[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 3D carbon nanotube (CNT)-based macrostructures are the subject of extensive attention because the outstanding properties of 1D and 2D nanostructures have not been fully translated into key engineering applications. Generation of 3D CNT architectures with covalent junctions could endow the new materials with extraordinary mechanical properties. In this study, detailed experimental characterization and statistical comparison are carried out on 3D boron-doped multiwalled CNT (CBxMWNT) sponges with covalent junctions and undoped multiwalled CNT (undoped-MWNT) sponges without junctions. By investigating the plastic, elastic, viscoelastic, and dynamic viscoelastic properties of both sponges, as well as the dependency of these mechanical properties on material morphology, the CBxMWNT sponge is found to be a more predictable and stable material than the undoped-MWNT sponge. Statistical comparison proves that the excellent properties of the CBxMWNT are attributed to its "elbow-like" junctions inside the 3D networks, which prevent permanent buckling and bundling of the CNTs under extreme loading. Thus, by optimizing the covalent junctions in 3D CNT sponges, their functional behavior can be controlled and regulated. These findings may promote applications of 3D CNT sponges in various fields, including biomedical or high-precision devices in which lightweight, controllable, and reliable mechanical properties are always desirable.
No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Particle and Particle Systems Characterization
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Graphene films fabricated by chemical vapor deposition are promising electrode materials for stretchable energy storage devices. The buckled four-layer graphene on a polydimethylsiloxane film substrate subject to various applied tensile strains has been characterized by atomic force microscopy and micro-Raman mapping. The small redshift of 2D band and the indiscernible D band demonstrated that the tensile strains of up to 40% only induced a strain variation of 0.2% and did not cause any observable damage in the graphene film. This study has confirmed that the graphene film in the buckled state is suitable for its application as a stretchable electrode.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To expand the applications of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) at macroscale, a heteroatom doping technique has been employed to fabricate isotropic 3-D CNT architectures by inducing elbow-like covalent junctions into multiwalled CNTs. As the junctions modify the topology of each CNT by favoring the stable bends in CNTs, junction stiffness and the consequence of junction-related morphology changes in sponge's hyperelasticity remain largely elusive. In this study, two types of 3-D multiwalled CNT sponges were fabricated by inducing boron-doped or nitrogen-doped covalent junctions into CNTs. Hyperelastic properties of the sponges were experimentally quantified as the functions of CNT morphology. A novel microstructure informed continuum constitutive law was developed specifically for such isotropic CNT sponges with junctions. Analyzing the experimental data with the new theory demonstrated that, for the first time, the effective modulus of boron-doped junctions (∼100 GPa) is higher than that of nitrogen-doped junctions (∼20 GPa), and the junction stiffness is a key factor in regulating the hyperelastic compressive modulus of the material. Theoretical analysis further revealed that increased number of junctions and shorter segments on each individual CNT chain would result in stronger hyperelastic 3-D CNT networks. This study has established a fundamental knowledge base to provide guidance for the future design and fabrication of 3-D CNT macrostructures.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The local buckling behavior of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) has been investigated and interpreted in the view of collective nanotube response by taking van der Waals interactions into account. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the case of collective VACNT behavior regarding van der Waals force among nanotubes as lateral support effect during buckling process. The local buckling propagation and developing of VACNTs were experimentally observed and theoretically analyzed by employing finite element modeling with lateral support from van der Waals interaction among nanotubes. Both experimental and theoretical analysis show that VACNTs buckled in the bottom region with many short waves and almost identical wave length, indicating a high mode buckling. Furthermore, the propagation and developing mechanism of buckling waves follow the wave damping effect.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Different chemical vapour deposition (CVD) fabrication conditions lead to a wide range of variation in the microstructure and morphologies of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), which actually determine the compressive mechanical properties of CNTs. However, the underlying relationship between the structure/morphology and mechanical properties of CNTs is not fully understood. In this study, we characterized and compared the structural and morphological properties of three kinds of vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT) arrays from different CVD fabrication methods and performed monotonic compressive tests for each VACNT array. The compressive stress–strain responses and plastic deformation were first compared and analyzed with nanotube buckling behaviours. To quantify the compressive properties of the VACNT arrays, a strain density energy function was used to determine their intrinsic material constants. Then, the structural and morphological effects on the quantified material constants of the VACNTs were statistically investigated and analogized to cellular materials with an open-cell model. The statistical analysis shows that density, defect degree, and the moment of inertia of the CNTs are key factors in the improvement of the compressive mechanical properties of VACNT arrays. This approach could allow a model-driven CNT synthesis for engineering their mechanical behaviours.