Ingeborg L Goverud

Oslo University Hospital, Kristiania (historical), Oslo, Norway

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Publications (14)47.49 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Formation of a bacterial brain abscess entails loss of brain cells and formation of pus. The mechanisms behind the cell loss are not fully understood. Staphylococcus aureus, a common cause of brain abscesses, produces various exotoxins, including α-hemolysin, which is an important factor in brain abscess formation. α-Hemolysin may cause cytolysis by forming pores in the plasma membrane of various eukaryotic cells. However, whether α-hemolysin causes lysis of brain cells is not known. Nor is it known whether α-hemolysin in the brain causes cell death through pore formation or by acting as a chemoattractant, recruiting leukocytes and causing inflammation. Here we show that α-hemolysin injected into rat brain causes cell damage and edema formation within 30minutes. Cell damage was accompanied by an increase in extracellular concentrations of zinc, GABA, glutamate, and other amino acids, indicating plasma membrane damage, but leukocytic infiltration was not seen 0.5-12hours after α-hemolysin injection. This was in contrast to injection of S. aureus, which triggered extensive infiltration with neutrophils within 8hours. In vitro, α-hemolysin caused concentration-dependent lysis of isolated nerve endings and cultured astrocytes. We conclude that α-hemolysin contributes to the cell death inherent in staphylococcal brain abscess formation as a pore-forming neurotoxin. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · NeuroToxicology
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    ABSTRACT: Staphylococcal brain infections may cause mental deterioration and epileptic seizures, suggesting interference with normal neurotransmission in the brain. We injected Staphylococcus aureus into rat striatum and found an initial 76% reduction in the extracellular level of glutamate as detected by microdialysis at 2 hr after staphylococcal infection. At 8 hr after staphylococcal infection, however, the extracellular level of glutamate had increased 12-fold, and at 20 hr it had increased >30-fold. The extracellular level of aspartate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) also increased greatly. Extracellular Zn2+, which was estimated at ∼2.6 µmol/liter in the control situation, was increased by 330% 1–2.5 hr after staphylococcal infection and by 100% at 8 and 20 hr. The increase in extracellular glutamate, aspartate, and GABA appeared to reflect the degree of tissue damage. The area of tissue damage greatly exceeded the area of staphylococcal infiltration, pointing to soluble factors being responsible for cell death. However, the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist MK-801 ameliorated neither tissue damage nor the increase in extracellular neuroactive amino acids, suggesting the presence of neurotoxic factors other than glutamate and aspartate. In vitro staphylococci incubated with glutamine and glucose formed glutamate, so bacteria could be an additional source of infection-related glutamate. We conclude that the dramatic increase in the extracellular concentration of neuroactive amino acids and zinc could interfere with neurotransmission in the surrounding brain tissue, contributing to mental deterioration and a predisposition to epileptic seizures, which are often seen in brain abscess patients.© 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Journal of Neuroscience Research
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    ABSTRACT: In mice, prenatal exposure to low doses of bisphenol A has been shown to affect neurogenesis and neuronal migration in cortex, resulting in disturbance of both neuronal positioning and the network formation between thalamus and cortex in the offspring brain. In the present study we investigated whether prenatal exposure to bisphenol A disturbs the neurodevelopment of the cerebellum. Two different model systems were used; offspring from two strains of mice from mothers receiving bisphenol A in the drinking water before mating, during gestation and lactation, and chicken embryos exposed to bisphenol A (in the egg) on embryonic day 16 for 24h before preparation of cerebellar granule cell cultures. In the cerebellum, tight regulation of the level of transcription factor Pax6 is critical for correct development of granule neurons. During the development, the Pax6 level in granule neurons is high when these cells are located in the external granule layer and during their migration to the internal granule layer, and it is then reduced. We report that bisphenol A induced an increase in the thickness of the external granule layer and also an increase in the total cerebellar Pax6 level in 11 days old mice offspring. In cultured chicken cerebellar granule neurons from bisphenol A injected eggs the Pax6 level was increased day 6 in vitro. Together, these findings indicate that bisphenol A may affect the granule neurons in the developing cerebellum and thereby may disturb the correct development of the cerebellum.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · International journal of developmental neuroscience: the official journal of the International Society for Developmental Neuroscience
  • SM Larsen · P Aden · RE Paulsen · IL Goverud

