[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Background
The aim of this study was to determine the evolution of HIV infection, gonorrhea, syphilis and lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV), and their epidemiological characteristics in Barcelona city.
Population-based incidence study of all newly occurring diagnoses of HIV infection, syphilis, gonorrhea and LGV detected in Barcelona between January 2007 and December 2011. A descriptive analysis was performed. The annual incidence rates per 100,000 inhabitants were calculated by sex, sexual conduct and educational level. To estimate global sex-specific rates we used the Barcelona city census; for the calculation of rates by sexual conduct and educational level we used estimates of the Barcelona Health Interview Survey. Trends were analysed using the chi-squared test for linear trend.
HIV. 66.8 % of the HIV cases were men who had sex with men (MSM). The incidence rates in MSM over the study period were from 692.67/100,000 to 909.88/100,000 inh. Syphilis. 74.2 % of the syphilis cases were MSM. The incidence rates in MSM were from 224.9/100,000 to 891.97/100,000 inh. and the MSM with a university education ranged from 196.3/100,000 to 1020.8/100,000. Gonorrhea. 45.5 % of the gonorrhea cases were MSM. The incidence rates in MSM were from 164.24/100,000 to 404.79/100,000 inh. and the MSM with university education ranged from 176.7/100,000 to 530.1/100,000 inh.. Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV). 95.3 % of the LGV cases are MSM. The incidence rates in MSM were from 24.99/100,000 to 282.99/100,000 inh. and the MSM with university education ranged from 9.3/100,000 to 265/100,000 inh.
An increase in cases of STI was observed. These STI mainly affected MSM with a university education. Continuing to monitor changes in the epidemiology of STI, and identifying the most affected groups should permit redesigning preventive programs, with the goal of finding the most efficient way to reach these population groups.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · BMC Public Health
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Objective:
To study whether patients with HIV-1 associated lipodystrophy (LD) on highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) have more psychopathology and worse psychosocial adjustment than a similar group without this syndrome.
In a cross-sectional, observational study we compared 47 HIV-1 infected patients with LD (LD group) with 39 HIV-1 infected patients without LD (non-LD group). All participants were on HAART. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the State and Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and the Goldberg Health Questionnaire (GHQ-60) were administered. Levels of familial, work and social adjustment and adjustment to stressful events were evaluated in a semi-structured interview. Clinical information was extracted from the clinical records.
In the univariate analysis patients with LD showed higher state anxiety scores (p=0.009) and worse work adjustment (p=0.019) than those without LD. A total of 45.3% of LD patients scored above the cut-off point on the trait anxiety scale, and over 33.3% scored above the cut-off point on the BDI, GHQ and state anxiety scales. However, in multivariate analyses LD was not independently associated with psychopathology or with worse adjustment in the studied areas.
The finding that LD was not a predictor of greater psychopathology or worse psychosocial adjustment in HIV-1 infected patients, despite the high scores found, suggests that factors not taken into account in this study, such as LD severity and self-perception should have been included in the analysis. Further studies including a greater number of variables and a larger sample size will advance our understanding of this complex condition.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2013 · The Brazilian journal of infectious diseases: an official publication of the Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Early diagnosis of HIV infection can prevent morbidity and mortality as well as reduce HIV transmission. The aim of the present study was to assess prevalence, describe trends and identify factors associated with late presentation of HIV infection in Barcelona (Spain) during the period 2001-09.
Demographic and epidemiological characteristics of cases reported to the Barcelona HIV surveillance system were analysed. Late presentation was defined for individuals with a CD4 count below 350 cells/ml upon HIV diagnosis or diagnosis of AIDS within 3 months of HIV diagnosis. Multivariate logistic regression were used to identify predictors of late presentation.
