[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We assessed responses to slow pathway ablation with respect to the appearance of ventriculoatrial (VA) block during junctional rhythm in both typical and atypical types of atrioventricular nodal re-entrant tachycardia (AVNRT).
The 31 subjects included 16 patients with slow-fast type of typical AVNRT and 15 patients with atypical AVNRT (9 patients with fast-slow type and 6 patients with slow-slow type). During atypical AVNRT, the HA interval was prolonged (>70 ms) and the earliest atrial activation was located around the coronary sinus (CS) ostium. The difference in atrial activation times at the CS ostium and His-bundle area [A(CS-His)] during AVNRT was measured. Slow pathway ablation was performed using a classical electro-anatomical approach. In typical AVNRT, A(CS-His) was -21.3 +/- 3.4 ms, and the HA interval was 34 +/- 14 ms. During slow pathway ablation, all patients with typical AVNRT had junctional rhythm with retrograde atrial conduction. In contrast, in patients with atypical AVNRT, A(CS-His) was 12 +/- 19.3 ms and the HA interval was 189 +/- 77 ms. In 13 of the 15 patients with atypical AVNRT, slow pathway ablation induced junctional rhythm, which was not associated with retrograde atrial conduction. After ablation, AVNRT became non-inducible and antegrade atrioventricular (AV) conduction was preserved in all patients.
In patients with atypical AVNRT, junctional rhythm with VA block during slow pathway ablation is commonly observed and indicates the success of the ablation of retrograde slow pathway conduction, but has no relation to the risk of subsequent AV block. During junctional rhythm, occasional appearance of the sinus beats with intact antegrade AV conduction is essential for safety of ablation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In patients with Brugada syndrome, the circadian variation of ST elevation could be modulated by the autonomic nervous activity and RR interval. Recently, glucose-induced insulin secretion was also reported to contribute to fluctuation of ST elevation. Therefore, we assessed the effects of taking meals on the ST-RR relationship in the daily life of patients with Brugada syndrome.
Twenty-eight patients with Brugada syndrome, who had the type I ST elevation, were categorized into 12 symptomatic and 16 asymptomatic patients. Unipolar lead (V2) Holter ECG was recorded and ST-RR relationships for a 2-hour period were compared before and after each meal. From ST-RR linear regression lines, ST-RR slope (mm/sec) and ST(mm) at RR intervals of both 0.6 seconds and 1.2 seconds (ST(0.6) and ST(1.2)) were determined. The ST-RR slope increased significantly after lunch (2.6 +/- 0.4 vs 4.4 +/- 1.2, P < 0.05) and dinner (2.1 +/- 1.0 vs 5.2 +/- 1.9, P < 0.01) in symptomatic patients, but not in asymptomatic patients. In both groups, ST(0.6) was not different before or after each meal. However, ST(1.2) increased after each meal in symptomatic patients. After dinner, ST(1.2) was significantly higher in symptomatic patients than in asymptomatic patients (5.0 +/- 2.7 vs 3.6 +/- 0.8, P < 0.05). Postprandial increase in both ST-RR slope and ST(1.2) was greatest at dinner in symptomatic patients; however, this tendency was not seen in asymptomatic patients.
In symptomatic patients with Brugada syndrome, bradycardia-dependent augmentation of ST elevation was enhanced for the postprandial period, especially after dinner. This could be related to occurrence of ventricular fibrillation in the late evening.
No preview · Article · Aug 2007 · Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In patients with Brugada syndrome (BS), ventricular fibrillation (VF) occurs mainly during sleep; therefore, not only vagal activity but also bradycardia dependent changes in ECG may relate to the nighttime occurrence of VF. The present study aimed to examine the difference in bradycardia-dependent changes in the ECG of symptomatic and asymptomatic BS patients.
Twenty-one patients with BS were categorized into symptomatic (n = 9) and asymptomatic (n = 12) groups. During the electrophysiologic study, the ECG changes were evaluated at RR intervals of 400, 600, 750, 1,000 and 1,100 ms during extrastimulation from the right atrium. The ST levels in V2, and the QT interval in both V2 and V5 were measured. Along with an increase in the RR interval from 400 to 1,100 ms, the ST levels in V2 increased in both groups; the increase did not differ between the 2 groups. In both leads V2 and V5, the prolongation of the QT interval along with an increase in the RR interval from 400 to 1,100 ms was significantly smaller and the QT intervals at an RR interval of 1,100 ms were significantly shorter in the symptomatic than in the asymptomatic group.
In patients with BS, the ST elevation was augmented during bradycardia to a similar extent in both symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. However, a inhibited prolongation of the QT interval during bradycardia was characteristic of symptomatic patients. These unique repolarization dynamics could relate to the nighttime occurrence of VF during bradycardia in patients with BS.
No preview · Article · Aug 2006 · Circulation Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To introduce a nomogram of the normal QT interval at various heart rates measured from 24 hour Holter ECG recordings in healthy subjects with respect to age and sex and to use the nomogram to characterise dynamic changes in QT interval in patients with idiopathic ventricular fibrillation (IVF) and the long QT syndrome (LQT).
The study group consisted of 422 subjects: 249 healthy men ranging in age from 21-88 years (mean (SD) 47 (20) years) and 173 healthy women ranging in age from 21-85 years (47 (19) years). In addition, seven men with IVF ranging in age from 33-53 years (43 (9) years) and five women with LQT ranging in age from 20-55 years (37 (14) years) were studied. For each subject, QT interval and heart rate were determined automatically from 24 hour Holter ECG digital data-namely, QT interval was measured from signal averaged ECG waves obtained by averaging consecutive sinus beats during each 15 second period over 24 hours. Data were grouped and averaged at an interval of 5 beats/min for heart rates ranging from 46-120 beats/min.
In healthy subjects aged < 50 years and > or = 50 years QT intervals were longer in women than in men. QT intervals were longer in both men and women aged > or = 50 years than in ages < 50 years. From these findings a nomogram of QT interval at varying heart rates adjusted for age (younger group aged < 50 years or older group aged > or = 50 years) and sex was determined. In patients with IVF, QT intervals were significantly shorter at slower heart rates than normal values obtained from the nomogram. In patients with LQT, QT intervals were significantly longer at both faster and slower heart rates than normal values.
The nomogram of QT interval at varying heart rates adjusted for sex and age could be used to assess dynamic changes of QT interval of various pathological conditions. For example, patients with IVF had shorter QT interval at slower heart rates, a finding suggestive of arrhythmogenicity of this specific syndrome at night. Patients with LQT had prolonged QT interval at specific heart rate ranges depending on their genotype.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: METHODS AND RESULTS: Seventeen beagles were pretreated with either placebo (group I, n = 9) or enalapril 1 mg/kg/day (group II, n = 8) and paced at 500/min from the right atrial appendage for 4 weeks. Every week, corrected sinus node recovery time (CSNRT) and sinus cycle length (SCL) were measured. Quantitative analysis of interstitial fibrosis (IF) and adipose tissue (AT) in the SN was performed with Masson's trichrome stain, and apoptosis of the sinus nodal cells were detected with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end-labeling. In group I, rapid atrial pacing prolonged both CSNRT and SCL. After 4 weeks of pacing, CSNRT and SCL were significantly shorter in group II (CSNRT, 410 +/- 37 msec; SCL, 426 +/- 34 msec) than in group I (CSNRT, 717 +/- 52 msec, P < 0.005; SCL, 568 +/- 73 msec, P < 0.05). Both IF and AT of the SN were greater in group I (IF, 9.7 +/- 1.9%; AT, 32.6 +/- 5.9%) than in seven sham dogs (IF, 2.4 +/- 0.9%, P < 0.05; AT, 4.0 +/- 1.7%, P < 0.05) and in group II dogs (IF, 4.0 +/- 2.0%, P < 0.05; AT, 4.0 +/- 1.7%, P < 0.05). End-labeling assay was positive in three of nine dogs in group I, but negative in group II and sham dogs. CONCLUSIONS: Rapid atrial pacing impaired SN function through IF and AT of the SN. Enalapril prevented these pacing-induced degenerative changes and improved SN function.
No preview · Article · Nov 2005 · Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The electrocardiographic parameters relating occurrence of ventricular fibrillation (VF) episodes in patients with idiopathic VF (IVF) are still unknown. The aim of this study was to clarify efficacy of pharmacological therapy in patients with IVF with respect to repolarization dynamics. The study group consisted of 8 men (age 43.6 +/- 9.1 years) with IVF (Brugada type 5 patients, prominent J wave in the inferior leads 3 patients) who had documented spontaneous episodes of VF, 7 of whom had implantable cardioverter defibrillators. The relation between QT and RR interval was analyzed from 24-hour Holter ECG using an automatic analyzing system before and after pharmacological therapy (bepridil 5 and disopyramide 3). From QT-RR linear regression lines, QT intervals were determined at RR intervals of 0.6 second [QT(0.6)], 1.0 second [QT(1.0)], and 1.2 seconds [QT(1.2)]. Pharmacological therapy increased the slope of QT-RR regression line from 0.105 +/- 0.020 to 0.144 +/- 0.037 (P < 0.05). Accordingly, QT(1.0) and QT(1.2) became longer after drug therapy [QT(1.0), 0.382 +/- 0.016 seconds vs 0.414 +/- 0.016 seconds (P < 0.01); QT(1.2), 0.403 +/- 0.017 seconds vs 0.442 +/- 0.021 seconds (P < 0.01)]. However, QT(0.6) did not change after drug administration. Before drug therapy the average episodes of VF were 5.5 +/- 5.8 (range 1 to 17) during the observation period of 19.3 +/- 17.6 months (range 6 to 60 months). After drug therapy, 6 patients had no episode of VF for 24 to 120 months (66.0 +/- 38.5 months). Two patients had a single episode of VF for 12- and 96-month follow-ups. Pharmacological therapy decreased the frequency of VF episodes in association with prolongation of QT intervals at slower heart rates. Not only J wave and ST elevation but also shorter QT intervals at slower heart rates may represent an electrophysiological substrate for development of VF episodes in these specific IVF patients.
No preview · Article · Jun 2005 · Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate effects of enalapril on sinus node dysfunction associated with atrial fibrillation. Eighteen beagles were pretreated with placebo (Group-I, n=10) or enalapril 1mg/kg/day (Group-II, n=8). In group-I, 4 weeks of rapid atrial pacing prolonged corrected sinus node recovery time (CSNRT) in dogs without AV ablation (from 281.3 ± 27.8 to 811.3 ± 52.4 ms, p<0.05). Enalapril significantly shortened CSNRT (409.8 ± 37.2 ms, p<0.005) compared with Group-II by suppressing fibrosis around the sinus node (9.2 ± 9.1% v.s 2.2 ± 2.3%, p<0.05). These findings suggest the suppression of fibrosis around SN by enalapril may play an important role to preserve sinus node function in bradycardia-tachycardia syndrome.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: QT interval is influenced by preceding R-R intervals and autonomic nervous tone. Changes in QT intervals during vasovagal reflex might reflect autonomic modulation of ventricular repolarization; however, this issue has not been fully elucidated. This study aimed to evaluate dynamic response of QT interval to transient changes in R-R interval during vasovagal syncope (VVS) induced by head-up tilt test.
Eighteen patients with VVS and 18 age-and sex-matched controls were studied. All patients with VVS had a positive mixed-type response to head-up tilt and all controls had a negative response. CM5-lead digital electrocardiogram (ECG) was recorded and QT intervals were analyzed using Holter ECG analyzer. Using scatter plots of consecutive QT and the preceding R-R intervals, QT-R-R relations during tilt-up and tilt-back or during vasovagal reflex were independently fitted to an exponential curve: QT (second) = A + B x exp[k x R-R (second)].
During the tilt-up, A, B, and k did not differ between patients with VVS and controls. During the tilt back, k showed equivalent positive value compared to the tilt-up (4.1 +/- 1.3 vs -4.6 +/- 0.9) in controls. However, k remained negative (-1.3 +/- 1.5) during vasovagal reflex in patients with VVS. In six patients, in whom metoprolol was effective in eliminating VVS, QT-R-R relationship during the tilt-back became similar to that in controls.
In patients with VVS, hysteresis of the QT-R-R relation is similarly shown during tilt-up as in controls, whereas this hysteresis is no longer evident and failure of QT prolongation is observed during VVS.
No preview · Article · Feb 2005 · Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate whether drug-induced changes in fibrillation wave characteristics can predict pharmacological conversion of long lasting persistent atrial fibrillation (AF).
The study group comprised 23 consecutive patients with AF lasting > or =1 month. Patients first received bepridil (200 mg/day) for 2-4 weeks. When sinus rhythm was not restored with bepridil, oral aprindine (40 or 60 mg/day) was added to bepridil. Fast Fourier transform analysis of fibrillation waves using lead V1 was performed to calculate the fibrillation cycle length (FCL). The spectral areas were measured and the maximum area divided by the total area was termed the fibrillation organization index (FOI). Sinus rhythm was restored in 16 of 23 patients (70%); 8 of these 16 patients received only bepridil (Group I) and the other 8 responders received bepridil and aprindine (Group II). In Group I bepridil increased both FCL (p<0.001) and FOI (p<0.01) and terminated AF after 20+/-12 days. In Group II bepridil increased FCL (p<0.001), but did not change FOI. The addition of aprindine terminated AF in association with an increase in both FCL (p<0.005) and FOI (p<0.005) within 19+/-8 days. In the remaining 7 patients who did not have restoration of sinus rhythm, bepridil increased both FCL and FOI significantly, but less than in Group I, and the addition of aprindine did not further increase either of them. Chemical cardioversion of AF occurred in all patients with FCL > or =190 ms and FOI > or =45% after drug administration.
Bepridil alone or in combination with aprindine converted long lasting persistent AF in association with an increase in both FCL and FOI. The combination of FCL and FOI after drug administration is helpful in predicting chemical cardioversion of persistent AF.
No preview · Article · Dec 2004 · Circulation Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Myocardial cooling can induce J point elevation (Osborn wave) as seen on ECG of the Brugada syndrome by activating transient outward current (Ito) and causing a spike-and-dome configuration of the monophasic action potential (MAP) in the ventricular epicardium in isolated canine ventricular wedge preparations. We determined the effect of regional epicardial cooling of the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) on surface ECG and ventricular vulnerability in the dog.
In 12 dogs, a cooling device (20-mm diameter) was attached to the RVOT epicardium, and surface ECG, epicardial MAP, and endocardial MAP were recorded. Regional cooling (29.7 degrees C +/- 2.2 degrees C) elevated the J point from 0.05 +/- 0.06 mV to 0.12 +/- 0.11 mV and induced T wave inversion (from 0.02 +/- 0.12 mV to -0.27 +/- 0.20 mV) in lead V1 in association with "spike-and-dome" configuration of the epicardial MAP. Cooling prolonged MAP duration in the RVOT epicardium from 172 +/- 27 ms to 213 +/- 30 ms (P < 0.01) but not in the RV endocardium and increased transmural dispersion of MAP duration from 9 +/- 8 ms to 44 +/- 21 ms (P < 0.01). Cooling also prolonged the QT interval in lead V1 from 191 +/- 19 ms to 212 +/- 23 ms (P < 0.05), but not in lead V5, and increased spatial dispersion of QT interval from 7 +/- 5 ms to 20 +/- 10 ms (P < 0.01). QT interval in lead V1 correlated positively with MAP duration in the RVOT epicardium (r = 0.75). T wave amplitude in lead V1 correlated inversely with transmural dispersion of MAP duration in the RVOT (r =-0.74). Vagal nerve stimulation accentuated the cooling-induced changes. During cooling, ventricular fibrillation was induced by a single extrastimulus in 2 of 4 dogs, and additional vagal nerve stimulation during isoproterenol administration induced spontaneous ventricular fibrillation in one dog.
Localized epicardial cooling of the RVOT could be an in vivo experimental model of Brugada syndrome.
No preview · Article · Aug 2004 · Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine using entrainment mapping whether the reentrant circuit of common type atrial flutter (AFL) is single loop or dual loop.
In 12 consecutive patients with counterclockwise (CCW) AFL, entrainment mapping was performed with evaluation of atrial electrograms from the tricuspid annulus (TA) and the posterior right atrial (RA) area. We hypothesized that a dual-loop reentry could be surmised from "paradoxical delayed capture" of the proximal part of the circuit having a longer interval from the stimulus to the captured beat compared with the distal part of the circuit. In 6 of 12 patients with CCW AFL, during entrainment from the septal side of the posterior blocking line, the interval from the stimulus to the last captured beat was longer at the RA free wall than at the isthmus position. In these six patients with paradoxical delayed capture, flutter cycle length (FCL) was 227 +/- 12 ms and postpacing interval minus FCL was significantly shorter at the posterior blocking line than at the RA free wall (20 +/- 11 ms vs 48 +/- 33 ms, P < 0.05). In two of these patients, early breakthrough occurred at the lateral TA. A posterior block line was confirmed in all six patients in the sinus venosa area by intracardiac echocardiography.
Half of the patients with common type AFL had a dual-loop macroreentrant circuit consisting of an anterior loop (circuit around the TA) and a posterior loop (circuit around the inferior vena cava and the posterior blocking line).
No preview · Article · Jun 2004 · Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In Brugada syndrome, ventricular fibrillation (VF) occurs mainly during sleep, and Brugada ECG signs are intensified by parasympathomimetic drugs; therefore, vagal activity could be a precipitating factor of VF. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the relation between spontaneous augmentation of ST elevation and changes in autonomic nervous activities in the daily life of patients with Brugada syndrome.
Twenty-three consecutive patients with Brugada syndrome were studied. Group VF(+) consisted of 7 symptomatic patients and 3 asymptomatic patients with inducible VF; group VF(-) consisted of 13 asymptomatic patients without documented or inducible VF. Two-channel unipolar lead (V(1) and V(2)) Holter ECG was recorded. Heart rate variability was analyzed by the maximum entropy method. Spontaneous augmentation of ST elevation (>/=1.5 mm/20 min) occurred more frequently during 24 hours in group VF(+) than in group VF(-) (5.7 +/- 2.5 times vs 2.3 +/- 2.4 times, P < 0.01). ST elevation was significantly greater in group VF(+) than in group VF(-) (2.1 +/- 0.2 mm vs 1.8 +/- 0.2 mm, P < 0.05). Power of the high-frequency component (HF: 0.15-0.4 Hz) and RR interval increased progressively, and the ratio of low-frequency component (LF; 0.04- 0.15 Hz) to high-frequency component (LF/HF) gradually decreased toward the time of maximum ST elevation. During an entire day, daytime (0-5 P.M.), and nighttime (0-5 A.M.), both HF and LF/HF were not different between groups VF(+) and VF(-).
In Brugada syndrome, spontaneous augmentation of ST elevation in daily life occurred along with an increase in vagal activity. ST elevation was augmented more in patients with VF than in those without VF under similar vagal tone.
No preview · Article · Jun 2004 · Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Effects of enalapril on a canine model of atrial pacing-induced atrial fibrillation (AF) with rapid ventricular responses were determined.
Four weeks of atrial rapid pacing was performed on twenty-four beagles pretreated with placebo (Group I, n = 14) or enalapril 1 mg/kg (Group II, n = 10). Atrial effective refractory period (ERP), P-wave width, duration of AF, and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) were evaluated every week. AF cycle length was determined by spectral analyses of fibrillation waves. Quantitative analysis of histology was added.
After 4 weeks of pacing, P-wave width was longer in Group I than in Group II, and the duration of induced AF was significantly longer in Group I (59.6 +/- 66.3 seconds) than in Group II (3.6 +/- 3.4 seconds, P < 0.05). AF cycle length was longer in Group I than in Group II despite similar shortening of atrial ERP. Mean ventricular rate during rapid atrial pacing was not different between the two groups. LVEF similarly decreased in both groups. Interstitial fibrosis and expression of connexin43 was greater in Group I than in Group II (interstitial fibrosis, 9.2 +/- 8.4 versus 1.9 +/- 2.1%, P < 0.05; connexin43, 5.3 +/- 2.2 versus 1.1 +/- 1.1%, P < 0.05).
Enalapril suppressed atrial pacing-induced AF with tachycardia-mediated cardiomyopathy by suppressing interstitial fibrosis, connexin43 over-expression and conduction delay.
No preview · Article · Jun 2004 · Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated the characteristics of QT-RR and QaT (apex of T wave)-RR relationships in patients with idiopathic ventricular fibrillation (IVF) compared with control subjects. We hypothesized that IVF patients have unique repolarization dynamics related to a reduced fast Na current and a prominent transient outward current.
The study group consisted of 9 men (age 47 +/- 10 years) with IVF (6 with Brugada type and 3 with non-Brugada type) who had experienced nocturnal episodes of VF. The control group consisted of 28 healthy age-matched men (age 44 +/- 12 years). The relationships between QT and RR intervals and between QaT and RR intervals were analyzed from 24-hour Holter ECG data using an automatic measurement system. Both QT and QaT at RR intervals of 0.6, 1.0, and 1.2 seconds were determined from QT-RR and QaT-RR linear regression lines. Both QT-RR and QaT-RR slopes were lower in the IVF group than in the control group (QT-RR: 0.092 +/- 0.023 vs 0.137 +/- 0.031, P < 0.001; QaT-RR: 0.109 +/- 0.025 vs 0.153 +/- 0.028, P < 0.001). QT at an RR interval of 0.6 second did not differ between two groups, but QT at RR intervals of either 1.0 or 1.2 seconds was significantly shorter in the IVF group than in the control group (RR 1.0 s: 0.384 +/- 0.018 vs 0.399 +/- 0.017, P < 0.05; RR 1.2 s: 0.402 +/- 0.019 vs 0.426 +/- 0.020, P < 0.01). QaT at RR intervals of either 1.0 or 1.2 seconds also was shorter in the IVF group (RR 1.0 s: 0.289 +/- 0.022 vs 0.312 +/- 0.021, P < 0.01; RR 1.2 s: 0.311 +/- 0.024 vs 0.343 +/- 0.024, P < 0.01). In four patients, oral administration of disopyramide (300 mg/day) was effective in suppressing VF episodes and increased slopes of QT-RR and QaT-RR relationships.
IVF patients had lower slopes of QT-RR and QaT-RR regression lines and impaired prolongation of QT and QaT at longer RR intervals compared with control subjects. These unique repolarization dynamics may be related to the frequent occurrence of VF episodes at night.
No preview · Article · Feb 2004 · Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of bepridil (a multichannel blocker including several potassium channels) for conversion of long-lasting atrial fibrillation (AF). Bepridil restored sinus rhythm alone or in combination with aprindine in 69% of 32 patients with persistent AF lasting > or = 3 months. The time to conversion after starting bepridil was 30 +/- 12 days. An increase in fibrillation cycle length with bepridil was greater in responders (31 +/- 10%), but an increase in QTc did not differ between responders and nonresponders. Bepridil is effective and safe for terminating long-lasting persistent AF.
No preview · Article · Sep 2003 · The American Journal of Cardiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 51-year-old man was admitted for evaluation of palpitation and syncope. Electrocardiography showed right bundle branch block with ST segment elevation. Intravenous administration of pilsicainide(50 mg) converted the saddle-back type into coved type ST elevation. Ventricular fibrillation was induced with double extrastimuli applied to the right ventricular outflow tract. His identical younger twin had neither symptoms nor abnormality by electrocardiography. Intravenous administration of pilsicainide(50 mg) induced no significant changes in the younger twin. Although SCN5A mutation is considered to be associated with Brugada syndrome, the present results suggest that the genetic factor is not the only factor responsible for the pathogenesis of Brugada syndrome.
No preview · Article · Oct 2002 · Journal of Cardiology