    No preview · Article · Sep 2013 · European Journal of Paediatric Neurology
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    ABSTRACT: Glucocorticoid (GC) treatment in premature infants may have detrimental effects on the immature brain. Here we show that GCs dexamethasone (Dex) and hydrocortisone (HC) reduce proliferation and induce differentiation of chicken embryo cerebellar neurons in vivo and in vitro. Granule neurons incorporating bromodeoxyuridine were reduced in the internal granular layer (IGL) after 24-h exposure to both substances on embryonic day 17, with Dex about 100-fold more potent than HC. The effects were blocked by GR antagonist RU 38486. Both GCs also increased the expression of neuronal differentiation markers microtubule-associated protein 2 (Map2) and neuronal nuclei protein (NeuN), measured by western blotting of whole cerebellar lysates and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Treatment of cerebellar granule neuron cultures with both GCs significantly reduced the percentage of proliferating-cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) positive neurons and increased NeuN positive neurons, with similar dose-response relationship as in vivo. The cytostatic agent cytosine arabinoside showed comparable effects both on proliferation and differentiation. In conclusion, the effects of Dex and HC on chicken cerebellar granule neuron proliferation are GR mediated and reflect their pharmacological potency. In addition, the effects on differentiation may be related to a cell cycle block per se, since cytosine arabinoside mimicked the effect of the GCs.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2011 · Brain research

