- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: After incubation at 42 degrees C for more than 48 h, brown damages occurred on the stems of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) ndhC-ndhK-ndhJ deletion mutant (deltandhCKJ), followed by wilt of the leaves, while less the phenotype was found in its wild type (WT). Analysis of the kinetics of post-illumination rise in chlorophyll fluorescence indicated that the PSI cyclic electron flow and the chlororespiration mediated by NAD(P)H dehydrogenase (NDH) was significantly enhanced in WT under the high temperature. After leaf disks were treated with methyl viologen (MV), photosynthetic apparatus of deltandhCKJ exhibited more severe photo-oxidative damage, even bleaching of chlorophyll. Analysis of P700 oxidation and reduction showed that the NDH mediated cyclic electron flow probably functioned as an electron competitor with Mehler reaction, to reduce the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). When leaf disks were heat stressed at 42 degrees C for 6 h, the photochemical activity declined more markedly in deltandhCKJ than in WT, accompanied with more evident decrease in the amount of soluble Rubisco activase. In addition, the slow phase of millisecond-delayed light emission (ms-DLE) of chlorophyll fluorescence indicated that NDH was involved in the building-up of transthylakoid proton gradient (deltapH), while the consumption of deltapH was highly inhibited in deltandhCKJ after heat stress. Based on the results, we supposed that the cyclic electron flow mediated by NDH could be stimulated under the heat stressed conditions, to divert excess electrons via chlororespiration pathway, and sustain CO2 assimilation by providing extra deltapH, thus reducing the photooxidative damage.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, the function of the NAD(P)H dehydrogenase (NDH)-dependent pathway in suppressing the accumulation of reactive oxygen species in chloroplasts was investigated. Hydrogen peroxide accumulated in the leaves of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) defective in ndhC-ndhK-ndhJ (DeltandhCKJ) at 42 degrees C and 4 degrees C, and in that of wild-type leaves at 4 degrees C. The maximum quantum efficiency of PSII decreased to a similar extent in both strains at 42 degrees C, while it decreased more evidently in DeltandhCKJ at 4 degrees C. The parameters linked to CO(2) assimilation, such as the photochemical efficiency of PSII, the decrease of nonphotochemical quenching following the initial rise, and the photosynthetic O(2) evolution, were inhibited more significantly in DeltandhCKJ than in wild type at 42 degrees C and were seriously inhibited in both strains at 4 degrees C. While cyclic electron flow around PSI mediated by NDH was remarkably enhanced at 42 degrees C and suppressed at 4 degrees C. The proton gradient across the thylakoid membranes and light-dependent ATP synthesis were higher in wild type than in DeltandhCKJ at either 25 degrees C or 42 degrees C, but were barely formed at 4 degrees C. Based on these results, we suggest that cyclic photophosphorylation via the NDH pathway might play an important role in regulation of CO(2) assimilation under heat-stressed condition but is less important under chilling-stressed condition, thus optimizing the photosynthetic electron transport and reducing the generation of reactive oxygen species.