[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The genome of pathogenic Leptospira interrogans contains two chromosomes. Plasmids and prophages are known to play specific roles in gene transfer in bacteria and can potentially serve as efficient genetic tools in these organisms. Although plasmids and prophage remnants have recently been reported in Leptospira species, their characteristics and potential applications in leptospiral genetic transformation systems have not been fully evaluated.
Three extrachromosomal replicons designated lcp1 (65,732 bp), lcp2 (56,757 bp), and lcp3 (54,986 bp) in the L. interrogans serovar Linhai strain 56609 were identified through whole genome sequencing. All three replicons were stable outside of the bacterial chromosomes. Phage particles were observed in the culture supernatant of 56609 after mitomycin C induction, and lcp3, which contained phage-related genes, was considered to be an inducible prophage. L. interrogans-Escherichia coli shuttle vectors, constructed with the predicted replication elements of single rep or rep combined with parAB loci from the three plasmids were shown to successfully transform into both saprophytic and pathogenic Leptospira species, suggesting an essential function for rep genes in supporting auto-replication of the plasmids. Additionally, a wide distribution of homologs of the three rep genes was identified in L. interrogans isolates, and correlation tests showed that the transformability of the shuttle vectors in L. interrogans isolates depended, to certain extent, on genetic compatibility between the rep sequences of both plasmid and host.
Three extrachromosomal replicons co-exist in L. interrogans, one of which we consider to be an inducible prophage. The vectors constructed with the rep genes of the three replicons successfully transformed into saprophytic and pathogenic Leptospira species alike, but this was partly dependent on genetic compatibility between the rep sequences of both plasmid and host.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Leptospirosis, caused by pathogenic Leptospira, is a worldwide zoonotic infection. The genus Leptospira includes at least 21 species clustered into three groups-pathogens, non-pathogens, and intermediates-based on 16S rRNA phylogeny. Research on Leptospira is difficult due to slow growth and poor transformability of the pathogens. Recent identification of extrachromosomal elements besides the two chromosomes in L. interrogans has provided new insight into genome complexity of the genus Leptospira. The large size, low copy number, and high similarity of the sequence of these extrachromosomal elements with the chromosomes present challenges in isolating and detecting them without careful genome assembly. In this study, two extrachromosomal elements were identified in L. borgpetersenii serovar Ballum strain 56604 through whole genome assembly combined with S1 nuclease digestion following pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (S1-PFGE) analysis. Further, extrachromosomal elements in additional 15 Chinese epidemic strains of Leptospira, comprising L. borgpetersenii, L. weilii, and L. interrogans, were successfully separated and identified, independent of genome sequence data. Southern blot hybridization with extrachromosomal element-specific probes, designated as lcp1, lcp2 and lcp3-rep, further confirmed their occurrences as extrachromosomal elements. In total, 24 plasmids were detected in 13 out of 15 tested strains, among which 11 can hybridize with the lcp1-rep probe and 11 with the lcp2-rep probe, whereas two can hybridize with the lcp3-rep probe. None of them are likely to be species-specific. Blastp search of the lcp1, lcp2, and lcp3-rep genes with a nonredundant protein database of Leptospira species genomes showed that their homologous sequences are widely distributed among clades of pathogens but not non-pathogens or intermediates. These results suggest that the plasmids are widely distributed in Leptospira species, and further elucidation of their biological significance might contribute to our understanding of biology and infectivity of pathogenic spirochetes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Here, we present the first report of one suspected dead case and two confirmed rapid-onset fatal infections caused by a newly emerging hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae ST86 strain of serotype K2. The three cases occurred in a surgery ward during 2013 in Shanghai, China. A combination of multilocus sequence typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, phenotypic and PCR tests for detecting virulence factors (VFs) was used to identify the isolates as K2 ST86 strains with common VFs, including Aerobactin and rmpA. Furthermore, the two K2 ST86 strains additionally harbored a distinct VF kfu (responsible for iron uptake system), which commonly existed in invasive K1 strains only. Thus, the unusual presence of both K1 and K2 VFs in the lethal ST86 strain might further enhance its hypervirulence and cause rapid onset of a life-threatening infection. Nevertheless, despite the administration of a combined antibiotic treatment, these three patients all died within 24 h of acute onset, thereby highlighting that the importance of early diagnosis to determine whether the ST86 strains harbor key K2 VF and unusual K1 kfu and whether patients should receive a timely and targeted antibiotic therapy to prevent ST86 induced fatal pneumonia. Finally, even though these patients are clinically improved, keeping on with oral antibiotic treatment for additional 2-3 weeks will be also vital for successfully preventing hvKP reinfection or relapse.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Frontiers in Microbiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clostridium difficile and C. sordellii are two anaerobic, spore forming, gram positive pathogens with a broad host range and the ability to cause lethal infections. Despite strong similarities between the two Clostridial strains, differences in their host tissue preference place C. difficile infections in the gastrointestinal tract and C. sordellii infections in soft tissues.
In this study, to improve our understanding of C. sordellii and C. difficile virulence and pathogenesis, we have performed a comparative genomic and phenomic analysis of the two. The global phenomes of C. difficile and C. sordellii were compared using Biolog Phenotype microarrays. When compared to C. difficile, C. sordellii was found to better utilize more complex sources of carbon and nitrogen, including peptides. Phenotype microarray comparison also revealed that C. sordellii was better able to grow in acidic pH conditions. Using next generation sequencing technology, we determined the draft genome of C. sordellii strain 8483 and performed comparative genome analysis with C. difficile and other Clostridial genomes. Comparative genome analysis revealed the presence of several enzymes, including the urease gene cluster, specific to the C. sordellii genome that confer the ability of expanded peptide utilization and survival in acidic pH.
The identified phenotypes of C. sordellii might be important in causing wound and vaginal infections respectively. Proteins involved in the metabolic differences between C. sordellii and C. difficile should be targets for further studies aimed at understanding C. difficile and C. sordellii infection site specificity and pathogenesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Leptospirosis is one of the most important neglected tropical infectious diseases worldwide. Icterohaemorrhagiae has been throughout recent history, and still is, the predominant serogroup of this pathogen in China. However, very little in detail is known about the serovars or genotypes of this serogroup.
In this study, 120 epidemic strains from five geographically diverse regions in China collected over a 50 year period (1958~2008), and 8 international reference strains characterized by 16S rRNA sequencing and MLST analysis. 115, 11 and 2 strains were identified as L. interrogans, L. borgpetersenii, and L. kirschneri, respectively. 17 different STs were identified including 69 ST1 strains, 18 ST17, 18 ST128, 9 ST143 and 2 ST209. The remaining 12 strains belonged to 12 different STs. eBURST analysis demonstrated that, among the clonal complexes isolated (CCs), CC1 accounted for 73.3% (88/120) strains representing three STs: ST1, ST128 and ST98. ST1 was the most likely ancestral strain of this CC, followed by singleton CC17 (17/120) and CC143 (11/120). Further analysis of adding 116 serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae strains in the MLST database and studies previously described using global eBURST analysis and MST dendrogram revealed relatively similar ST clustering patterns with five main CCs and 8 singletons among these 244 strains. CC17 was found to be the most prevalent clone of pathogenic Leptospira circulating worldwide. This is the first time, to our knowledge, that ST1 and ST17 strains were distributed among 4 distinct serovars, indicating a highly complicated relationship between serovars and STs.
Our studies demonstrated a high level of genetic diversity in the serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae strains. Distinct from ST17 or ST37 circulating elsewhere, ST1 included in CC1, has over the past 50 years or so, proven to be the most prevalent ST of pathogenic leptospires isolated in China. Moreover, the complicated relationship between STs and serovars indicates an urgent need to develop an improved scheme for Leptospira serotyping.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In China, Leptospira interrogans serovar Lai strain 56601 (str.56601) is one of main pathogenic strains that cause severe leptospirosis in both human and animals. The genome of this organism
was completely sequenced in 2003. However, in 2011, we identified and corrected some assembly errors in the str.56601 genome due to the repeat sequences widely distributed in the Leptospira genome. In this study, we re-analyzed the previously reported mobile, phage-related genomic island in the chromosome and
rectified detailed sequence information in both the plasmid and chromosome using various experimental methods. The presence
of a separate circular extrachromosomal plasmid was also confirmed, and its location in the genomic region was determined
relative to the genomic island reported in L. interrogans serovar Lai by a combination of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis -based and plasmid extraction-based Southern blot analysis.
This report confirmed that the separate extrachromosomal circular plasmid is not integrated into the chromosome of L. interrogans str.56601 and markedly improved our understanding of the genomic organization, evolution, and pathogenesis of L. interrogans. In particular, characterization of this extrachromosomal circular plasmid will contribute to the development of genetic
manipulation systems in pathogenic Leptospira species.
No preview · Article · May 2014 · Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Leptospirosis is one of the most important zoonoses. Leptospira interrogans serovar Lai is a pathogenic spirochete that is responsible for leptospirosis. Extracellular proteins play an important role in the pathogenicity of this bacterium. In this study, L. interrogans serovar Lai was grown in protein-free medium; the supernatant was collected and subsequently analyzed as the extracellular proteome. A total of 66 proteins with more than two unique peptides were detected by MS/MS, and 33 of these were predicted to be extracellular proteins by a combination of bioinformatics analyses, including Psortb, cello, SoSuiGramN and SignalP. Comparisons of the transcriptional levels of these 33 genes between in vivo and in vitro conditions revealed that 15 genes were upregulated and two genes were downregulated in vivo compared to in vitro. A BLAST search for the components of secretion system at the genomic and proteomic levels revealed the presence of the complete type I secretion system and type II secretion system in this strain. Moreover, this strain also exhibits complete Sec translocase and Tat translocase systems. The extracellular proteome analysis of L. interrogans will supplement the previously generated whole proteome data and provide more information for studying the functions of specific proteins in the infection process and for selecting candidate molecules for vaccines or diagnostic tools for leptospirosis.
