[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent progress in cancer biology research has shown that abnormal proliferation in tumor cells can be attributed to aberrations in cell cycle regulation, especially in G₁ phase. During the course of searching for microbial metabolites that affect cell cycle distribution, we have found that simaomicin α, a polycyclic xanthone antibiotic, arrests the cell cycle at G₁ phase. Treatment of T-cell leukemia Jurkat cells with 3 nM simaomicin α induced an increase in the number of cells in G₁ and a decrease in those in G₂–M phase. Cell cycle aberrations induced by simaomicin α were also detected in colon adenocarcinoma HCT15 cells. Simaomicin α had antiproliferative activities in various tumor cell lines with 50% inhibitory concentration values in the range of 0.3–19 nM. Furthermore, simaomicin α induced an increase in cellular caspase-3 activity and DNA fragmentation, indicating that simaomicin α promotes apoptosis. The retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation status of simaomicin α-treated cell lysate was lower than that of control cells, suggesting that the target molecule of simaomicin α is in a pathway upstream of retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation. In the course of evaluating polycyclic xanthone antibiotics structurally related to simaomicin α, we also found that cervinomycin A1 stimulated accumulation of treated cells in G₁ phase. These results indicate that the polycyclic xanthones, including simaomicin α and cervinomycin A1, may be candidate cancer chemotherapeutic agents.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the effect of gadolinium (Gd) on the expression of several forms of cytochrome P450 (P450s) and antioxidant enzymes, we treated rats with gadolinium chloride (25 mg as Gd/kg body weight) 4 h after styrene (a multiple P450 inducer) treatment (600 mg/kg). Gd treatment significantly suppressed styrene-inducible cytochrome P4502B1 (CYP2B1), CYP2B2, CYP2E1, and CYP3A2 mRNA expressions to 48.6%, 69.8%, 61.1%, and 38.5%, accompanying with the reduction of proteins expression to 1.42%, 31.2%, 21.1% and 21.1%, respectively, compared with styrene alone treatment. Gd suppressed styrene-inducible CYP1A2 expression, but only at the protein level. On the other hand, styrene treatment caused a decrease in reduced form of glutathione (GSH), as well as increases in lipid peroxide and serum ALT and AST activities, suggesting the occurrence of hepatic damage probably due to styrene-induced oxidative stress in rat liver. Post-treatment of Gd attenuated this styrene-caused hepatic damage. Moreover, mRNA expressions of cellular antioxidant enzymes such as catalase, CuZn-superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) were hardly changed by styrene and/or Gd treatment. In summary, Gd suppressed styrene-inducible expression of not only CYP2B1 but also several forms of P450 at both the mRNA and protein levels, along with attenuation of styrene-caused liver damage. These findings suggested that Gd is a chemo-preventive agent against hepatic damage caused by xenobiotics requiring biotransformation.
No preview · Article · Jan 2009 · Biomedical Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated tissue changes associated with cerium chloride administration via gavage to adult mice, via milk to neonatal mice and transplacentally to fetal mice. Change in adults consisted of extensive pulmonary hemorrhage, pulmonary venous congestion, thickened alveolar septae, hepatic necrosis and neutrophil infiltrations. Those in fetal mice consisted of pulmonary and hepatic congestion. These results indicate that gavage cerium administration elicited subtle tissue changes, though oral toxicity is rather low. These changes were less severe in neonatal and fetal mice. When cerium was injected into adult mice through the tail vein, cerium was distributed mainly to the liver, spleen and lung dose-dependently with the cerium concentration gradually decreasing after 3 days. A study of cerium anticoagulation in mouse plasma showed that clotting time was significantly prolonged when cerium was added to plasma. These results suggest that cerium may disturb blood coagulation and cause pulmonary and hepatic vascular congestion.
No preview · Article · Feb 2008 · Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology