[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: A compact and transportable water calorimeter has been developed and extensively tested in the intensive, collimated neutron
field of the PTB. It has been applied for absorbed dose to water measurements in the neutron therapy field of the University
of Essen, in the proton therapy fields of the HMI in Berlin and at the iThemba therapy centre near Cape Town, South Africa,
as well as in the 12C-beam of the therapy facility at GSI in Darmstadt, Germany. Absolute dosimetry with relative standard uncertainties of less
than 1.8% was achieved in all radiation fields. The results obtained using the water calorimeter are compared with the ionisation
chamber measurements in the same radiation fields. The heat defect for the water in the calorimeter core was determined separately
in independent measurements by irradiation with different charged particle beams covering a wide range of linear energy transfer.
Article · Feb 2007 · Radiation Protection Dosimetry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Absolute dose measurements with a transportable water calorimeter and ionization chambers were performed at a water depth of 20 mm in four different types of radiation fields, for a collimated (60)Co photon beam, for a collimated neutron beam with a fluence-averaged mean energy of 5.25 MeV, for collimated proton beams with mean energies of 36 MeV and 182 MeV at the measuring position, and for a (12)C ion beam in a scanned mode with an energy per atomic mass of 430 MeV u(-1). The ionization chambers actually used were calibrated in units of air kerma in the photon reference field of the PTB and in units of absorbed dose to water for a Farmer-type chamber at GSI. The absorbed dose to water inferred from calorimetry was compared with the dose derived from ionometry by applying the radiation-field-dependent parameters. For neutrons, the quantities of the ICRU Report 45, for protons the quantities of the ICRU Report 59 and for the (12)C ion beam, the recommended values of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) protocol (TRS 398) were applied. The mean values of the absolute absorbed dose to water obtained with these two independent methods agreed within the standard uncertainty (k = 1) of 1.8% for calorimetry and of 3.0% for ionometry for all types and energies of the radiation beams used in this comparison.
Article · Sep 2006 · Physics in Medicine and Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The shape of the dose-effect curve for neutrons, i.e. the question as to whether the curve is linear or supralinear in the low-dose region, is still not clear. Therefore, the mutagenic effect of very low doses of low-energy neutrons was determined.
Human-hamster hybrid A(L) cells contain human chromosome 11, which expresses the membrane protein CD59. This membrane protein can be detected immunologically and quantified by flow cytometry. The A(L) cells were irradiated with neutrons of 0.565, 2.5 or 14.8 MeV and the results were compared with those after 200 kVp X-rays. Before irradiation, cells spontaneously mutated in the CD59 gene were removed by magnetic cell sorting (MACS).
The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for CD59 mutation induction was 19.8 (+/-2.7) for 0.565 MeV, 10.2 (+/-1.9) for 2.5 MeV, and 10.2 (+/-1.6) for 14.8 MeV neutrons. Linear mutation responses were obtained with all radiations except for 14.8 MeV neutrons where a supralinear curve may be a better fit. The deletion spectrum of mutated cell clones showed 29 Mbp deletions on average after irradiation with 0.069 Gy of 0.565 MeV neutrons. This scale of deletions is similar to that after 3 Gy 100 kV X-rays (=34 Mbp). For 50% cell survival, the RBE of the neutrons was 11 compared with 200 kV X-rays.
Neutrons of low energies (0.565 or 2.5 MeV) produce a linear dose-response for mutation in the tested dose range of 0.015-0.15 Gy. The neutron curve of 14.8 MeV can be approximated by a curvilinear or linear function.
Article · Dec 2003 · International Journal of Radiation Biology