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Current additive manufacturing methods present the potential to construct net-shape structures with complicated architectures, thus eliminating the need for multi-step processing and fasteners/joints. Combined with these features is the ability to ascribe material properties at the sub-millimeter scale, inspiring multi-material, functionally graded designs. These features make additive manufacturing an attractive option for composite materials development. In an effort to extend this family of technologies beyond nano- and micro-composites, we explore the additive manufacture of multi-directional composite preforms. This exercise has served to highlight the aspects of additive manufacturing critical to composite and general materials processing, as well as to demonstrate the high fidelity between modeled and additively manufactured structures. Within the scope of composites development, we review the state-of-the-art and discuss challenges facing the broad adoption of additive manufacturing for directionally reinforced composites processing.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently, carbon materials such as carbon nanotubes and graphene have been proposed as alternatives to indium tin oxide (ITO) for fabricating transparent conducting materials. However, the low sheet resistance and high transmittance of these carbon materials have been challenged due to the intrinsic properties of the materials. In this paper, we introduce highly transparent and flexible conductive films based on a hybrid structure of graphene and an Ag-grid. Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) jet printing was used to produce a micro-scale grid consisting of Ag lines less than 10 μm wide. We were able to directly write the Ag-grid on a large-area graphene/flexible substrate due to the high conductivity of graphene. The hybrid electrode could be fabricated using hot pressing transfer and EHD jet printing under a non-vacuum, maskless, and low-temperature environment. The hybrid electrode offers an effective and simple route to achieving a sheet resistance as low as ~4 Ω/square with ~78% optical transmittance. Finally, we demonstrate that transparent flexible heaters based on the hybrid conductive films could be used in a vehicle or smart window system.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Portable energy storage devices have gained special attention due to the growing demand for portable electronics. Herein an all-solid-state supercapacitor is successfully fabricated based on a polyvinyl alcohol-H3PO4 (PVA-H3PO4) polymer electrolyte and a reduced graphene oxide (RGO) membrane electrode prepared by electrophoretic deposition (EPD). The RGO electrode fabricated by EPD process contains an in-plane layer-by-layer alignment and a moderate porosity that accommodate the electrolyte ions. The all-solid-state RGO supercapacitor is thoroughly tested to give high specific volumetric capacitance (108 F cm-3) and excellent energy and power densities (7.5 Wh cm-3 and 2.9 W cm-3). In addition, the all-solid-state RGO supercapacitor exhibits an ultra-long lifetime for as long as 180 days (335,000 cycles), which is an ultra-high cycling capability for a solid-state supercapacitor. The RGO is also tested for being used as a transparent supercapacitor electrode demonstrating its possible use in various transparent optoelectronic devices. Due to the facile scale-up capability of the EPD process and RGO dispersion, the developed all-solid-state supercapacitor is highly applicable to large-area portable energy storage devices.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thermal management to prevent extreme heat surge in integrated electronic systems and nuclear reactors is a critical issue. To delay the thermal surge on the heater effectively, we report the benefit of a three dimensional nanotubular porous layer via noncovalent interactions (hydrophobic forces and hydrogen bonds). To observe the contribution of individual noncovalent interactions in a porous network formation, pristine carbon nanotubes (PCNTs) and oxidatively functionalized carbon nanotubes (FCNTs) were compared. Hydrogen-bonded interwoven nanotubular porous layer showed approximately two times critical heat flux (CHF) increase compared to that of a plain surface. It is assumed that the hydrophilic group-tethered nanotubular porous wicks and enhanced fluidity are the main causes for promoting the CHF increase. Reinforced hydrophilicity assists liquid spreading and capillarity-induced liquid pumping, which are estimated by using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy. Also, shear induced thermal conduction, thermal boundary reduction, and rheology of nanoparticles could attribute to CHF enhancement phenomena.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Scientific Reports
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A composite membrane for fuel cell applications was prepared by incorporating custom-made graphene oxide (GO) in Nafion resin. The GO was used to provide mechanical reinforcement to Nafion. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed the formation of highly crystalline and individually-dispersed graphene oxide sheets. Tensile strength, water uptake, swelling, proton conductivity and electrical conductivity of the composite membranesweremeasured and comparedwith pureNafion. The polarization curves indicated that the fuel cell performance of the 3wt% GO/Nafion composite membrane was similar to that of the pure Nafion membrane, but the composite membrane was superior to Nafion in terms of mechanical properties.
