[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The primary aim of this study was to determine the recent distribution of various genotypes of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in patients with chronic HCV infection in Western Turkey. Additional objectives were to determine whether there are any associations of genotype with gender and age, and to determine the nucleotide similarities and risk factors of non-1 HCV genotypes.
Serum samples from 345 patients (176 male, 169 female; mean age 53.3+/-12.7 years, range 10-81 years) with chronic HCV infection were analyzed in this study. Viral genotypes were determined by a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)-based in-house assay. To confirm genotypes for the samples with band patterns other than genotype 1, the 5' UTR was amplified and sequenced.
Genotype 1 was observed in 335 of the 345 patients (97.1%). Of these, 34 patients showed infection with subtype 1a (9.9%) and 301 with subtype 1b (87.2%). Genotypes 2, 3, and 4 were determined in 0.9%, 1.4%, and 0.6% of the patients, respectively. Patients infected with type 1 were significantly older than patients infected with non-1 genotypes; however no significant differences were recorded in gender distribution.
Genotypes other than genotype 1 are quite rare; these are possibly acquired in other countries. Turkish patients with chronic hepatitis C still represent a rather homogenous group with genotypic diversity encountered rarely.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2008 · International Journal of Infectious Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The activity of linezolid (Pfizer, USA) was tested by broth microdilution against 53 clinical isolates of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), including the common disease producing species Mycobacterium avium, M. intracellulare, M. fortuitum, M. chelonae and M. abscessus, obtained from western Turkey. The isolates of M. abscessus and M. intracellulare were the least susceptible, M. mucogenicum, M. gordonae and M. avium were the most susceptible to linezolid of the common species of NTM. Linezolid showed a variable sensitivity in all strains; therefore, each species and strain must be individually evaluated, and it is always advisable to perform in vitro sensitivity tests before using the drug for human therapy.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2007 · The New Microbiologica: official journal of the Italian Society for Medical Virology (SIVIM)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A novel PCR-based reverse hybridization method Genotype MTBDR assay (Hain Lifescience GmbH, Nehren, Germany) was evaluated
for rapid detection of rifampin (RIF) and isoniazid (INH) resistance in Turkish Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates. The Genotype MTBDR assay is designed to detect mutations within the 81-bp hotspot region of rpoB and mutations at katG codon 315. A total of 41 RIF-resistant M. tuberculosis isolates with rpoB mutations that were previously tested by the INNO-LiPA Rif.TB kit and also characterized by DNA sequencing were included
in the study. Thirty-seven of these isolates were also resistant to INH. RIF resistance was correctly identified in 39 of
41 isolates (95.1%) with the Genotype MTBDR assay probes specific for these mutations. One isolate with a Gln-490-His mutation
and another one with a CGG insertion between codons 514 and 515 were identified as RIF sensitive by the Genotype MTBDR assay.
While the INNO-LiPA Rif.TB kit was able to determine the CGG insertion between codons 514 and 515, the Gln-490-His mutation
outside the 81-bp hotspot region was not detected by the INNO-LiPA Rif.TB kit. These isolates had MICs of ≥32 μg/ml for RIF.
The Genotype MTBDR assay also correctly identified 27 of 37 INH-resistant isolates (73%) with mutations in katG codon 315. In conclusion, the Genotype MTBDR assay may be useful for the rapid diagnosis of the most common mutations found
in multidrug-resistant M. tuberculosis strains. However, the test results should always be confirmed with phenotypic methods.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2006 · Journal of Clinical Microbiology