[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A three-dimensional study of the thoracic pedicle (T1-T12) morphometry in Chinese patients with different body height, using reformatted computed tomography (CT).
To quantify the dimensions of the thoracic pedicles and to analyze the relationship between body height and thoracic pedicle parameters.
The thoracic pedicle morphometry has been studied extensively in different populations using various techniques. Previous studies have shown a significantly smaller size of the thoracic pedicles in women than in men and in Asians than in Caucasians. Some authors postulated that it is the body height that contributes to the variation in the pedicle size. To our knowledge, however, no study has specifically analyzed the relationship between body height and thoracic pedicle parameters in detail.
In this study, T1 to T12 vertebrae were imaged in 126 Chinese patients by a Lightspeed Vct CT (General Electric, Bridgeport, Connecticut, USA). After reformatting the original images, the following parameters were calculated: outer pedicle width, outer pedicle height and pedicle cortical thickness of the pedicle isthmus, pedicle length, and transverse pedicle angle. All measured data were statistically analyzed by the independent t test and Pearson correlation test using SPSS software (SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL).
The thoracic pedicle parameters were significantly smaller in women than in men except for the transverse pedicle angles and the pedicle cortical thickness. The percentage of outer pedicle widths less than 4.5 mm was extremely high at T3 to T9 in females and T4 to T7 in males. There was a much higher percentage of pedicle width of 4.5 mm or lesser, 4.0 mm or lesser, and 3.5 mm or lesser when body height was less than 160 cm. Body height is probably one of the main factors that contribute to the variation in pedicle size since a significant positive correlation was observed between pedicle size and body height.
Body height is probably one of the main factors that contribute to the variation in pedicle size among different ethnic and sex groups. Transpedicular procedures using a 4.5-mm screw may not be applicable to much of the Chinese population at the upper and middle thoracic segments, especially for patients less than 160 cm in height. A reformatted CT evaluation is routinely recommended not only for choosing the proper screw but also for determining the feasibility of a true transpedicular procedure.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The atlantodental interval has been usually used for the evaluation of atlantoaxial instability. However, the asymmetry of the lateral atlantodental interval is occasionally found in healthy individuals. Controversy therefore exists as to the clinical significance of this asymmetry in patients after trauma. The purpose of this study was to determine the normal range of atlantodental intervals in normal individuals using reformatted computed tomography. In this study, C1-C2 vertebrae were imaged in 230 adult patients by a Lightspeed Vct CT (General Electric, CT, USA) with a slice thickness of 0.625 mm. After reformatting the original images, the anterior atlantodental interval (AADI) and lateral atlantodental interval (LADI) were measured. The AADI was found to be 1.83 ± 0.46 mm (0.9-3.4 mm) in males and 1.63 ± 0.43 mm (0.5-3.2 mm) in females. The AADI was significantly greater in males than in females (p < 0.05). The 95% confidence interval for AADI was 1.75-1.90 mm in males and 1.54-1.72 mm in females. No statistically significant differences were found between males and females in the left and right LADI, and LADI asymmetry. The left LADI was found to be 3.38 ± 0.87 mm (1.7-6.0 mm), and the right LADI was 3.42 ± 0.84 mm (1.7-5.9 mm) in males, while the left LADI was 3.30 ± 0.73 mm (1.5-5.3 mm) and the right LADI was 3.37 ± 0.92 mm (1.7-5.9 mm) in females. The 95% confidence interval for left LADI was 3.23-3.52 and 2.94-3.25 mm, and for right LADI was 3.27-3.56 and 3.18-3.56 mm in males and females, respectively. The mean asymmetry of LADI was 0.76 ± 0.66 mm (0.0-3.5 mm) in males and 0.73 ± 0.70 mm (0.0-3.7 mm) in females. The 95% confidence interval for LADI asymmetry was 0.65-0.87 mm in males and 0.59-0.88 mm in females. Most of the population was found to have an asymmetry ranging between 0.1 and 2.0 mm. The current study shows that LADI asymmetry is common in patients without any cervical spine abnormalities. LADI asymmetry may be a normal anatomic variant and there is no evidence to confirm that LADI asymmetry is a sensitive or specific indicator of traumatic atlantoaxial instability. Radiologists and clinicians should be aware of this normal range of asymmetry when interpreting CT scans of the atlantoaxial region.
No preview · Article · May 2011 · Anatomia Clinica
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study the transverse thoracic pedicle diameter of a Chinese population and to determine the feasibility and safety of transpedicular screw fixation.
The authors studied the transverse pedicle diameter of the T1-T12 of the thoracic spine in a Chinese population using reformatted computed tomography. The data were compared with Caucasians and other Asians.
The mean outer pedicle widths of the thoracic spine from T1 to T12 were 8.43, 6.65, 5.20, 4.44, 4.50, 4.87, 5.04, 5.32, 5.66, 6.65, 8.08 and 8.27 mm in males and 7.91, 6.03, 4.55, 3.91, 4.05, 4.31, 4.39, 4.60, 5.13, 5.67, 7.21 and 7.50 mm in females, respectively. Female patients have smaller dimensions compared with male patients. A significant percentage of patients have an outer pedicle width of less than 4.5 mm from T3 to T8, which is not suitable for transpedicular screw fixation with a 3.5 mm screw.
The results of this study suggest that transpedicular screw fixation may not be suitable for the mid-thoracic regions in most Chinese females and that modified pedicle screw techniques or modified type of fixation is required in these patients. CT evaluation is a must before this procedure is performed.
No preview · Article · Nov 2009 · Anatomia Clinica
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: V-ATPase plays important roles in controlling the extra- and intra-cellular pH in eukaryotic cell, which is most crucial for cellular processes. V-ATPases are composed of a peripheral V(1) domain responsible for ATP hydrolysis and integral V(0) domain responsible for proton translocation. Osteoclasts are multinucleated cells responsible for bone resorption and relate to many common lytic bone disorders such as osteoporosis, bone aseptic loosening, and tumor-induced bone loss. This review summarizes the structure and function of V-ATPase and its subunit, the role of V-ATPase subunits in osteoclast function, V-ATPase inhibitors for osteoclast function, and highlights the importance of V-ATPase as a potential prime target for anti-resorptive agents.
No preview · Article · Jul 2007 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Osteoclasts are multinucleated cells responsible for bone resorption and play important roles in normal skeletal development, in the maintenance of its integrity throughout life, and in calcium metabolism. During bone resorption, the cytoskeleton of osteoclasts undergoes extensive reorganization, with polarization and formation of ruffled borders to secrete acid and formation of sealing zone to prevent leakage. The differentiation and function of osteoclasts are in turn regulated by osteoblasts, stromal cells, and bone. They are also subjected to negative feedback regulation by extracellular and intracellular calcium concentrations.
No preview · Article · Jun 2006 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications