Iacopo Carusotto

Università degli Studi di Trento, Trient, Trentino-Alto Adige, Italy

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Publications (185)624.31 Total impact

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    Full-text · Dataset · Feb 2016
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    Full-text · Dataset · Feb 2016
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    F. Bassani · M. Artoni · G.C. La Rocca · I. Carusotto

    Full-text · Dataset · Jan 2016
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    ABSTRACT: Superfluidity is a remarkable manifestation of quantum many-body effects at the macroscopic scale. Various features of superfluidity in liquid He and Bose-Einstein condensates remain challenging to study, limited by the complexity of the experiments or difficulty in measuring in situ all parameters of the wave function. There is therefore a continuous search for alternative superfluids to address these challenges. We demonstrate superfluid behaviour in a room-temperature system that relies on photons rather than atoms for the supporting fluid medium. The repulsive photon- photon interaction is mediated by a thermal optical nonlinearity and is inherently nonlocal. We experimentally observe the nucleation of quantised vortices from an extended physical obstacle and the nonlocal nature of the fluid is shown to deform the vortex geometry. Our results show that photon fluids provide a valid alternative to other superfluids with applications from the study of nonlinear wave turbulence and analogue gravity to artificial gauge fields.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015
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    ABSTRACT: The Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless mechanism, in which a phase transition is mediated by the proliferation of topological defects, governs the critical behavior of a wide range of equilibrium two-dimensional systems with a continuous symmetry, ranging from spin systems to superconducting thin films and two-dimensional Bose fluids, such as liquid helium and ultracold atoms. We show here that this phenomenon is not restricted to thermal equilibrium, rather it survives more generally in a dissipative highly nonequilibrium system driven into a steady state. By considering a quantum fluid of polaritons of an experimentally relevant size, in the so-called optical parametric oscillator regime, we demonstrate that it indeed undergoes a phase transition associated with a vortex binding-unbinding mechanism. Yet, the exponent of the power-law decay of the first-order correlation function in the (algebraically) ordered phase can exceed the equilibrium upper limit: this shows that the ordered phase of driven-dissipative systems can sustain a higher level of collective excitations before the order is destroyed by topological defects. Our work suggests that the macroscopic coherence phenomena, observed recently in interacting two-dimensional light-matter systems, result from a nonequilibrium phase transition of the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless rather than the Bose-Einstein condensation type.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Physical Review X
  • P. -É. Larré · I. Carusotto
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    ABSTRACT: We study the coherence properties of a laser beam after propagation along a one-dimensional nonlinear optical waveguide. Within the paraxial, slowly-varying-envelope, and single-transverse-mode approximations, the quantum propagation of the photon field in the nonlinear medium is mapped onto a quantum Gross-Pitaevskii-type evolution of a closed one-dimensional system of many interacting photons. Upon crossing the entrance and the back faces of the waveguide, the photon-photon interaction parameter undergoes two sudden jumps, resulting in a pair of quantum quenches of the system's Hamiltonian. In the weak-interaction regime, we use the modulus-phase Bogoliubov theory of dilute Bose gases to describe the quantum fluctuations of the fluid of light and predict that correlations typical of a prethermalized state emerge locally in their final form and propagate in a light-cone way at the Bogoliubov speed of sound in the photon fluid. This peculiar relaxation dynamics, visible in the light exiting the waveguide, results in a loss of long-lived coherence in the beam of light.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015
  • Grazia Salerno · Tomoki Ozawa · Hannah M. Price · Iacopo Carusotto
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    ABSTRACT: We theoretically propose how to observe topological effects in a generic classical system of coupled harmonic oscillators, such as classical pendula or lumped-element electric circuits, whose oscillation frequency is modulated fast in time. Making use of Floquet theory in the high frequency limit, we identify a regime in which the system is accurately described by a Harper-Hofstadter model where the synthetic magnetic field can be externally tuned via the phase of the frequency-modulation of the different oscillators. We illustrate how the topologically-protected chiral edge states, as well as the Hofstadter butterfly of bulk bands, can be observed in the driven-dissipative steady state under a monochromatic drive. In analogy with the integer quantum Hall effect, we show how the topological Chern numbers of the bands can be extracted from the mean transverse shift of the steady-state oscillation amplitude distribution. Finally we discuss the regime where the analogy with the Harper-Hofstadter model breaks down.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Recent technological advances in integrated photonics have spurred on the study of topological phenomena in engineered bosonic systems. Indeed, the controllability of silicon ring-resonator arrays has opened up new perspectives for building lattices for photons with topologically non-trivial bands and integrating them into photonic devices for practical applications. Here, we push these ideas even further by exploiting the different modes of a silicon ring-resonator as an extra dimension for photons. Tunneling along this "synthetic" dimension is implemented via an external time-dependent modulation that allows for the generation of engineered gauge fields. We present how this approach can be used to generate a variety of exciting topological phenomena in integrated photonics, ranging from (i) a topologically-robust optical isolator in a spatially 1D ring-resonator chain to (ii) a driven-dissipative analogue of the 4D quantum Hall effect in a spatially 3D resonator lattice. Our proposal paves the way towards the use of topological effects in the design of novel photonic lattices supporting many frequency channels and displaying higher connectivities.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015