Of the 2,938 newly diagnosed HIV-infected individuals, 2,507 (85,3%) had either a CD4 cell count or an AIDS diagnosis available. A total of 1,139 (55.6%) of the 2,507 studied cases over these nine years were late presenters varying from 48% among men who have sex with men to 70% among heterosexual men. The proportion of late presentation was 62.7% in 2001-2003, 51.9% in 2004-2005, 52.6% in 2006-2007 and 52.1% in 2008-2009. A decrease over time only was observed between 2001-2003 and 2004-2005 (p = 0.001) but remained constant thereafter (p = 0.9). Independent risk factors for late presentation were older age at diagnosis (p < 0.0001), use of injected drugs by men (p < 0.0001), being a heterosexual men (p < 0.0001), and being born in South America (p < 0.0001) or sub-Saharan Africa (p = 0.002).
Late presentation of HIV is still too frequent in all transmission groups in spite of a strong commitment with HIV prevention in our city. It is necessary to develop interventions that increase HIV testing and facilitate earlier entry into HIV care.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2011 · AIDS Research and Therapy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: To assess plasma steady-state pharmacokinetics (PK) of rifampicin, isoniazid, saquinavir and ritonavir in HIV and tuberculosis (TB) co-infected patients, and investigate potential interactions between TB drugs and protease inhibitors (PIs).
Open-label, single-arm, sequential PK study including 22 patients with HIV infection and TB. During the first 2 months, patients received rifampicin, isoniazid and pyrazinamide, with or without ethambutol (first PK study, n = 22). Then patients stopped pyrazinamide and ethambutol and started once-daily antiretroviral therapy (ART) with didanosine, lamivudine, ritonavir (200 mg) and saquinavir (1600 mg) (second PK study, n = 18). Patients stopped all TB drugs after 9 months continuing the same ART (third PK study, n = 15). Differences between TB drug parameters in the first and second PK studies, and between PI parameters in the second and third PK studies were used to assess interactions.
Rifampicin and isoniazid pharmacokinetics did not change substantially with saquinavir and ritonavir. A significant 39.5%, 34.9% and 48.7% reduction in median saquinavir AUC(0-24), C(max) and C(trough), respectively, was seen with rifampicin and isoniazid. Ritonavir AUC(0-24), C(max) and C(trough) decreased 42.5%, 49.6% and 64.3%, respectively, with rifampicin and isoniazid.
There was a significant interaction between saquinavir, ritonavir and rifampicin, with reduction in median plasma concentrations of saquinavir and ritonavir. Saquinavir should be given with caution in patients receiving rifampicin. Twice-daily dosing or higher saquinavir doses in once-daily administration should be tested to obtain more appropriate plasma levels.
Full-text · Article · May 2007 · Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Polymorphisms in the genes that encode for the CCR2 chemokine receptor and its natural ligand CCL2 have been shown to influence the natural history of HIV-1 infection, although data are inconsistent. Our aim was to determine whether functionally active CCR2 and CCL2 genetic variants influence the risk of infection and disease progression in a cohort of white Spaniards.
This was a multicenter genetic association case-control study. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), V64I (G > A) of the CCR2 gene and -2518 (A > G) of the CCL2 gene, were assessed in 318 individuals: 73 HIV-1-infected long-term nonprogressors (LTNPs) of >16 years duration, 109 HIV-1-infected usual progressors (UPs), 36 heavily exposed to HIV-1 but uninfected individuals (EUs), and 100 control subjects. The distribution of the CCR5Delta32 allele was also assessed. Genotyping was performed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) or PCR and automatic sequencing analysis methods on white blood cell DNA. Genotype and allele frequencies were compared by the chi2 test and the Fisher exact test.
CCR2 genotype distribution and allele frequencies showed nonsignificant differences between groups. The distribution of CCL2 alleles showed no significant differences between groups. HIV-1-infected individuals had, however, a significantly higher prevalence of the variant homozygous CCL2 GG genotype compared with EUs (P = 0.02). This result persisted when we studied only individuals with wild-type CCR5. Genotype and allele distribution of CCL2 was similar in HIV-1-infected UPs and LTNPs.
In our cohort of white Spaniards, homozygosity for the variant CCL2-2518GG genotype is overrepresented in HIV-1-infected subjects.
No preview · Article · Mar 2007 · JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: An unexplained resurgence of Group A streptococci (GAS) infections has been observed since the mid-1980s in the United States and Europe, particularly among intravenous drug users (IDUs). Several risk factors have been identified. Mutations in the capsule synthesis regulator genes (csrRS) have been associated with an increase in virulence. From January 1998 to December 2003, we conducted a prospective and retrospective descriptive analysis of invasive GAS soft-tissue infections in IDUs in Barcelona, Spain. Clinical features were collected, and we conducted a surveillance study to identify risk factors associated with GAS soft-tissue infections. We analyzed chromosomal DNA by low cleavage restriction enzymes and used pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and variable gene sequence typing (VGST) of the emm gene to disclose the epidemiologic relationship between the strains. We analyzed the influence of clonality (M-type) and mutations in csrRS genes of these strains on clinical features. We identified 44 cases, all of which were grouped in 3 clusters: fall 2000, fall 2002, and fall 2003. Cellulitis with or without abscesses (75%) and fever (90.9%) were the most common clinical manifestations. Distant septic complications were infrequent (18.2%). Although all patients had severe infections (mainly bacteremic needle abscesses), their outcome with antibiotic therapy, usually beta-lactam, was successful in all cases. However, surgery was needed in 40.9% of patients. Through the surveillance study we found that infected patients had a higher number of drug injections per day (odds ratio [OR], 18.84; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.83-79.4; p<0.00001), shared paraphernalia for drug use more frequently (OR, 11.11; 95% CI, 3.24-39.04; p<0.0001), were in a higher proportion both currently unemployed and homeless (OR, 4.22; 95% CI, 1.5-12.15; p<0.0001), were not in a methadone maintenance program (OR, 0.03; 95% CI, 0-0.19; p<0.00001), and more often bought drugs at a specific site (OR, 33.92; 95% CI, 7.44-174.93; p<0.00001) and from a specific dealer (OR, 72; 95% CI, 8-3090; p<0.00001), compared with patients not infected. The fall 2000 cluster was polyclonal, whereas the other 2 clusters were mainly due to the same strain of GAS (emm 25.2), and were defined as epidemic outbreaks. Clinically, the cases due to the clonal strain presented abscesses and needed surgery more frequently (p<0.001 and p=0.005, respectively). On the other hand, mutations in the csrRS genes were not associated with invasive GAS soft-tissue infection. There has been an increase in the number of cases of invasive GAS soft-tissue infections in IDUs in Barcelona, which seems to be related to drug users' habits and their socioeconomic status. Clonality (emm 25.2) but not mutations in the csrRS genes was associated with more severe GAS soft-tissue infections.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: To examine whether polymorphisms of the RANTES chemokine gene promoter are associated with long-term nonprogressive HIV-1 infection in white Spanish subjects, we performed a cross-sectional genetic association case-control study. Two-hundred sixty-seven white Spaniards were studied: 58 were HIV-1-infected long-term nonprogressors (LTNPs) of more than 16 years, 109 were HIV-1-infected usual progressors (UPs), and 100 were control subjects. Three RANTES single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at positions -28C>G, -109T>C, and -403G>A were assessed. The prevalence of the CCR5Delta 32 allele was also examined. Genotyping was performed using polymerase chain reaction and automatic sequencing analysis methods. Genotype and allele frequencies between the 3 groups were compared by the chi2 test and the Fisher exact test. The distribution of allelic variants of RANTES in controls, UPs, and LTNPs, respectively, was 3%, 2%, and 5% for -28G; 4%, 2%, and 2% for -109C; and 18%, 18%, and 18% for -403A (P = not significant). The differences were still nonsignificant when we exclusively analyzed individuals not carrying the CCR5Delta32 allele. We conclude that LTNP of more than 16 years is not associated with SNPs in the RANTES gene promoter in white Spanish HIV-1-infected subjects.
No preview · Article · Feb 2006 · JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Tenofovir (TDF) and didanosine (ddI) are both adenosine analogues with convenient posology, strong potency and a relatively high genetic barrier for resistance. The popularity of this combination, however, has been questioned due to concerns about pharmacokinetic interactions and increased risk of pancreatitis and hyperglycemia. Less information is available about other possible side effects.
