regarding decreased IgM levels in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.
Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis for chromosome 22q11.2 deletion should be considered in patients with selective IgM deficiency, especially if concurrent chronic otitis media, developmental delay, velopharyngeal insufficiency, or dysmorphic features are present.
No preview · Article · Aug 2007 · Annals of allergy, asthma & immunology: official publication of the American College of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this case report we describe the first account in the literature of a patient with primary ciliary dyskinesia and common variable immunodeficiency. A 17-year-old boy with previously diagnosed Kartagener syndrome and stable lung disease developed a deteriorating clinical course that prompted the search for a secondary diagnosis. Although both of these rare conditions can result in similar lung pathology, they require different management strategies, which illustrates the need to consider associated diagnoses in complicated clinical situations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 5-Aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA)-containing drugs are the mainstay of therapy in inflammatory bowel disease, but adverse reactions to these medications are relatively common. Because there may be a lack of cross-reactivity among the various 5-ASA formulations, treatment with alternative preparations is sometimes possible even after an apparent allergic reaction to a 5-ASA product.
To describe a patient with a possible allergy to 2 different 5-ASA drugs who tolerated a third.
A 27-year-old man with Crohn disease developed a rash while taking mesalamine (Pentasa and Asacol). Treatment with 5-ASA products was discontinued, and 6-mercaptopurine and prednisone were prescribed. He then experienced multiorgan failure secondary to herpes simplex infection, which required discontinuation of the immunosuppressive therapy. After recovery from the acute infection, he underwent successful graded challenge with balsalazide.
The patient continued treatment with balsalazide for 9 months, with good control of his inflammatory bowel disease and no adverse effects.
Adverse reactions to 1 or more 5-ASA medications do not necessarily preclude the use of others in the same class. A treatment algorithm for patients with adverse reactions to 5-ASA is outlined based on the case report and review of the literature.
No preview · Article · Oct 2006 · Annals of allergy, asthma & immunology: official publication of the American College of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology