Mario Mateo

University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States

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Publications (250)693.29 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The ultra-faint dwarf galaxy Reticulum 2 (Ret 2) was recently discovered in images obtained by the Dark Energy Survey. We have observed the four brightest red giants in Ret 2 at high spectral resolution using the Michigan/Magellan Fiber System. We present detailed abundances for as many as 20 elements per star, including 12 elements heavier than the Fe group. We confirm previous detection of high levels of r-process material in Ret 2 (mean [Eu/Fe]=+1.69+/-0.05) found in three of these stars (mean [Fe/H]=-2.88+/-0.10). The abundances closely match the r-process pattern found in the well-studied metal-poor halo star CS22892-052. Such r-process-enhanced stars have not been found in any other ultra-faint dwarf galaxy, though their existence has been predicted by at least one model. The fourth star in Ret 2 ([Fe/H]=-3.42+/-0.20) contains only trace amounts of Sr ([Sr/Fe]=-1.73+/-0.43) and no detectable heavier elements. One r-process enhanced star is also enhanced in C (natal [C/Fe]=+1.1). This is only the third such star known, which suggests that the nucleosynthesis sites leading to C and r-process enhancements are decoupled. The r-process-deficient star is enhanced in Mg ([Mg/Fe]=+0.81+/-0.14), and the other three stars show normal levels of alpha-enhancement (mean [Mg/Fe]=+0.34+/-0.03). The abundances of other alpha and Fe-group elements closely resemble those in ultra-faint dwarf galaxies and metal-poor halo stars, suggesting that the nucleosynthesis that led to the large r-process enhancements either produced no light elements or produced light-element abundance signatures indistinguishable from normal supernovae.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016
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    ABSTRACT: We present results from spectroscopic observations with the Michigan/Magellan Fiber System (M2FS) of $147$ stellar targets along the line of sight to the newly-discovered `ultrafaint' stellar systems Tucana 2 (Tuc 2) and Grus 1 (Gru 1). Based on simultaneous estimates of line-of-sight velocity and stellar-atmospheric parameters, we identify 8 and 7 stars as probable members of Tuc 2 and and Gru 1, respectively. Our sample for Tuc 2 is sufficient to resolve an internal velocity dispersion of $8.6_{-2.7}^{+4.4}$ km s$^{-1}$ about a mean of $-129.1_{-3.5}^{+3.5}$ km s$^{-1}$ (solar rest frame), and to estimate a mean metallicity of [Fe/H]= $-2.23_{-0.12}^{+0.18}$. These results place Tuc 2 on chemodynamical scaling relations followed by dwarf galaxies, suggesting a dominant dark matter component with dynamical mass $2.7_{-1.3}^{+3.1}\times 10^6$ $\mathrm{M}_{\odot}$ enclosed within the central $\sim 160$ pc, and dynamical mass-to-light ratio $1900_{-900}^{+2200}$ $\mathrm{M}_{\odot}/L_{V,\odot}$. For Gru 1 we estimate a mean velocity of $-140.5_{-1.6}^{+2.4}$ km s$^{-1}$ and a mean metallicity of [Fe/H]=$-1.42_{-0.42}^{+0.55}$, but our sample does not resolve Gru 1's velocity dispersion. The radial coordinates of Tuc 2 and Gru 1 in Galactic phase space suggest that their orbits are among the most energetic within distance $\leq 300$ kpc. Moreover, their proximity to each other in this space arises naturally if both objects are trailing the Large Magellanic Cloud.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2015
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    ABSTRACT: We analyze the resolved stellar populations of the faint stellar system, Crater, based on deep optical imaging taken with the Hubble Space Telescope. The HST/ACS-based color-magnitude diagram (CMD) of Crater extends $\sim$4 magnitudes below the oldest main sequence turnoff, providing excellent leverage on Crater's physical properties. Structurally, Crater has a half-light radius of $\sim$20 pc and shows no evidence for tidal distortions. Crater is well-described by a simple stellar population with an age of $\sim$7.5 Gyr, [M/H]$\sim-1.65$, a M$_{\star}\sim10^4$ M$_{\odot}$, M$_{\rm V}\sim -5.3$, located at a distance of (d$_{\odot}$, d$_{\rm GC}$) $\sim$ (145, 110) kpc, with modest uncertainties in these properties due to differences in the underlying stellar evolution models. The sparse sampling of stars above the turnoff and sub-giant branch are likely to be 1.0-1.4 M$_{\odot}$ binary star systems (blue stragglers) and their evolved descendants, as opposed to intermediate age main sequence stars. Confusion of these populations highlights a substantial challenge in accurately characterizing sparsely populated stellar systems. Our analysis shows that Crater is not a dwarf galaxy, but instead is an unusually young cluster given its location in the Milky Way's very outer stellar halo. Crater is similar to SMC cluster Lindsay 38, and its position and velocity are in good agreement with observations and models of the Magellanic stream debris, suggesting it may have accreted from the Magellanic Clouds. However, its age and metallicity are also in agreement with the age-metallicity relationships of lower mass dwarf galaxies such as Leo I or Carina. Despite uncertainty over its progenitor system, Crater appears to have been incorporated into the Galaxy more recently than $z\sim1$ (8 Gyr ago), providing an important new constraint on the accretion history of the Milky Way. [abridged]
    Preview · Article · Oct 2015
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    ABSTRACT: We present radial velocities, stellar parameters, and detailed abundances of 39 elements derived from high-resolution spectroscopic observations of red giant stars in the luminous, metal-poor globular cluster NGC 5824. We observe 26 stars in NGC 5824 using the Michigan/Magellan Fiber System (M2FS) and two stars using the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle (MIKE) spectrograph. We derive a mean metallicity of [Fe/H]=-1.94+/-0.02 (statistical) +/-0.10 (systematic). The metallicity dispersion of this sample of stars, 0.08 dex, is in agreement with previous work and does not exceed the expected observational errors. Previous work suggested an internal metallicity spread only when fainter samples of stars were considered, so we cannot exclude the possibility of an intrinsic metallicity dispersion in NGC 5824. The M2FS spectra reveal a large internal dispersion in [Mg/Fe], 0.28 dex, which is found in a few other luminous, metal-poor clusters. [Mg/Fe] is correlated with [O/Fe] and anti-correlated with [Na/Fe] and [Al/Fe]. There is no evidence for internal dispersion among the other alpha- or Fe-group abundance ratios. Twenty-five of the 26 stars exhibit a n-capture enrichment pattern dominated by r-process nucleosynthesis ([Eu/Fe]=+0.11+/-0.12; [Ba/Eu]=-0.66+/-0.05). Only one star shows evidence of substantial s-process enhancement ([Ba/Fe]=+0.56+/-0.12; [Ba/Eu]=+0.38+/-0.14), but this star does not exhibit other characteristics associated with s-process enhancement via mass-transfer from a binary companion. The Pb and other heavy elements produced by the s-process suggest a timescale of no more than a few hundred Myr for star formation and chemical enrichment, like the complex globular clusters M2, M22, and NGC 5286.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: The globular cluster H4, located in the center of the Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy, is crucial for understanding the formation and chemical evolution of star clusters in low-mass galactic environments. H4 is peculiar because the cluster is significantly more metal-rich than the galaxy's other clusters, is located near the galaxy center, and may also be the youngest cluster in the galaxy. In this study, we present detailed chemical abundances derived from high-resolution (R~28000) spectroscopy of an isolated H4 member star for comparison with a sample of 22 nearby Fornax field stars. We find the H4 member to be depleted in the alpha-elements Si, Ca, and Ti with [Si/Fe]=-0.35+-0.34, [Ca/Fe]=+0.05+-0.08, and [Ti/Fe]=-0.27+-0.23, resulting in an average [alpha/Fe]=-0.19+-0.14. If this result is representative of the average cluster properties, H4 is the only known system with a low [alpha/Fe] ratio and a moderately low metallicity embedded in an intact birth environment. For the field stars we find a clear sequence, seen as an early depletion in [alpha/Fe] at low metallicities, in good agreement with previous measurements. H4 falls on top of the observed field star [alpha/Fe] sequence and clearly disagrees with the properties of Milky Way halo stars. We therefore conclude that within a galaxy, the chemical enrichment of globular clusters may be closely linked to the enrichment pattern of the field star population. The low [alpha/Fe] ratios of H4 and similar metallicity field stars in Fornax give evidence that slow chemical enrichment environments, such as dwarf galaxies, may be the original hosts of alpha-depleted clusters in the halos of the Milky Way and M31.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: A combined effort utilizing spectroscopy and photometry has revealed the existence of a new globular cluster class. These "anomalous" clusters, which we refer to as "iron-complex" clusters, are differentiated from normal clusters by exhibiting large (>0.10 dex) intrinsic metallicity dispersions, complex sub-giant branches, and correlated [Fe/H] and s-process enhancements. In order to further investigate this phenomenon, we have measured radial velocities and chemical abundances for red giant branch stars in the massive, but scarcely studied, globular cluster NGC 6273. The velocities and abundances were determined using high resolution (R~27,000) spectra obtained with the Michigan/Magellan Fiber System (M2FS) and MSpec spectrograph on the Magellan-Clay 6.5m telescope at Las Campanas Observatory. We find that NGC 6273 has an average heliocentric radial velocity of +144.49 km s^-1 (sigma=9.64 km s^-1) and an extended metallicity distribution ([Fe/H]=-1.80 to -1.30) composed of at least two distinct stellar populations. Although the two dominant populations have similar [Na/Fe], [Al/Fe], and [alpha/Fe] abundance patterns, the more metal-rich stars exhibit significant [La/Fe] enhancements. The [La/Eu] data indicate that the increase in [La/Fe] is due to almost pure s-process enrichment. A third more metal-rich population with low [X/Fe] ratios may also be present. Therefore, NGC 6273 joins clusters such as omega centauri, M 2, M 22, and NGC 5286 as a new class of iron-complex clusters exhibiting complicated star formation histories.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2015 · The Astronomical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: The dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSph) of the Milky Way are among the most attractive targets for indirect searches of dark matter. In this work, we reconstruct the dark matter annihilation (J-factor) and decay profiles for the newly discovered dSph Reticulum~II. This is done using an optimized spherical Jeans analysis of kinematic data obtained from the Michigan/Magellan Fiber System (M2FS). We find Reticulum~II to have one of the highest J-factor when compared to the other Milky Way dSphs. We have also checked the robustness of this result against several ingredients of the analysis. Unless it suffers from tidal disruption or significant inflation of its velocity dispersion from binary stars, Reticulum~II may provide a unique window on dark matter particle properties.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015
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    ABSTRACT: We present results from spectroscopic observations with the Michigan/Magellan Fiber System (M2FS) of 182 stellar targets along the line of sight to the newly-discovered `ultrafaint' object Reticulum 2 (Ret 2). For 38 of these targets, the spectra are sufficient to provide simultaneous estimates of line-of-sight velocity ($v_{\rm los}$, median random error $\delta_{v_{\rm los}}=1.3$ km s$^{-1}$), effective temperature ($T_{\rm eff}$, $\delta_{T_{\rm eff}}=464$ K), surface gravity ($\log g$, $\delta_{\rm logg}=0.54$ dex) and iron abundance ([Fe/H], $\delta_{\mathrm{[Fe/H]}}=0.45$ dex). We use these results to confirm 18 stars as members of Ret 2. From the member sample we estimate a velocity dispersion of $\sigma_{v_{\rm los}}=3.6_{-0.6}^{+0.9}$ km s$^{-1}$ about a mean of $\langle v_{\rm los}\rangle =64.8_{-1.0}^{+1.1}$ km s$^{-1}$ in the solar rest frame ($\sim -90.9$ km s$^{-1}$ in the Galactic rest frame), and a metallicity dispersion of $\sigma_{\rm [Fe/H]}=0.50_{-0.13}^{+0.17}$ dex about a mean of $\langle \mathrm{[Fe/H]} \rangle =-2.67_{-0.34}^{+0.34}$. These estimates marginalize over possible velocity and metallicity gradients, which are consistent with zero. Our results place Ret 2 on chemodynamical scaling relations followed by the Milky Way's dwarf-galactic satellites. Under assumptions of dynamic equilibrium and negligible contamination from binary stars---both of which must be checked with deeper imaging and repeat spectroscopic observations---the estimated velocity dispersion suggests a dynamical mass of $M(R_{\rm h})\approx 5R_{\rm h}\sigma_{v_{\rm los}}^2/(2G)=2.4_{-0.8}^{+1.3}\times 10^5$ $M_{\odot}$ enclosed within projected halflight radius $R_{\rm h}\sim 32$ pc, with mass-to-light ratio $\approx 2M(R_{\rm h})/L_{\rm V}=462_{-157}^{+264}$ in solar units.
    Preview · Article · Apr 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We introduce a Bayesian method for fitting faint, resolved stellar spectra in order to obtain simultaneous estimates of redshift and stellar-atmospheric parameters. We apply the method to thousands of spectra---covering 5160-5280 Angs. at resolution R~20,000---that we have acquired with the MMT/Hectochelle fibre spectrograph for red-giant and horizontal branch candidates along the line of sight to the Milky Way's dwarf spheroidal satellite in Draco. The observed stars subtend an area of ~4 deg^2, extending ~3 times beyond Draco's nominal `tidal' radius. For each spectrum we tabulate the first four moments---central value, variance, skewness and kurtosis---of posterior probability distribution functions representing estimates of the following physical parameters: line-of-sight velocity v_los, effective temperature (T_eff), surface gravity (logg) and metallicity ([Fe/H]). After rejecting low-quality measurements, we retain a new sample consisting of 2813 independent observations of 1565 unique stars, including 1879 observations for 631 stars with (as many as 13) repeat observations. Parameter estimates have median random errors of sigma_{v_los}=0.88 km/s, sigma_{T_eff}=162 K, sigma_logg=0.37 dex and sigma_[Fe/H]=0.20 dex. Our estimates of physical parameters distinguish ~470 likely Draco members from interlopers in the Galactic foreground.
    Preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: We present an expanded kinematic study of the young cluster NGC 2264 based upon optical radial velocities measured using multi-fiber echelle spectroscopy at the 6.5 meter MMT and Magellan telescopes. We report radial velocities for 695 stars, of which approximately 407 stars are confirmed or very likely members. Our results more than double the number of members with radial velocities from F{\H u}r{\'e}sz et al., resulting in a much better defined kinematic relationship between the stellar population and the associated molecular gas. In particular, we find that there is a significant subset of stars that are systematically blueshifted with respect to the molecular ($^{13}$CO) gas. The detection of Lithium absorption and/or infrared excesses in this blue-shifted population suggests that at least some of these stars are cluster members; we suggest some speculative scenarios to explain their kinematics. Our results also more clearly define the redshifted population of stars in the northern end of the cluster; we suggest that the stellar and gas kinematics of this region are the result of a bubble driven by the wind from O7 star S Mon. Our results emphasize the complexity of the spatial and kinematic structure of NGC 2264, important for eventually building up a comprehensive picture of cluster formation.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2015 · The Astronomical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: A recent analysis comparing the [Na/Fe] distributions of red giant branch (RGB) and asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars in the Galactic globular cluster NGC 6752 found that the ratio of Na-poor to Na-rich stars changes from 30:70 on the RGB to 100:0 on the AGB. The surprising paucity of Na-rich stars on the AGB in NGC 6752 warrants additional investigations to determine if the failure of a significant fraction of stars to ascend the AGB is an attribute common to all globular clusters. Therefore, we present radial velocities, [Fe/H], and [Na/Fe] abundances for 35 AGB stars in the Galactic globular cluster 47 Tucanae (47 Tuc; NGC 104), and compare the AGB [Na/Fe] distribution with a similar RGB sample published previously. The abundances and velocities were derived from high resolution spectra obtained with the Michigan/Magellan Fiber System (M2FS) and MSpec spectrograph on the Magellan-Clay 6.5m telescope. We find the average heliocentric radial velocity and [Fe/H] values to be =-18.56 km s^-1 (sigma=10.21 km s^-1) and <[Fe/H]>=-0.68 (sigma=0.08), respectively, in agreement with previous literature estimates. The average [Na/Fe] abundance is 0.12 dex lower in the 47 Tuc AGB sample compared to the RGB sample, and the ratio of Na-poor to Na-rich stars is 63:37 on the AGB and 45:55 on the RGB. However, in contrast to NGC 6752, the two 47 Tuc populations have nearly identical [Na/Fe] dispersion and interquartile range values. The data presented here suggest that only a small fraction <20% of Na-rich stars in 47 Tuc may fail to ascend the AGB. Regardless of the cause for the lower average [Na/Fe] abundance in AGB stars, we find that Na-poor stars and at least some Na-rich stars in 47 Tuc evolve through the early AGB phase. [abridged]
    Preview · Article · Dec 2014 · The Astronomical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We present deep photometry of the Carina dwarf Spheroidal galaxy in the B,V filters from CTIO/MOSAIC, out to and beyond the tidal radius. The accurately calibrated photometry is combined with spectroscopic metallicity distributions of Red Giant Branch stars to determine the detailed star formation and chemical evolution history. The star formation history confirms the episodic formation history of Carina and quantifies the duration and strength of each episode in great detail, as a function radius from the centre. Two main episodes of star formation occurred at old (>8 Gyr) and intermediate (2-8 Gyr) ages, both enriching stars starting from low metallicities ([Fe/H]<-2 dex). By dividing the SFH into two components, we determine that 60pm9 percent of the total number of stars formed within the intermediate age episode. Furthermore, within the tidal radius (0.48 degrees or 888 pc) a total mass in stars of 1.07pm0.08 x10^6 M_sun was formed, giving Carina a stellar mass-to-light ratio of 1.8pm0.8. Combining the detailed star formation history with spectroscopic observations of RGB stars, we are able to determine the detailed age-metallicity relation of each episode and the timescale of alpha-element evolution of Carina from individual stars. The oldest episode displays a tight age-metallicity relation over 6 Gyr with steadily declining alpha-element abundances and a possible alpha-element knee at [Fe/H]~ -2.5 dex. The intermediate age sequence displays a more complex age-metallicity relation starting from low metallicity and a sequence in alpha-element abundances with a slope much steeper than observed in the old episode, starting from [Fe/H]=-1.8 dex and [Mg/Fe]~0.4 dex and declining to Mg-poor values ([Mg/Fe]<-0.5 dex). This indicates clearly that both episodes of star formation formed from gas with different abundance patterns, inconsistent with simple evolution in an isolated system.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • John I. Bailey · Mario L. Mateo · Jeffrey D. Crane
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    ABSTRACT: Fiber-fed multi-object spectrographs have proven to be powerful tools in astronomy, capable of developing large kinematic samples in a fraction of the time required by single-object spectroscopy. The recently commissioned Michigan Magellan Fiber System (M2FS) is a multi-mode, multi-object, fiber-fed optical spectrograph capable of observing up to 256 targets with its 1.2" fibers. By using M2FS’s adjustable slit mechanism with telluric lines as a wavelength reference we have developed an instrument capable of measuring absolute velocities to 25 m/s for up to 256 objects simultaneously. We briefly describe M2FS’s baseline capabilities and then discuss the fiber slit mechanism we created for M2FS. Finally we review our analysis methods, highlighting both the additional calibration opportunities presented by multi-object observations and the effects of atmospheric models on our achieved precision.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Jul 2014
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    A. Katherina Vivas · Mario Mateo
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    ABSTRACT: We report the detection of 388 pulsating variable stars (and some additional miscellaneous variables) in the Carina dSph galaxy over an area covering the full visible extent of the galaxy and extending a few times beyond its photometric (King) tidal radius along the direction of its major axis. Included in this total are 340 newly discovered dwarf Cepheids which are mostly located ~2.5 magnitudes below the horizontal branch and have very short periods (<0.1 days) typical of their class and consistent with their location on the upper part of the extended main sequence of the younger populations of the galaxy. Several extra-tidal dwarf cepheids were found in our survey up to a distance of ~1 degree from the center of Carina. Our sample also includes RR Lyrae stars and anomalous Cepheids some of which were found outside the galaxy's tidal radius as well. This supports past works that suggests Carina is undergoing tidal disruption. We use the period-luminosity relationship for dwarf Cepheids to estimate a distance modulus of 20.17 +/- 0.10 mags, in very good agreement with the estimate from RR Lyrae stars. We find some important differences in the properties of the dwarf Cepheids of Carina and those in Fornax and the LMC, the only extragalactic samples of dwarf Cepheids currently known. These differences may reflect a metallicity spread, depth along the line of sight and/or, different evolutionary paths of the dwarf Cepheid stars.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2013 · The Astronomical Journal

  • No preview · Article · Aug 2013
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    ABSTRACT: We present deep color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) for two Subaru Suprime-Cam fields in the Virgo Stellar Stream (VSS)/Virgo Overdensity (VOD) and compare them to a field centered on the highest concentration of Sagittarius (Sgr) Tidal Stream stars in the leading arm, Branch A of the bifurcation. A prominent population of main-sequence stars is detected in all three fields and can be traced as faint as g ≈ 24 mag. Using theoretical isochrone fitting, we derive an age of Gyr, a median abundance of [Fe/H] = dex, and a heliocentric distance of 30.9 ± 3.0 kpc for the main sequence of the Sgr Stream Branch A. The dominant main-sequence populations in the two VSS/VOD fields (Λ☉ ≈ 265°, B ☉ ≈ 13°) are located at a mean distance of 23.3 ± 1.6 kpc and have an age of ~8.2 Gyr, and an abundance of [Fe/H] = dex, similar to the Sgr Stream stars. These statistically robust parameters, derived from the photometry of 260 main-sequence stars, are also in good agreement with the age of the main population in the Sgr dwarf galaxy (8.0 ± 1.5 Gyr). They also agree with the peak in the metallicity distribution of 2-3 Gyr old M giants, [Fe/H] ≈–0.6 dex, in the Sgr north leading arm. We then compare the results from the VSS/VOD fields with the Sgr Tidal Stream model by Law & Majewski based on a triaxial Galactic halo shape that is empirically calibrated with Sloan Digital Sky Survey Sgr A-branch and Two Micron All Sky Survey M-giant stars. We find that the most prominent feature in the CMDs, the main-sequence population at 23 kpc, is not explained by the model. Instead the model predicts in these directions a low-density filamentary structure of Sgr debris stars at ~9 kpc and a slightly higher concentration of Sgr stars spread over a heliocentric distance range of 42-53 kpc. At best there is only marginal evidence for the presence of these populations in our data. Our findings then suggest that while there are probably some Sgr debris stars present, the dominant stellar population in the VOD originates from a different halo structure that has an almost identical age and metallicity as some sections of the Sgr tidal stream.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2013 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Galactic globular clusters located towards the inner regions of the Milky Way have been historically neglected, mainly due to the difficulties caused by the presence of an elevated extinction by foreground dust, and high field star densities along the lines of sight where most of them lie. To overcome these difficulties we have developed a new method to map the differential extinction suffered by these clusters, which was successfully applied to a sample of moderately-extincted, luminous, extended, inner Galactic globular clusters observed in the optical, for which we have been able to determine more accurate physical parameters. For the most extincted inner Galactic globular clusters, near-infrared wavelengths provide a more suitable window for their study. The VVV survey, which is currently observing the central regions of the Milky Way at these wavelengths, will provide a comprehensive view, from the inner regions out to their tidal radii and beyond, of most of these globular clusters.
    Preview · Article · Mar 2013 · The European Physical Journal Conferences
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    ABSTRACT: The evolution of small systems such as dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSph) is likely to have been a balance between external environmental effects and internal processes within their own relatively shallow potential wells. Assessing how strong such environmental interactions may have been is therefore an important element in understanding the baryonic evolution of dSphs and their derived dark matter distribution. Here we present results from a wide-area CTIO/MOSAIC II photometric survey of the Carina dSph, reaching down to about two magnitudes below the oldest main sequence turn-off (MSTO). This data-set enables us to trace the structure of Carina in detail out to very large distances from its center, and as a function of stellar age. We observe the presence of an extended structure made up primarily of ancient MSTO stars, at distances between 25arcmin-60arcmin from Carina's center, confirming results in the literature that Carina extends well beyond its nominal tidal radius. The large number statistics of our survey reveals features such as isophote twists and tails that had gone undetected in other previous shallower surveys. This is the first time that such unambiguous signs of tidal disruption have been found in a Milky Way "classical" dwarf other than Sagittarius. We also demonstrate the presence of a negative age gradient in Carina directly from its MSTOs, and trace it out to very large distances from the galaxy center. The signs of interaction with the Milky Way make it unclear whether the age gradient was already in place before Carina underwent tidal disruption.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2012 · The Astrophysical Journal Letters
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    ABSTRACT: Fiber-fed multi-object spectrographs have greatly enhanced the spectroscopic capabilities of the world's premiere telescopes, but their flexibility has typically been limited by a fixed effective slit size that constrains the available resolving power. We present a novel mechanism that, for the first time, equips a fiber-fed spectrograph with multiple discreet slits of different widths. In this paper, we detail the mechanical design of our variable slit mechanism, which is capable of positioning any one of six slits in front of the fibers immediately prior to injection into the spectrograph's optical train. Further, we present the details of related systems necessary to achieve closed loop positioning of the slit mechanism given that no encoder is used. We also briefly discuss our use of open source and open hardware projects in the design. Finally, we describe the control system we have implemented for this subsystem.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2012 · Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
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    ABSTRACT: We describe the Michigan/Magellan Fiber System (M2FS) under construction for use on the Magellan/Clay telescope. M2FS consists of four primary components including: (1) A fiber-fed double spectrograph (MSPec) in which each spectrograph is fed by 128 fibers (for a total multiplexing factor of 256) and each is optimized in to operate from 370- 950 nm; (2) A fiber mounting system (MFib) that supports the fibers and fiber plug plates at the telescope f/11 Nasmyth focal surface and organizes the fibers into 'shoes' that are used to place the fibers at the image surface of the MSpec spectrographs;, (3) A new wide-field corrector (WFC) that produces high-quality images over a 30 arcmin diameter field; (4) A unit (MCal) mounted near the telescope secondary that provides wavelength and continuum calibration and that supports a key component in a novel automated fiber identification system. We describe the opto-mechanical properties of M2FS, its modes of operation, and its anticipated performance, as well as potential upgrades including the development of a robotic fiber positioner and an atmospheric dispersion corrector. We describe how the M2FS design could serve as the basis of a powerful wide-field, massively multiplexed spectroscopic survey facility.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2012 · Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering

Publication Stats

8k Citations
693.29 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1994-2015
    • University of Michigan
      • Department of Astronomy
      Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States
  • 2014
    • Indiana University Bloomington
      • Department of Astronomy
      Bloomington, Indiana, United States
  • 2013
    • Peking University
      • Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics
      Peping, Beijing, China
  • 2009
    • University of Cambridge
      • Institute of Astronomy
      Cambridge, England, United Kingdom
  • 2007-2008
    • Concordia University–Ann Arbor
      Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States
    • University of California, Santa Cruz
      Santa Cruz, California, United States
  • 1999
    • Honolulu University
      Honolulu, Hawaii, United States
  • 1993-1997
    • University of Warsaw
      • Astronomical Observatory
      Warszawa, Masovian Voivodeship, Poland
    • Princeton University
      Princeton, New Jersey, United States
  • 1993-1994
    • Pasadena City College
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
  • 1992
    • National Research Council
      Roma, Latium, Italy
  • 1990-1992
    • Carnegie Institution for Science
      • Department of Terrestrial Magnetism
      Вашингтон, West Virginia, United States
    • University of British Columbia - Vancouver
      Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
  • 1991
    • McMaster University
      Hamilton, Ontario, Canada