[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To estimate the physical dose at the center of spread-out Bragg peaks (SOBP) for various conditions of the irradiation system, a semiempirical approach was applied. The dose at the center of the SOBP depends on the field size because of large-angle scattering particles in the water phantom. For a small field of 5 x 5 cm2, the dose was reduced to 99.2%, 97.5%, and 96.5% of the dose used for the open field in the case of 290, 350, and 400 MeV/n carbon beams, respectively. Based on the three-Gaussian form of the lateral dose distributions of the carbon pencil beam, which has previously been shown to be effective for describing scattered carbon beams, we reconstructed the dose distributions of the SOBP beam. The reconstructed lateral dose distribution reproduced the measured lateral dose distributions very well. The field-size dependencies calculated using the reconstructed lateral dose distribution of the therapeutic carbon beam agreed with the measured dose dependency very well. The reconstructed beam was also used for irregularly shaped fields. The resultant dose distribution agreed with the measured dose distribution. The reconstructed beams were found to be applicable to the treatment-planning system.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In carbon therapy, doses at center of spread-out Bragg peaks depend on field size. For a small field of 5 x 5 cm2, the central dose reduces to 96% of the central dose for the open field in case of 400 MeV/n carbon beam. Assuming the broad beam injected to the water phantom is made up of many pencil beams, the transverse dose distribution can be reconstructed by summing the dose distribution of the pencil beams. We estimated dose profiles of this pencil beam through measurements of dose distributions of broad uniform beams blocked half of the irradiation fields. The dose at a distance of a few cm from the edge of the irradiation field reaches up to a few percent of the central dose. From radiation quality measurements of this penumbra, the large-angle scattered particles were found to be secondary fragments which have lower LET than primary carbon beams. Carbon ions break up in beam modifying devices or in water phantom through nuclear interaction with target nuclei. The angular distributions of these fragmented nuclei are much broader than those of primary carbon particles. The transverse dose distribution of the pencil beam can be approximated by a function of the three-Gaussian form. For a simplest case of mono-energetic beam, contributions of the Gaussian components which have large mean deviations become larger as the depth in the water phantom increases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to support a routine QA of the CT number for treatment planning, we developed a phantom and a sample holder for easy handling. At most particle radiotherapy facilities in Japan, the CT number is calibrated by the poly-binary calibration method using liquid samples of 100% ethanol and 40% K(2)HPO(4) which are set in a cylindrical water phantom. However it is hard to remove air bubbles from the calibration liquid sample and maintain its stable concentration for a long time. So much time is needed for QA of the CT number. The new sample holder, which we developed, was able to keep a stable concentration of the liquid for more than 300 days. Consequently, the CT number of each sample, which was set in a water equivalent solid phantom, was the same as the CT number in a water phantom within 7 HU. In addition, we developed software which could measure the CT number of each sample semi-automatically and could calculate the calibration coefficients between the CT number and water equivalent length (WEL). Using this software, we could check the calibration result instantly at the time of CT data acquisition. These tools should be useful to carry out calibration of the CT-WEL routinely in a short time.
No preview · Article · Feb 2006 · Igaku butsuri: Nihon Igaku Butsuri Gakkai kikanshi = Japanese journal of medical physics: an official journal of Japan Society of Medical Physics