Ralph P. Kraft

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States

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Publications (133)257.63 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We study the unresolved X-ray emission in three Local Group dwarf elliptical galaxies (NGC 147, NGC 185 and NGC 205) using XMM-Newton observations, which most likely originates from a collection of weak X-ray sources, mainly cataclysmic variables and coronally active binaries. Precise knowledge of this stellar X-ray emission is crucial not only for understanding the relevant stellar astrophysics but also for disentangling and quantifying the thermal emission from diffuse hot gas in nearby galaxies.We find that the integrated X-ray emissivities of the individual dwarf ellipticals agree well with that of the Solar vicinity, supporting an often assumed but untested view that the X-ray emissivity of old stellar populations is quasi-universal in normal galactic environments, in which dynamical effects on the formation and destruction of binary systems are not important. The average X-ray emissivity of the dwarf ellipticals, including M32 studied in the literature, is measured to be $L_{0.5-2\ \rm {keV}}/M_{\ast} = (6.0 \pm 0.5 \pm 1.8) \times 10^{27} \ \rm{erg \ s^{-1} \ M_\odot^{-1}}$. We also compare this value to the integrated X-ray emissivities of Galactic globular clusters and old open clusters and discuss the role of dynamical effects in these dense stellar systems.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory continues to provide an unparalleled means for exploring the high-energy universe. With its half-arcsecond angular resolution, Chandra studies have deepened our understanding of galaxy clusters, active galactic nuclei, galaxies, supernova remnants, neutron stars, black holes, and solar system objects. As we look beyond Chandra, it is clear that comparable or even better angular resolution with greatly increased photon throughput is essential to address ever more demanding science questions—such as the formation and growth of black hole seeds at very high redshifts; the emergence of the first galaxy groups; and details of feedback over a large range of scales from galaxies to galaxy clusters. Recently, we initiated a concept study for such a mission, dubbed X-ray Surveyor. The X-ray Surveyor strawman payload is comprised of a high-resolution mirror assembly and an instrument set, which may include an X-ray microcalorimeter, a high-definition imager, and a dispersive grating spectrometer and its readout. The mirror assembly will consist of highly nested, thin, grazing-incidence mirrors, for which a number of technical approaches are currently under development—including adjustable X-ray optics, differential deposition, and new polishing techniques applied to a variety of substrates. This study benefits from previous studies of large missions carried out over the past two decades and, in most areas, points to mission requirements no more stringent than those of Chandra.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Aug 2015
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    ABSTRACT: The interactions between radio-loud AGN and their environments play an important rôle in galaxy and cluster evolution. Recent work has demonstrated fundamental differences between high- and low-excitation radio galaxies (HERGs and LERGs), and shown that they may have different relationships with their environments. In the Chandra Large Project ERA (Environments of Radio-loud AGN), we made the first systematic X-ray environmental study of the cluster environments of radio galaxies at a single epoch (z ∼ 0.5), and found tentative evidence for a correlation between radio luminosity and cluster X-ray luminosity. We also found that this relationship appeared to be driven by the LERG subpopulation. We have now repeated the analysis with a low-redshift sample (z ∼ 0.1), and found strong correlations between radio luminosity and environment richness and between radio luminosity and central density for the LERGs but not for the HERGs. These results are consistent with models in which the HERGs are fuelled from accretion discs maintained from local reservoirs of gas, while LERGs are fuelled more directly by gas ingested from the intracluster medium. Comparing the samples, we found that although the maximum environment richness of the HERG environments is similar in both samples, there are poorer HERG environments in the z ∼ 0.1 sample than in the z ∼ 0.5 sample. We have therefore tentative evidence of evolution of the HERG environments. We found no differences between the LERG subsamples for the two epochs, as would be expected if radio and cluster luminosities are related.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: Merging galaxy clusters leave long-lasting signatures on the baryonic and non-baryonic cluster constituents, including shock fronts, cold fronts, X-ray substructure, radio halos, and offsets between the dark matter and the gas components. Using observations from Chandra, the Jansky Very Large Array, the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope, and the Hubble Space Telescope, we present a multiwavelength analysis of the merging Frontier Fields cluster MACS J0416.1-2403 (z=0.396), which consists of a NE and a SW subclusters whose cores are separated on the sky by ~250 kpc. We find that the NE subcluster has a compact core and hosts an X-ray cavity, yet it is not a cool core. Approximately 450 kpc south-south west of the SW subcluster, we detect a density discontinuity that corresponds to a compression factor of ~1.5. The discontinuity was most likely caused by the interaction of the SW subcluster with a less massive structure detected in the lensing maps SW of the subcluster's center. For both the NE and the SW subclusters, the dark matter and the gas components are well-aligned, suggesting that MACS J0416.1-2403 is a pre-merging system. The cluster also hosts a radio halo, which is unusual for a pre-merging system. The halo has a 1.4 GHz power of (1.06 +/- 0.09) x 10^{24} W Hz^{-1}, which is somewhat lower than expected based on the X-ray luminosity of the cluster. We suggest that we are either witnessing the birth of a radio halo, or have discovered a rare ultra-steep spectrum halo.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We present results from a very deep (650 ks) Chandra X-ray observation of the galaxy group NGC~5813, the deepest Chandra observation of a galaxy group to date. Earlier observations showed two pairs of cavities distributed roughly collinearly, with each pair associated with an elliptical shock front. The new observations confirm a third pair of outer cavities, collinear with the other pairs, and reveal an associated outer outburst shock at ~30 kpc. This system is therefore unique in exhibiting three cavity pairs, each associated with an unambiguous AGN outburst shock front. The implied mean kinetic power is roughly the same for each outburst, demonstrating that the average AGN kinetic luminosity can remain stable over long timescales (~50 Myr). The two older outbursts have larger, roughly equal total energies as compared with the youngest outburst, implying that the youngest outburst is ongoing. We find that the radiative cooling rate and the mean shock heating rate of the gas are well balanced at each shock front, suggesting that AGN outburst shock heating alone is sufficient to offset cooling and establish AGN/ICM feedback within at least the central 30 kpc. This heating takes place roughly isotropically and most strongly at small radii, as is required for feedback to operate. We suggest that shock heating may play a significant role in AGN feedback at smaller radii in other systems, where weak shocks are more difficult to detect. We find non-zero shock front widths that are too large to be explained by particle diffusion. Instead, all measured widths are consistent with shock broadening due to propagation through a turbulent ICM with a mean turbulent speed of ~70 km/s. Finally, we place lower limits on the temperature of any volume-filling thermal gas within the cavities that would balance the internal cavity pressure with the external ICM.
    Preview · Article · Mar 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: The presence of hot gaseous coronae around present-day massive spiral galaxies is a fundamental prediction of galaxy formation models. However, our observational knowledge remains scarce, since to date only four gaseous coronae were detected around spirals with massive stellar bodies ($\gtrsim2\times10^{11} \ \rm{M_{\odot}}$). To explore the hot coronae around lower mass spiral galaxies, we utilized Chandra X-ray observations of a sample of eight normal spiral galaxies with stellar masses of $(0.7-2.0)\times10^{11} \ \rm{M_{\odot}}$. Although statistically significant diffuse X-ray emission is not detected beyond the optical radii ($\sim20$ kpc) of the galaxies, we derive $3\sigma$ limits on the characteristics of the coronae. These limits, complemented with previous detections of NGC 1961 and NGC 6753, are used to probe the Illustris Simulation. The observed $3\sigma$ upper limits on the X-ray luminosities and gas masses exceed or are at the upper end of the model predictions. For NGC 1961 and NGC 6753 the observed gas temperatures, metal abundances, and electron density profiles broadly agree with those predicted by Illustris. These results hint that the physics modules of Illustris are broadly consistent with the observed properties of hot coronae around spiral galaxies. However, a shortcoming of Illustris is that massive black holes, mostly residing in giant ellipticals, give rise to powerful radio-mode AGN feedback, which results in under luminous coronae for ellipticals.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Cygnus A, the nearest truly powerful radio galaxy, resides at the centre of a massive galaxy cluster. Chandra X-ray observations reveal its cocoon shocks, radio lobe cavities and an X-ray jet, which are discussed here. It is argued that X-ray emission from the outer regions of the cocoon shocks is nonthermal. The X-ray jets are best interpreted as synchrotron emission, suggesting that they, rather than the radio jets, are the path of energy flow from the nucleus to the hotspots. In that case, a model shows that the jet flow is non-relativistic and carries in excess of one solar mass per year.
    Preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union
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    ABSTRACT: We present results from Chandra, XMM-Newton, and ROSAT observations of the Planck SZ-detected cluster A3716 (PLCKG345.40-39.34 - G345). We show that G345 is, in fact, two subclusters separated on the sky by 400 kpc. We measure the subclusters' gas temperatures (~ 2-3 keV), total (~ 1-2 x 10^14 solar masses) and gas (~ 1-2 x 10^13 solar masses) masses, gas mass fraction within r500, entropy profiles, and X-ray luminosities (~ 10^43 erg/s). Using the gas density and temperature profiles for both subclusters, we show that there is good (0.8 sigma) agreement between the expected Sunyaev-Zel'dovich signal predicted from the X-ray data and that measured from the Planck mission, and better agreement within 0.6 sigma when we re-computed the Planck value assuming a two component cluster model, with relative amplitudes fixed based on the X-ray data. Dynamical analysis shows that the two galaxy subclusters are very likely (> 97% probability) gravitationally bound, and in the most likely scenario, the subclusters will undergo core passage in 500 +- 200 Myr. The northern subcluster is centrally peaked and has a low entropy core, while the southern subcluster has a high central entropy. The high central entropy in the southern subcluster can be explained either by the mergers of several groups, as suggested by the presence of five giant ellipticals or by AGN energy injection, as suggested by the presence of a strong radio source in one of its massive elliptical galaxies, or by a combination of both processes.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: The Local Group compact elliptical galaxy M32 hosts one of the nearest super-massive black holes (SMBHs), which has manifested itself only in X-rays to date. Based on sensitive observations taken with the {\it Karl G. Jansky} Very Large Array (VLA), we detect for the first time a compact radio source coincident with the nucleus of M32, which exhibits a flux density of $\sim$$47.3 \pm 5.9$ $\mu$Jy at 6.6 GHz. We discuss several possibilities for the nature of this source, favoring an origin of the long-sought radio emission from the central SMBH, for which we also revisit the X-ray properties based on recently acquired {\sl Chandra} and {\sl XMM-Newton} data. Our VLA observations also discover radio emission from three previously know optical planetary nebulae in the inner region of M32.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, we discuss the luminosity modulations and spectral analysis results of the recent deep observations of XMMU 122939.7+075333, the first black hole discovered in a globular cluster. The source has been detected many times, typically with LX > 1039 erg s−1, but in a 2010 observation had faded to LX ∼ 1038 erg s−1. In our 2011 observations, it has rebrightened to LX ∼ 2 × 1039 erg s−1. This significant increase in luminosity over a relatively short time period is not consistent with the idea that the long-term flux modulations displayed by XMMU 122939.7+075333 are caused by the Kozai mechanism alone as had previously been suggested. Instead, given that the source shows ‘spiky’ behaviour in its light curve, it seems likely that the faintness in 2010 was a result of a short observation that did not catch any bright epochs. We also find that when the source is brighter than average, it has an excess of soft (<0.7 keV) photons. The spectral analysis reveals strong, albeit model-dependent, evidence of emission from highly ionized oxygen (O viii) when the source is brighter than average.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: Radio-loud AGN play an important r\^ole in galaxy evolution. We need to understand their properties, and the processes that affect their behaviour in order to model galaxy formation and development. We here present preliminary results of an investigation into the cluster environments of radio galaxies. We have found evidence of a strong correlation between radio luminosity and environment richness for low excitation radio galaxies, and no evidence of evolution of the environment with redshift. Conversely, for high excitation radio galaxies, we found no correlation with environment richness, and tentative evidence of evolution of the cluster environment.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union