  • Andrei C. Berceanu · Hannah M. Price · Tomoki Ozawa · Iacopo Carusotto
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    ABSTRACT: We theoretically study the driven-dissipative Harper-Hofstadter model on a 2D square lattice in the presence of a weak harmonic trap. Without pumping and loss, the eigenstates of this system can be understood, in certain limits, as momentum-space toroidal Landau levels, where the Berry curvature, a geometrical property of an energy band, acts like a momentum-space magnetic field. We show that key features of these eigenstates can be observed in the steady-state of the driven-dissipative system under a monochromatic coherent drive, and present a realistic proposal for an optical experiment using state-of-the-art coupled cavity arrays. We discuss how such spectroscopic measurements may be used to probe effects associated both with the non-Abelian Berry connection and with the synthetic magnetic gauge.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015
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    Full-text · Dataset · Sep 2015
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    ABSTRACT: The experimental study of edge states in atomically-thin layered materials remains a challenge due to the difficult control of the geometry of the sample terminations, the stability of dangling bonds and the need to measure local properties. In the case of graphene, localised edge modes have been predicted in zig-zag and bearded edges, characterised by flat dispersions connecting the Dirac points. Polaritons in semiconductor microcavities have recently emerged as an extraordinary photonic platform to emulate 1D and 2D Hamiltonians, allowing the direct visualization of the wavefunctions in both real- and momentum-space as well as of the energy dispersion of eigenstates via photoluminescence experiments. Here we report on the observation of edge states in a honeycomb lattice of coupled micropillars. The lowest two bands of this structure arise from the coupling of the lowest energy modes of the micropillars, and emulate the {\pi} and {\pi}* bands of graphene. We show the momentum space dispersion of the edge states associated to the zig-zag and bearded edges, holding unidimensional quasi-flat bands. Additionally, we evaluate polarisation effects characteristic of polaritons on the properties of these states.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · 2D Materials
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    ABSTRACT: We report on a joint theoretical and experimental study of an analogue of the Lamb shift in the photonic framework. The platform is an integrated photonic device consisting of a single mode waveguide vertically coupled to a disk-shaped microresonator. The presence of a neighboring waveguide induces a reactive inter-mode coupling in the resonator, an effect analogous to an off-diagonal Lamb shift from atomic physics. Waveguide mediated coupling of different radial families results in peculiar Fano lineshapes in the waveguide transmission spectra, which manifests for different relative frequency shifts of the modes at different azimuthal numbers. Finally, a non-linear model for the dinamic tuning of the Fano lineshape under continuous wave pumping conditions is proposed.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
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    ABSTRACT: We propose a realistic scheme to detect the 4D quantum Hall effect using ultracold atoms. Based on contemporary technology, motion along a synthetic fourth dimension is accomplished through controlled transitions between internal states of atoms arranged in a 3D optical lattice. From a semi-classical analysis, we identify the linear and non-linear quantized current responses of our 4D model, relating these to the underlying topology of the Bloch bands. We then propose realistic experimental protocols, based on current or center-of-mass-drift measurements, to observe both a "fractional" Hall conductivity and to extract the topological 2nd Chern number. Our proposal sets the stage for future experiments exploring novel topological phases in higher dimensions.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Physical Review Letters
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    Grazia Salerno · Tomoki Ozawa · Hannah M. Price · Iacopo Carusotto
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    ABSTRACT: We study the driven-dissipative steady-state of a coherently-driven Bose field in a honeycomb lattice geometry. In the presence of a suitable spatial modulation of the hopping amplitudes, a valley-dependent artificial magnetic field appears and the low-energy eigenmodes have the form of relativistic Landau levels. We show how the main properties of the Landau levels can be extracted by observing the peaks in the absorption spectrum of the system and the corresponding spatial intensity distribution. Finally, quantitative predictions for realistic lattices based on photonic or microwave technologies are discussed.
    Preview · Article · Apr 2015 · 2D Materials