No preview · Article · Jul 2013 · Omics: a journal of integrative biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Klebsiella pneumoniae is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae, opportunistic pathogens that are among the eight most prevalent infectious agents in hospitals. The emergence of multidrug-resistant
strains of K. pneumoniae has became a public health problem globally. To develop an effective antimicrobial agent, we isolated a bacteriophage, named
JD001, from seawater and sequenced its genome. Comparative genome analysis of phage JD001 with other K. pneumoniae bacteriophages revealed that phage JD001 has little similarity to previously published K. pneumoniae phages KP15, KP32, KP34, and phiKO2. Here we announce the complete genome sequence of JD001 and report major findings from
the genomic analysis.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2012 · Journal of Virology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are one of several potential antibacterial agents in the current era of antibiotics facing severe challenges. In this study, the bactericidal activity and stability of two eukaryotic AMPs were determined. Both AMPs showed specific antibacterial activity in a HEK293T cell model infected with meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The recombinant eukaryotic AMP pVAX1/hBD3-CBD showed better bactericidal activity and stability than the eukaryotic AMP pVAX1/hBD3. These results illustrate that this peptide, designed and used with eukaryotic expression and recombinant methods, should be studied and applied in further AMP research and trials.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2012 · International journal of antimicrobial agents
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The virulence-attenuated Leptospira interrogans serovar Lai strain IPAV was derived by prolonged laboratory passage from a highly virulent ancestral strain isolated in China. We studied the genetic variations of IPAV that render it avirulent via comparative analysis against the pathogenic L. interrogans serovar Lai strain 56601. The complete genome sequence of the IPAV strain was determined and used to compare with, and then rectify and reannotate the genome sequence of strain 56601. Aside from their highly similar genomic structure and gene order, a total of 33 insertions, 53 deletions and 301 single-nucleotide variations (SNVs) were detected throughout the genome of IPAV directly affecting 101 genes, either in their 5' upstream region or within their coding region. Among them, the majority of the 44 functional genes are involved in signal transduction, stress response, transmembrane transport and nitrogen metabolism. Comparative proteomic analysis based on quantitative liquid chromatography (LC)-MS/MS data revealed that among 1 627 selected pairs of orthologs, 174 genes in the IPAV strain were upregulated, with enrichment mainly in classes of energy production and lipid metabolism. In contrast, 228 genes in strain 56601 were upregulated, with the majority enriched in the categories of protein translation and DNA replication/repair. The combination of genomic and proteomic approaches illustrated that altered expression or mutations in critical genes, such as those encoding a Ser/Thr kinase, carbon-starvation protein CstA, glutamine synthetase, GTP-binding protein BipA, ribonucleotide-diphosphate reductase and phosphate transporter, and alterations in the translational profile of lipoproteins or outer membrane proteins are likely to account for the virulence attenuation in strain IPAV.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A recombinant pertussis DNA vaccine was described here with its immunogenicity and the ability to induce protection against B. pertussis infection in mice. Three immunodominant antigen gene fragments of pertussis, pertussis toxin subunit 1 (pts1), fragments of pertactin (prn) and filamentous hemagglutinin (fha), were recombined as fragment pts1-prn-fha named ppf, and it was cloned to plasmid pVAX1 as pVAX1/ppf. Compared to those injected with pVAX1, the mice injected with pVAX1/ppf significantly elicited more antigen specific antibody anti-PTS1, anti-PRN, anti-FHA and cytokine IL-10, IFN-gamma. When pGM-CSF was coinjected with pVAX1/ppf, the mice showed significantly increases of the three antibodies and cytokine IL-10, IL-4, IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha compared to those injected with pVAX1 only. The mice in group pVAX1/ppf & pGM-CSF, in particular; induced much more anti-PTS1, IL-4 and TNF-alpha than those in group pVAX1/ppf. In the intracerebral mouse protection test, the mice immunized with pVAX1/ppf or pVAX1/ppf & pGM-CSF induced protection to a lethal dose of B. pertussis. The results indicate that recombinant DNA vaccine and pGM-CSF coinjection can induce protective immunity against B. pertussis, demonstrating a valuable method to prevent pertussis.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2006 · Microbiology and Immunology