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    ABSTRACT: The Whipple mission was a proposal submitted to the NASA Discovery AO in 2010 to study the solid bodies of the Kuiper Belt and Oort Cloud via a blind occultation survey. Though not accepted for flight, the proposal was awarded funding for technology development. Detecting a significant number of Trans Neptunian Objects (TNOs) via a blind occultation survey requires a low noise, wide field of view, multi object differential photometer. The light curve decrement is typically a few percent over timescales of tenths of seconds or seconds for Kuiper Belt and Oort cloud objects, respectively. To obtain a statistically interesting number of detections, this photometer needs to observe many thousands of stars over several years since the rate of occultation for a single star given the space density of the TNOs is low. The light curves from these stars must be monitored with a sensor with a temporal resolution of rv 25-50 ms and with a read noise of< 20 e- rms. Since these requirements are outside the capability of CCDs, the Whipple mission intends to use Teledyne H2RG HyViSI Silicon Hybrid CMOS detectors operating in "window" read mode. The full Whipple focal plane consists of a 3x3 array of these sensors, with each sensor comprised of 1024x 1024 36/μm pixels. Combined with the telescope optic, the Whipple focal plane provides a FOV of rv36 deg2 . In operation, each HyViSI detector, coupled to a Teledyne SIDECAR ASIC, monitors the flux from 650 stars at 40 Hz. The ASIC digitizes the data at the required cadence and an FPGA provides preliminary occultation event selection. The proposed 2010 Whipple mission utilized a spacecraft in a a "drift-away" orbit which signifi­ cantly limited the available telemetry data rate. Most of the light curve processing is required to be on-board the satellite so only candidate occultation events are telemetered to the ground. Occul­ tation light curves must be processed in real time on the satellite by an Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). A simple, real time band pass filter, called the Equivalent Width (EW) algorithm, has been instantiated in the FPGA. This EW filter selects for telemetry only those occultation event light curves that differed significantly from noise. As part of our technology development program, a key facet of the proposed Whipple focal plane was constructed and operated in our laboratory consisting of a single HyViSI H2RG sensor, a Teledyne SIDECAR ASIC, and a flight-like Virtex-5 FPGA. In order to fully demonstrate the capabilities of this photometer, we also made a occultation light-curve simulator. The entire system can generate simulated occultation light curves, project them onto an H2RG sensor, read out the sensor in windowing mode at 40 Hz, pass the data to an FPGA that continuously monitors the light curves and dumps candidate occultation events to our simulated Ground Support Equipment (GSE). In this paper, we summarize the technical capabilities of our system, present sample data, and discuss how this system will be used to support our proposal effort for the next Discovery round.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Aug 2014
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    ABSTRACT: The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) in collaboration with SRI/Sarnoff is developing monolithic CMOS detectors optimized for x-ray astronomy. The goal of this multi-year program is to produce CMOS x-ray imaging spectrometers that are Fano noise limited over the 0.1-10keV energy band while incorporating the many benefits of CMOS technology. These benefits include: low power consumption, radiation “hardness”, high levels of integration, and very high read rates. Small format test devices from a previous wafer fabrication run (2011-2012) have recently been back-thinned and tested for response below 1keV. These devices perform as expected in regards to dark current, read noise, spectral response and Quantum Efficiency (QE). We demonstrate that running these devices at rates ~> 1Mpix/second eliminates the need for cooling as shot noise from any dark current is greatly mitigated. The test devices were fabricated on 15μm, high resistivity custom (~30kΩ-cm) epitaxial silicon and have a 16 by 192 pixel format. They incorporate 16μm pitch, 6 Transistor Pinned Photo Diode (6TPPD) pixels which have ~40μV/electron sensitivity and a highly parallel analog CDS signal chain. Newer, improved, lower noise detectors have just been fabricated (October 2013). These new detectors are fabricated on 9μm epitaxial silicon and have a 1k by 1k format. They incorporate similar 16μm pitch, 6TPPD pixels but have ~ 50% higher sensitivity and much (3×) lower read noise. These new detectors have undergone preliminary testing for functionality in Front Illuminated (FI) form and are presently being prepared for back thinning and packaging. Monolithic CMOS devices such as these, would be ideal candidate detectors for the focal planes of Solar, planetary and other space-borne x-ray astronomy missions. The high through-put, low noise and excellent low energy response, provide high dynamic range and good time resolution; bright, time varying x-ray features could be temporally and spectrally resolved without saturation. We present details of our camera design and device performance with particular emphasis on those aspects of interest to single photon counting x-ray astronomy. These features include read noise, x-ray spectral response and quantum efficiency. Funding for this work has been provided in large part by NASA Grant NNX09AE86G and a grant from the Betty and Gordon Moore Foundation.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Jul 2014