Preview · Article · Oct 2014 · ECS Electrochemistry Letters
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This article describes the use of a combination of experimental nanoindentation and finite element numerical simulations to indirectly determine the elastic modulus of individual porous, micron-sized silica (SiO2) particles. Two independent nanoindentation experiments on individual silica particles were employed, one with a Berkovich pyramidal nanoindenter tip, the other with a flat punch nanoindenter tip. In both cases, 3D finite element simulations were used to generate nanoindenter load–displacement curves for comparison with the corresponding experimental data, using the elastic modulus of the particle as a curve-fitting parameter. The resulting indirectly determined modulus values from the two independent experiments were found to be in good agreement, and were considerably lower than the published values for bulk or particulate solid silica. The results are also consistent with previously reported modulus values for nanoindentation of porous thin film SiO2. Based on a review of the literature, the authors believe that this is the first article to report on the use of nanoindentation and numerical simulations in a combined experimental/numerical approach to determine the elastic modulus of individual porous silica particles.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Particulate Science And Technology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interfacial shear strength (IFSS) between particle and matrix in particulate polymer composites is a critical property in determining the mechanical behaviors since it is directly related to not only their Young’s modulus or specific strength, but also energy absorbing capability. However, the conventional techniques often present a technical challenge to accurately measure the IFSS between fillers and matrix in the composites. This is more apparent in graphene particulate composites due to their nano-scale dimensions as well as the platelet-shaped geometry. Here, the focus of this study is to use a semi-empirical approach to determine the IFSS of graphene particulate composites by combining experiments with finite element (FE) modeling. The materials of interest are reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and polycarbonate (PC). The tensile testing was performed to characterize the mechanical properties, while simultaneously monitoring the acoustic emission events in order to measure the global debonding stress (GDS) in the composites. By coupling thermal stress analysis and deformation analysis with the GDS as input to a FE model, the IFSS of the RGO particulate PC composites was successfully estimated by about 136 MPa, avoiding unnecessary assumptions and uncertainties which are seem to be inevitable with the conventional techniques for the IFSS measurement.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This comparative study investigates the mechanical properties of polycarbonate in manufacturing conditions of different cooling speed. All experiments were conducted using 0.8 mm thick specimens made of commercial Polycarbonate granule (3 mm), according to the ASTM standard. The test results illustrate that polycarbonate specimens manufactured in fast-cooling (FC) condition exhibit at least five times higher resilience in ambient temperature than those of slow-cooling (SC) condition. However, the resilience of FC polycarbonate specimen quickly deteriorates, as the test temperature reduces to negative 40 °C. On the other hand, SC specimens barely changed their tensile properties. Thus, the test reveals that tensile properties of polycarbonate are significantly affected by the cooling speed in the manufacturing stage, and exposed temperature conditions. In this manuscript, the correlations between toughness and yield strength of polycarbonate specimen are summarized and discussed in terms of the cooling conditions and environmental temperature.
No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Due to their exceptional flexibility and transparency, CVD graphene films have been regarded as an ideal replacement of indium tin oxide for transparent electrodes, especially in applications where electronic devices may be subjected to large tensile strain. However, the search for a desirable combination of stretchability and electrochemical performance of such devices remains a huge challenge. Here, we demonstrate the implementation of a laminated ultrathin CVD graphene film as a stretchable and transparent electrode for supercapacitors. Transferred and buckled on PDMS substrates by a prestraininig-then-buckling strategy, the 4-layer graphene films maintained its outstanding quality, as evidenced by Raman spectra. Optical transmittance of up to 72.9% at a wavelength of 550 nm and stretchability of 40% were achieved. As the tensile strain increased up to 40%, the specific capacitance showed no degradation and even increased slightly. Furthermore, the supercapacitor demonstrated excellent frequency capability with small time constants under stretching.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Graphene oxide (GO) has recently become an attractive building block for fabricating graphene-based functional materials. GO films and fibers have been prepared mainly by vacuum filtration and wet spinning. These materials exhibit relatively high Young's moduli but low toughness and a high tendency to tear or break. Here, we report an alternative method, using bar coating and drying of water/GO dispersions, for preparing large area GO thin films (e.g. 800-1200 cm(2) or larger) with an outstanding mechanical behavior and excellent tear resistance. These dried films were subsequently scrolled to prepare GO fibers with extremely large elongation to fracture (up to 76 %), high toughness (up to 17 J/m(3)) and attractive macroscopic properties, such as uniform circular cross section, smooth surface, and great knotability. This method is simple and after thermal reduction of the GO material, it can render highly electrically conducting graphene-based fibers with values up to 416 S/cm at room temperature. In this context, GO fibers annealed at 2000 °C were also successfully used as electron field emitters operating at low turn on voltages of ca. 0.48 V/μm and high current densities (5.3 A/cm(2)). Robust GO fibers and large-area films with fascinating architectures and outstanding mechanical and electrical properties were prepared bar coating followed by dry film scrolling.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The high Young's modulus and tensile strength of carbon nanotubes has attracted great attention from the research community given the potential for developing super-strong, super-stiff composites with carbon nanotube reinforcements. Over the decades, the strength and stiffness of carbon nanotube-reinforced polymer nanocomposites have been researched extensively. However, unfortunately, such strong composite materials have not been developed yet. It has been reported that the efficiency of load transfer in such systems is critically dependent on the quality of adhesion between the nanotubes and the polymer chains. In addition, the waviness and orientation of the nanotubes embedded in a matrix reduce the reinforcement effectiveness. In this study, we carried out performed micromechanics-based numerical modeling and analysis by varying the geometry of carbon nanotubes including their aspect ratio, orientation, and waviness. The results of this analysis allow for a better understanding of the load transfer capabilities of carbon nanotube-reinforced polymer composites.
Preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B