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    ABSTRACT: We use coupled micropillars etched out of a semiconductor microcavity to engineer a spin-orbit Hamiltonian for photons and polaritons in a microstructure. The coupling between the spin and orbital momentum arises from the polarization-dependent confinement and tunneling of photons between adjacent micropillars arranged in the form of a hexagonal photonic molecule. It results in polariton eigenstates with distinct polarization patterns, which are revealed in photoluminescence experiments in the regime of polariton condensation. Thanks to the strong polariton nonlinearities, our system provides a photonic workbench for the quantum simulation of the interplay between interactions and spin-orbit effects, particularly when extended to two-dimensional lattices.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Physical Review X
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    ABSTRACT: Superfluidity, the ability of a liquid or gas to flow with zero viscosity, is one of the most remarkable implications of collective quantum coherence. In equilibrium systems like liquid 4He and ultracold atomic gases, superfluid behaviour conjugates diverse yet related phenomena, such as persistency of metastable flow in multiply connected geometries and the existence of a critical velocity for frictionless flow when hitting a static defect. The link between these different aspects of superfluid behaviour is far less clear in driven-dissipative systems displaying collective coherence, such as microcavity polaritons, which raises important questions about their concurrency. With a joint theoretical and experimental study, we show that the scenario is particularly rich for polaritons driven in a three-fluid collective coherent regime so-called optical parametric oscillator. On the one hand, the spontaneous macroscopic coherence following the phase locking of the signal and idler fluids has been shown to be responsible for their simultaneous quantized flow metastability. On the other hand, we show here that pump, signal and idler have distinct responses when hitting a static defect; while the signal displays hardly appreciable modulations, the ones appearing in pump and idler are determined by their mutual coupling due to nonlinear and parametric processes.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Physical Review B
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    Alessio Chiocchetta · Andrea Gambassi · Iacopo Carusotto
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    ABSTRACT: After reviewing the interpretation of laser operation as a non-equilibrium Bose-Einstein condensation phase transition, we illustrate the novel features arising from the non-equilibrium nature of photon and polariton Bose-Einstein condensates recently observed in experiments. We then proposea quantitative criterion to experimentally assess the equilibrium vs. non-equilibrium nature of a specific condensation process, based on fluctuation-dissipation relations. The power of this criterion is illustrated on two models which shows very different behaviours.
    Preview · Article · Mar 2015
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    ABSTRACT: We report an experimental study of superfluid hydrodynamic effects in a one-dimensional polariton fluid flowing along a laterally patterned semiconductor microcavity and hitting a micron-sized engineered defect. At high excitation power, superfluid propagation effects are observed in the polariton dynamics; in particular, a sharp acoustic horizon is formed at the defect position, separating regions of sub- and supersonic flow. Our experimental findings are quantitatively reproduced by theoretical calculations based on a generalized Gross-Pitaevskii equation. Promising perspectives to observe Hawking radiation via photon correlation measurements are illustrated.
    Full-text · Dataset · Feb 2015
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    Full-text · Dataset · Feb 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Quantum gases of atoms and exciton-polaritons are nowadays a well established theoretical and experimental tool for fundamental studies of quantum many-body physics and suggest promising applications to quantum computing. Given their technological complexity, it is of paramount interest to devise other systems where such quantum many-body physics can be investigated at a lesser technological expense. Here we examine a relatively well-known system of laser light propagating through thermo-optical defocusing media: based on a hydrodynamical description of light as a quantum fluid of interacting photons, we propose such systems as a valid, room temperature alternative to atomic or exciton-polariton condensates for studies of many-body physics. First, we show that by using a technique traditionally used in oceanography, it is possible to perform a direct measurement of the single-particle part of the dispersion relation of the elementary excitations on top of the photon fluid and to detect its global flow. Then, using a pump-and-probe set-up, we investigate the collective nature of low-wavevector sound modes of the fluid and we examine how the nonlocal nature of the optical nonlinearity significantly alters the Bogoliubov dispersion even for relatively low spatial frequencies.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Optica

Publication Stats

5k Citations
624.31 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2005-2015
    • Università degli Studi di Trento
      • Department of Physics
      Trient, Trentino-Alto Adige, Italy
  • 2006
    • Politecnico di Torino
      Torino, Piedmont, Italy
  • 2001-2004
    • Ecole Normale Supérieure de Paris
      • Laboratoire Kastler-Brossel
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
    • Università degli Studi di Salerno
      • Department of Physics "E. R. Caianiello" DF
      Fisciano, Campania, Italy
  • 1997-2003
    • Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa
      • Laboratory NEST: National Enterprise for Nano-Science and Nano-Technology
      Pisa, Tuscany, Italy
  • 2000
    • European Laboratory for Non-Linear Spectroscopy
      Sesto, Tuscany, Italy