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    ABSTRACT: We introduce Miniature X-ray Optics to bring highly successful Wolter-I X-ray optics to planetary science within affordable mass, power, and cost constraints.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Although the energetic feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN) is believed to have a profound effect on the evolution of galaxies and clusters of galaxies, details of the AGN heating remain elusive. Here, we study NGC 193 - a nearby lenticular galaxy - based on X-ray (Chandra) and radio (VLA and GMRT) observations. These data reveal the complex AGN outburst history of the galaxy: we detect a pair of inner X-ray cavities, an outer X-ray cavity, a shock front, and radio lobes extending beyond the inner cavities. We suggest that the inner cavities were produced ~78 Myr ago by a weaker AGN outburst, while the outer cavity, the radio lobes, and the shock front are due to a younger (13-26 Myr) and (4-8) times more powerful outburst. Combining this with the observed morphology of NGC 193, we conclude that NGC 193 likely represents the first example of a second, more powerful, AGN outburst overrunning an older, weaker outburst. These results help to understand how the outburst energy is dissipated uniformly in the core of galaxies, and therefore may play a crucial role in resolving how AGN outbursts suppress the formation of large cooling flows at cluster centers.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal Letters
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    ABSTRACT: We present the results of a combined galaxy population analysis for the host galaxies of active galactic nuclei (AGN) identified at 0 < z < 1.4 within the SDSS, Bootes and DEEP2 surveys. We identified AGN in a uniform and unbiased manner at X-ray, infrared and radio wavelengths. Supermassive black holes undergoing radiatively-efficient accretion (detected as X-ray and/or infrared AGN) appear to be hosted in a separate and distinct galaxy population than AGN undergoing powerful mechanically dominated accretion (radio AGN). Consistent with some previous studies, radiatively efficient AGN appear to be preferentially hosted in modest star-forming galaxies, with little dependence on AGN or galaxy luminosity. AGN exhibiting radio-emitting jets due to mechanically-dominated accretion are almost exclusively observed in massive, passive galaxies. Crucially, we now provide strong evidence that the observed host-galaxy trends are independent of redshift. In particular, these different accretion-mode AGN have remained as separate galaxy populations throughout the last 9 Gyr. Furthermore, it appears that galaxies hosting AGN have evolved along the same path as galaxies that are not hosting AGN with little evidence for distinctly separate evolution.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2013 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Every object in the Solar system emits X-rays, although the nature and magnitude of this emission varies. In every case sensitive X-ray imaging and spectroscopic measurements would provide direct information about a wide range of atmospheric, magnetospheric, and geologic processes that cannot be gleaned from observations in other energy bands. We are developing a CMOS-based sensor that when combined with existing X-ray telescope technologies would provide a significant advance in capability to the planetary community. Advantages of this sensor technology over other Si-based imagers such as CCDs include near Fano-limited performance to 100 eV, extreme radiation hardness, high speed windowing, high frame rates to handle high fluxes in single counting mode, and low power mW). Our instrument could detect all the CHNOPS elements, and most importantly carbon, via X-ray fluorescence from rocky bodies in the Solar system. Additionally, our sensor could be used for plasma investigations in the magnetospheres of the gas giants in particle environments that would rapidly destroy other Si imaging technologies. In this poster we describe the unique planetary investigations that could be made with this instrument, and present the current status of our instrumentation development.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2013
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    ABSTRACT: More than 99.9999% of the volume of our Solar system lies beyond the orbit of Neptune and Pluto, and this region is almost totally unexplored. We are developing a mission concept, called Whipple, to study the small bodies of the outer Solar System using a blind stellar occultation survey. This space-based mission would consist of a nominal 0.77 m diameter optical telescope with a focal plan comprising 32 Teledyne H1RG hybrid CMOS sensors. We would simultaneously monitor the brightnesses of tens of thousands of stars at a cadence of up to 40 Hz to search for occultations by Kuiper Belt, inner Oort cloud, and outer Oort Cloud objects. We will detect tens of thousands of these objects over the course of the mission, which will allow us to characterize the spatial and size distribution of these outer Solar System bodies. These data will be used to constrain models of the early history and evolution of the Solar System. In this poster, we summarize the scientific goals for this mission and present the current status of instrumentation development.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2013
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    ABSTRACT: We present new Chandra observations of Abell 2199 that show evidence of gas sloshing due to a minor merger, as well as impacts of the radio source, 3C 338, hosted by the central galaxy, NGC 6166, on the intracluster gas. The new data are consistent with previous evidence of a Mach 1.46 shock 100" from the cluster center, although there is still no convincing evidence for the expected temperature jump. Other interpretations of this feature are possible, but none is fully satisfactory. Large scale asymmetries, including enhanced X-ray emission 200" southwest of the cluster center and a plume of low entropy, enriched gas reaching 50" to the north of the center, are signatures of gas sloshing induced by core passage of a merging subcluster about 400 Myr ago. An association between the unusual radio ridge and low entropy gas are consistent with this feature being the remnant of a former radio jet that was swept away from the AGN by gas sloshing. A large discrepancy between the energy required to produce the 100" shock and the enthalpy of the outer radio lobes of 3C 338 suggests that the lobes were formed by a more recent, less powerful radio outburst. Lack of evidence for shocks in the central 10" indicates that the power of the jet now is some two orders of magnitude smaller than when the 100" shock was formed.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2013 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: This White Paper, submitted to the recent ESA call for science themes to define its future large missions, advocates the need for a transformational leap in our understanding of two key questions in astrophysics: 1) How does ordinary matter assemble into the large scale structures that we see today? 2) How do black holes grow and shape the Universe? Hot gas in clusters, groups and the intergalactic medium dominates the baryonic content of the local Universe. To understand the astrophysical processes responsible for the formation and assembly of these large structures, it is necessary to measure their physical properties and evolution. This requires spatially resolved X-ray spectroscopy with a factor 10 increase in both telescope throughput and spatial resolving power compared to currently planned facilities. Feedback from supermassive black holes is an essential ingredient in this process and in most galaxy evolution models, but it is not well understood. X-ray observations can uniquely reveal the mechanisms launching winds close to black holes and determine the coupling of the energy and matter flows on larger scales. Due to the effects of feedback, a complete understanding of galaxy evolution requires knowledge of the obscured growth of supermassive black holes through cosmic time, out to the redshifts where the first galaxies form. X-ray emission is the most reliable way to reveal accreting black holes, but deep survey speed must improve by a factor ~100 over current facilities to perform a full census into the early Universe. The Advanced Telescope for High Energy Astrophysics (Athena+) mission provides the necessary performance (e.g. angular resolution, spectral resolution, survey grasp) to address these questions and revolutionize our understanding of the Hot and Energetic Universe. These capabilities will also provide a powerful observatory to be used in all areas of astrophysics.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2013

Publication Stats

1k Citations
257.63 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1998-2015
    • Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
      • • Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory
      • • Division of High Energy Astrophysics
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2013
    • University of Birmingham
      • School of Physics and Astronomy
      Birmingham, England, United Kingdom
  • 2012
    • Durham University
      • Department of Physics
      Durham, England, United Kingdom
  • 2010
    • University of Hertfordshire
      • School of Physics, Astronomy and Mathematics
      Hatfield, England, United Kingdom
  • 2008
    • Harvard University
      • Department of Astronomy
      Cambridge, MA, United States
  • 2007
    • Massachusetts Institute of Technology
      • Department of Physics
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
    • Washington State University
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Pullman, Washington, United States
  • 2005
    • Space Research Institute
      Moskva, Moscow, Russia