  • No preview · Article · May 2011 · European Journal of Paediatric Neurology
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    ABSTRACT: The chemokine receptor CCR7 regulates lymphocyte trafficking, and CCR7 deficiency induces infiltration of T and B cells adjacent to vessels in mouse lungs. Perivascular infiltration of T and B cells has also been found in human pulmonary arterial hypertension, and downregulation of the CCR7 receptor in circulating leukocytes of such patients has been observed. To investigate whether changes in the CCR7 system contribute to the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension, we utilized mice deficient of the CCR7 receptor. The cardiopulmonary and inflammatory responses of CCR7 depletion were evaluated in CCR7-deficient and wild-type mice. Measurements of cytokines upregulated in the animal model were also performed in patients with pulmonary hypertension and controls and in vascular smooth muscle cells. We found that mice lacking CCR7 had increased right ventricular systolic pressure, reduced pulmonary artery acceleration time, increased right ventricular/tibial length ratio, Rho kinase-mediated pulmonary vasoconstriction, and increased muscularization of distal arteries, indicating pulmonary hypertension. These mice also showed increased perivascular infiltration of leukocytes, consisting mainly of T and B cells, and increased mRNA levels of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin-12 and CX3CL1 within pulmonary tissue. Increased serum levels of interleukin-12 and CX3CL1 were also observed in patients with pulmonary hypertension, particularly in those with pulmonary hypertension associated with connective tissue disorder. In smooth muscle cells, interleukin-12 induced secretion of the angiogenic cytokine interleukin-8. We conclude that these results suggest a role for CCR7 in the development of pulmonary arterial hypertension, at least in some subgroups, possibly via pulmonary infiltration of lymphocytes and secretion of interleukin-12 and CX3CL1.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2011 · AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
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    ABSTRACT: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is highly expressed in the developing brain. It has anti-apoptotic abilities, and protects the neonatal brain. In experimental settings in adult animals, pre-treatment with nicotine has shown increased BDNF levels, indicating a possible contribution to nicotine's anti-apoptotic effect. Apoptosis contributes to the development of brain damage in perinatal asphyxia. We examined the effects of nicotine on apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), caspase-3 and BDNF in the hippocampus of a neonatal piglet model of global hypoxia. Forty-one anesthetized newborn piglets were randomized to one of four groups receiving different infusions after hypoxia (1) nicotine 130 microg/kg/h, 2) 260 microg/kg/h, 3) adrenaline, and 4) saline, all 2.6 mL/kg/h. Four hours after hypoxia they were euthanized. The left hemisphere/hippocampus was examined by histopathology and immunohistochemistry; the right hippocampus was analyzed using real time PCR. There was a significantly higher expression of BDNF mRNA and protein in the animals treated with nicotine 130 microg/kg/h vs. the saline treated group (mRNA P=0.038; protein P=0.009). There were no differences regarding AIF or caspase-3. We conclude that nicotine (130 microg/kg/h), infused over 1 h after global hypoxia in neonatal piglets, increases levels of both BDNF mRNA and protein in the hippocampus. This might imply neuroprotective effects of nicotine in asphyxiated neonates.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2009 · Journal of Perinatal Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: We wished to assess the effect of global hypoxia and the effect of nicotine pretreatment on the brain and heart of newborn pigs. Hypothesising that nicotine might give a better outcome because of its anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects. Twenty-two anaesthetised piglets were randomised to pretreatment with saline or nicotine (130 microg/kg/h) before 45 min global hypoxia. They were observed for 27 h. The brain and heart were assessed with histopathological methods. Serum for Troponin t (TnT) analyses was collected at baseline and at the end of the experiment. There were no significant differences between the groups. At the end of hypoxia, BE was -14.8 +/- 4.9 mmol/l and MABP was 25 +/- 9 mmHg. Seven animals had autolysis of the cerebrum/cerebellum, their BE after hypoxia was -19 +/- 1.8 mmol/l and MABP 23 +/- 3 mmHg. The remaining 15 animals had a BE of -13 +/- 4.7mmol/l (p = 0.0004) and a MABP of 26 +/- 11 mmHg (ns). Eleven animals presented myocardial damage. A significant increase in TnT occurred in both groups. TnT increase and myocardial damage correlated (p = 0.001; r = 0.67). Animals with severe increase in TnT presented severe brain damage. Severe increase in serum TnT levels was linked to severe cerebral damage. Nicotine pretreatment had no impact on cerebral or cardiac histopathology.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2009 · The journal of maternal-fetal & neonatal medicine: the official journal of the European Association of Perinatal Medicine, the Federation of Asia and Oceania Perinatal Societies, the International Society of Perinatal Obstetricians