HIV-infected individuals who initiated a protease inhibitor-sparing regimen between September 2002 and June 2003 at five hospitals, and had at least one subsequent visit within the next 12 months, always with complete virus suppression, were retrospectively assessed. Only drug-naive individuals and patients who simplified a prior successful antiretroviral regimen were analysed.
Outcomes were analysed in 570 individuals according to treatment modality (98 drug-naive versus 472 simplified); the nucleoside analogue (NA) backbone (298 with TDF + ddI, 88 with ddI, 44 with TDF, and 140 with neither ddI nor TDF); and the third agent used (378 with non-nucleoside analogues versus 192 with NA). Significant CD4+ T-cell declines were seen in patients taking ddI + TDF with respect to all other NA combinations, including ddI or TDF separately. Patients exposed to high ddI doses or taking a third NA showed more pronounced CD4 declines. Plasma levels of ddI correlated with the extent of CD4+ T-cell loss.
Patients receiving ddI + TDF-based combinations show CD4+ T-cell declines despite achieving complete virus suppression. This effect generally progresses with time. An imbalance in adenosine metabolites within CD4+ T lymphocytes may explain this phenomenon, which resembles the genetic purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency syndrome.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The prevalence, risk factors, and potential hormonal abnormalities associated with gynecomastia in a cohort of HIV-infected men are poorly understood.
Breast enlargement was assessed in consecutively evaluated HIV-infected men, and gynecomastia was subsequently confirmed with sonography. For each patient with breast enlargement, a randomly selected control subject without breast enlargement was studied. Clinical data were obtained, including age, body mass index, clinically evident lipodystrophy, prior symptomatic hyperlactatemia, current antiretroviral therapy and duration of exposure to each antiretroviral drug, history of injection drug use, and serological status regarding hepatitis B and hepatitis C. Laboratory parameters, including plasma HIV-1 RNA load, CD4 cell count, free testosterone index, and levels of fasting triglycerides, cholesterol, prolactin, total testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin, 17-beta-estradiol, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and thyroid-stimulating hormone, were measured.
There were 44 of 2275 patients with breast enlargement, of whom 40 (1.8%) had gynecomastia. The mean free testosterone index (+/-SD) was significantly lower among the 40 patients with gynecomastia (42.6%+/-24.0%) than among the 44 control subjects (58.0%+/-25.3%) (P=.006). Although the proportion of patients who were receiving treatment with zidovudine, stavudine, and/or efavirenz at the time of the present study was significantly different between case patients and control subjects, the duration of exposure to each individual antiretroviral drug was not. Lipoatrophy (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 5.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7-18.6; P=.005), hepatitis C (adjusted OR, 6.1; 95% CI, 1.8-20.6; P=.003), and hypogonadism (adjusted OR, 7.6; 95% CI, 1.8-32.2; P=.003) were independent factors associated with gynecomastia.
The data suggest that gynecomastia among HIV-infected patients is related to hypogonadism, rather than to an adverse effect of antiretroviral drugs.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2004 · Clinical Infectious Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: To analyze the dynamics of both HIV-1-specific CD4 and CD8 T-cell responses during structured treatment interruptions (STIs) in chronically HIV-1-infected (CHI) patients and to correlate them with the viral set point achieved.
Forty-five early-stage CHI patients who were on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for at least 1 year and underwent STI were included. Plasma viral load (VL), peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) lymphoproliferative (LPR) response to HIV p24 protein, and HIV-1 epitope-specific interferon-gammarelease from CD8 T cells were measured over a minimum study period of 2 years.
VL set point during final STI was both significantly lower than, and positively correlated to, baseline VL (P < 0.0001: mean VL reduction 0.77 log10, and r = 0.42, P = 0.004, respectively). CD4 LPRs to p24 increased significantly (P = 0.001) between day 0 of the first STI cycle and 4th STI but decreased thereafter. VL set point during final STI was significantly and negatively correlated with LPRs to p24 at both 2nd STI and 4th STI. Nevertheless, at week 52, 12 weeks after the end of the last STI, LPRs were weak and transient in all patients and were not correlated with VL set point. Moreover, the magnitude and breadth of HIV-1-specific CD8 T-cell responses increased significantly (P < 0.0001) between day 0 and week 52. The largest increases occurred during the final STI. Even though VL reached set point by week 12 of the final STI, HIV-1-specific CD8 T-cell responses did not stabilize but rather increased until the end of the follow-up and did not correlate with plasma VL (r = 0.01, P = 0.88).
STIs do not lead to control of viral replication in CHI patients, probably due to the fact that boosted CTL responses lack strong and durable helper T-cell responses. To reset the VL set point, new approaches that effectively augment and preserve helper T-cell responses should be investigated.
No preview · Article · Jul 2004 · JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Background: It remains controversial whether exposure to combination antiretroviral treatment increases the risk of myocardial infarction. Methods: In this prospective observational study, we enrolled 23,468 patients from 11 previously established cohorts from December 1999 to April 2001 and collected follow-up data until February 2002. Data were collected on infection with the human immunodeficiency virus and on risk factors for and the incidence of myocardial infarction. Relative rates were calculated with Poisson regression models. Combination antiretroviral therapy was defined as any combination regimen of antiretroviral drugs that included a protease inhibitor or a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor. Results: Over a period of 36,199 person-years, 126 patients had a myocardial infarction. The incidence of myocardial infarction increased with longer exposure to combination antiretroviral therapy (adjusted relative rate per year of exposure, 1.26 [95 percent confidence interval, 1.12 to 1.41]; P<0.001). Other factors significantly associated with myocardial infarction were older age, current or former smoking, previous cardiovascular disease, and male sex, but not a family history of coronary heart disease. A higher total serum cholesterol level, a higher triglyceride level, and the presence of diabetes were also associated with an increased incidence of myocardial infarction. Conclusions: Combination antiretroviral therapy was independently associated with a 26 percent relative increase in the rate of myocardial infarction per year of exposure during the first four to six years of use. However, the absolute risk of myocardial infarction was low and must be balanced against the marked benefits from antiretroviral treatment.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2003 · New England Journal of Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: To compare body composition, serum lipid profile, parameters of insulin secretion and endocrine measurements in HIV-1-infected patients whose first combination antiretroviral regimen differed only in a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI).
Cross-sectional study in an AIDS clinic of a university hospital.
One-hundred-and-fifty HIV-infected patients on long-term first highly active antiretroviral therapy including stavudine (n=75) or zidovudine (n=75).
Fat wasting was assessed by physical examination. Regional fat distribution was estimated using calliper measurements of skinfold thickness at four sites. Central adiposity was assessed by measurement of waist-hip ratio. Fasting glucose, insulin, triglyceride, cholesterol and its fractions, testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone levels, CD4 cell count and HIV viral load were determined. Daily caloric intake and physical activity level were also calculated.
Total body fat was significantly lower in patients taking stavudine, whereas the lean body mass was not statistically different amongst both groups. Ninety-four patients (62.7%; 95% CI: 54.9-70.4%) had fat redistribution, being isolated lipoatrophy in 20 (13.3%; 95% CI: 7.9-18.8%), isolated lipohypertrophy in 33 (22.0%; 95% CI: 15.4-28.6%) and mixed syndrome in 41 (27.3%; 95% CI: 20.2-34.5%). There were not statistically significant differences between stavudine- and zidovudine-treated patients with respect to the overall prevalence of fat redistribution syndromes (P=0.34). The prevalence of lipoatrophy (OR=1.86; 95% CI: 0.58-6.33, P=0.37), lipohypertrophy (OR=0.65; 95% CI: 0.25-1.69, P=0.45) and mixed syndromes (OR=1.05; 95% CI: 0.43-2.54, P=0.93) was not statistically different in both groups of patients. The only independent predictor for the appearance of mixed syndrome and lipoatrophy was sedentarism (OR=4.418; 95% CI: 1.565-12.472, P=0.005) and (OR=4.515; 95% CI: 1.148-17.761, P=0.03), respectively. Independent predictors of lipohypertrophy were age (OR=1.138; 95% CI: 1.061-1.220, P<0.0001) and prior AIDS (OR=0.305; 95% CI: 0.100-0.931, P=0.04). There were no statistically significant differences between stavudine and zidovudine-based groups with respect to metabolic and hormonal parameters.
The use of stavudine or zidovudine in the context of the first combination antiretroviral therapy is not associated either with an increased likelihood of lipid or gonadal hormones abnormalities, and although there was a trend to a lesser body fat content in the stavudine group, there was no increase in the overall likelihood of fat redistribution syndromes with respect to zidovudine group. Physical activity is a protective factor for the development of fat redistribution syndromes.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2003 · Antiviral therapy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Chronic treatment with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) results in a novel variety of partial lipodystrophy, combining lipoatrophic and hypertrophic areas. We have previously reported the histopathological features of this disease and have also shown that adipocyte apoptosis is involved in its origin. With the aim of further elucidating the mechanisms underlying this peculiar disorder, we performed an ultrastructural study of the adipocytes of ten HIV-1-infected patients treated with HAART for 20-42 months. In all ten cases, two main sets of ultrastructural changes were identified. Some adipocytes showed disruption of cell membranes, fragmented cytoplasmic rims, irregular cell outlines, and eventually fat droplets laying free in the connective tissue, with a histiocytic reaction around them. In addition, many adipocytes showed variable compartmentalization of fat droplets with decrease in cell size and abundant, mitochondria-rich cytoplasm. Often, a dual "white and brown" fat appearance was observed with a large unilocular vacuole surrounded by a rim of multilocular cytoplasm containing smaller isometric fat droplets and numerous mitochondria. These findings suggest that HAART-associated partial lipodystrophy is probably the result of a remodeling process of fat cells involving variable combinations of apoptosis, defective lipogenesis, and increased metabolic activity in different adipose areas of the body.
No preview · Article · Jan 2003 · Archiv für Pathologische Anatomie und Physiologie und für Klinische Medicin
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Objectives: To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of once-daily didanosine and nevirapine plus twice-daily stavudine versus twice-daily administration of all three drugs.
Methods: This open-label, randomized, multicentre study enrolled 94 antiretroviral-naive patients with chronic HIV infection, CD4+ cell counts > 500 × 106 cells/l, and viral loads > 5000 copies/ml. Patients were treated with either 40 mg stavudine (twice daily) plus 400 mg didanosine (once daily) and 400 mg nevirapine (once daily) or 40 mg stavudine (twice daily) plus 200 mg didanosine (twice daily) and 200 mg nevirapine (twice daily).
Results: After 12 months, 68% of patients who received twice-daily didanosine and nevirapine had viral loads < 200 copies/ml in the intention-to-treat and 79% in the on-treatment analysis, respectively. The corresponding values for patients treated with didanosine and nevirapine, taken once-daily, were 73 and 85%. The percentages of patients in each group with viral loads < 5 copies/ml at 12 months were 40% (once daily ) and 45% (twice daily) for the intention-to-treat analysis. Five of 11 patients (45%) with plasma viral loads < 5 copies/ml at 12 months had detectable virus in tonsillar tissue. Genotypic resistance to nevirapine was noted in seven of the 14 patients with detectable viral load at month 12. Mean changes in CD4+ cell counts for patients treated with stavudine plus once- or twice-daily didanosine and nevirapine were 154 and 132 × 106 cells/l, respectively. Treatment was interrupted due to adverse events in seven patients (8%) (four who received once-daily didanosine and nevirapine and three treated with twice-daily doses).
Conclusions: The combination of twice-daily stavudine plus once-daily didanosine and nevirapine was as safe and well tolerated as twice-daily administration of all three agents. Both regimens were equally effective in reducing viral loads and in increasing CD4+ cell counts.