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    ABSTRACT: High-potency glucocorticoids (GC) are used in the prophylaxis and treatment of neonatal bronchopulmonal dysplasia, but there is concern about side effects on the developing brain. Recently, the low-potency GC hydrocortisone (HC) has been suggested as an alternative to high-potency GC. We compared the neurotoxic effects of HC with the high-potency GC dexamethasone (DEX) in chicken cerebellum. A single dose of GC was injected into the egg at embryonic day 16 and the death of granule neurons in histologic sections of the cerebellar cortex was examined 24 h later. DEX and HC showed a similar dose-dependent induction of morphological apoptosis and caspase-3 activation in the internal granular layer. A doubling of the apoptosis rate compared to the basal rate was seen for the highest dose of DEX (5 mg/kg) and medium dose of HC (1 mg/kg). In cultures of embryonic chicken cerebellar granule cells, DEX and HC increased cell death and induced rapid caspase-3 activation in a similar dose-dependent manner. Transfection of granule cells with a luciferase reporter gene revealed that the dose needed for the activation of gene transcription (classical signalling pathway) with DEX was much lower than for HC. In conclusion, HC does not present itself as a safer drug than DEX in this model. In addition, it appears that DEX and HC induce apoptosis in immature granule neurons via a non-genomic (non-classical) mechanism.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2008 · Brain Research
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    ABSTRACT: To elucidate the role of systemic inflammation in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Serum samples in 47 patients with histologically verified NAFLD (22 with simple steatosis and 25 with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis [NASH]), and in 30 age-, sex- and ethnicity-matched healthy controls, were assessed for (i) general markers of inflammation (C-reactive protein [CRP], tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-alpha, and interleukin [IL]-6), (ii) chemokines (CC-chemokine ligand [CCL] 2/monocyte chemoattractant protein [MCP]-1, CCL19 and CCL21), (iii) adipocytokines related to insulin resistance and inflammation (adiponectin and leptin) and (iv) a marker of oxidative stress (8-isoprostane-F2alpha). Serum levels of several inflammatory cytokines were increased in NAFLD as compared to controls, and IL-6 (P=0.017), CCL2/MCP-1 (P=0.008) and CCL19 (P=0.001), but not CRP (P=0.199), remained elevated also after correction for sex, body mass index (BMI) and age. Comparing NASH with simple steatosis, levels of TNF-alpha (P=0.024) and CCL2/MCP-1 (P=0.012) were elevated and adiponectin (in women) (P=0.001) were decreased also after adjustment for sex, BMI and presence of the metabolic syndrome. Our results indicate that patients with NAFLD are characterized by a low-grade systemic inflammation. The high CCL2/MCP-1 levels in NASH might be of importance for the conversion from simple steatosis to NASH.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2006 · Journal of Hepatology
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    ABSTRACT: In Apc(Min/+) (Min; multiple intestinal neoplasia) mice two separate populations of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) develop in the colon after azoxymethane (AOM) exposure. ACF(Min), with a flat appearance, severe dysplasia and increased beta-catenin expression, are related to adenoma development, whereas classic ACF, with elevated structure, hyperplasia and normal beta-catenin level, are probably not. The expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) beta/delta, cyclin D1 and beta-catenin in ACF, adenoma and normal tissue from AOM-treated Apc(Min/+) mice and a familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) patient colon tumour were assessed by immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting. The flat ACF (ACF(Min)) displayed increased cytoplasmic levels of beta-catenin, and increased levels of cyclin D1 and PPARbeta/delta. In contrast, the expression in classic ACF resembled normal mucosa. Adenomas from Apc(Min/+) mice, as well as a FAP patient colon tumour, displayed increased nuclear and cytoplasmic levels of beta-catenin, and the same expression patterns of cyclin D1 and PPARbeta/delta as those found in flat ACF. In addition to activation of the Wnt signalling pathway in both flat ACF and in adenomas in Apc(Min/+) mice, the increased expression of PPARbeta/delta in these lesions could be a target for pro-inflammatory signals important for growth and reduced apoptosis.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2005 · Anticancer research
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    ABSTRACT: Heterozygous mutations in adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) is an early event in inheritable and sporadic colon cancer development. We recently found reduced connexin (Cx43) expression in intestinal cell lines with heterozygous Apc mutation. In this study we investigated Cx expression and the role of one mutated Apc allele in epithelia of multiple intestinal neoplasia (Min) mouse intestines by immunohistochemistry. Cx43 was not expressed in intestinal epithelia of Min and wild-type mice. Cx32 was specifically expressed in enterochromaffin cells in both mice types, and in Paneth cells of wild-type mice. In contrast, Min mice had nearly undetectable level of Cx32 in Paneth cells. Isolated small intestinal crypts from Min mice had markedly increased secretion of both lysozyme and matrilysin compared with wild-type mice. Absence of matrilysin in Min mice reduces adenoma development. Reduced Cx32 and increased matrilysin secretion from Paneth cells could be important to neoplastic development in the intestine.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2004 · European Journal of Cancer

  • No preview · Article · Sep 2003 · Toxicology Letters

Publication Stats

336 Citations
47.49 Total Impact Points


  • 2004-2015
    • Oslo University Hospital
      • Department of Pathology
      Kristiania (historical), Oslo, Norway
  • 2011-2013
    • University of Oslo
      • Department of Pathology (PAT)
      Kristiania (historical), Oslo County, Norway