[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transmission of drug-resistant HIV-1 is well recognized. However, the impact of such transmission on natural history of infection remains unknown.
Three hundred HIV-1-infected, antiretroviral-naive individuals, recruited between 1987 and 1993, and with resistance tests undertaken within 18 months of infection were assessed. We estimated the impact of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) on subsequent CD4 cell count decline in the absence of treatment. We also used Kaplan-Meier methods to assess the response to antiretroviral therapy based on the number of active drugs utilized (according to genotypic resistance results).
Infection with any form of drug-resistant HIV-1 was associated with a steeper decline of CD4 cell count over the first year of infection. Estimated rates of decline in the first year were 5.0 [95% confidence interval (CI), 2.8-7.3] and 1.7 (95% CI, 0.8-2.6) radicalCD4 cells per year for TDR and no TDR, respectively (P = 0.005). For an individual at a CD4 cell count of 500 cells/microl at seroconversion, these rates correspond to a CD4 cell loss of 199 and 73 cells/microl, respectively, in the first year. Thereafter we found no evidence of a difference in the rate of CD4 cell decline (P = 0.32). Initiation of HAART after calendar year 2000, but not number of active drugs, was associated with improved responses.
The impact of transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance on CD4 cell decline is time dependent, with greater rates of decline in the first year following infection. We found no evidence of a longer term effect of TDR on natural history of HIV-1 infection.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To examine factors influencing the rate of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) among seroconverters, with particular emphasis on 3 widely used genotypic drug resistance algorithms.
The study used data from CASCADE (Concerted Action on Seroconversion to AIDS and Death in Europe), a collaboration of seroconverter cohorts in Europe and Canada. Genotypic resistance data were derived within 18 months of the last seronegative test or date of laboratory evidence of acute infection and before the initiation of antiretroviral therapy. The Stanford algorithm was used to analyze each individual's nucleotide sequence. A multivariate logistic model was used to assess independent relationships between the presence of TDR and exposure category, sex, age at seroconversion, and year of seroconversion. The paper also describes 3 alternative definitions of resistance: the Stanford algorithm, the key resistance mutations defined by the International AIDS Society, and the Agence Nationale de Recherches sur le Sida (ANRS) algorithm.
Forty-five of 438 patients (10.3%) seroconverting between 1987 and 2003 were infected with a drug-resistant HIV-1 variant. Forty patients (9.1%) showed resistance mutations to only 1 class of antiretroviral drugs, 2 (0.5%) to 2 classes, and 3 (0.7%) to 3 classes of antiretroviral therapy. It was suggested that individuals seroconverting later in calendar time were more likely to have TDR (relative risk 3.89 and 95% CI: 0.84 to 18.02, and relative risk 4.69 and 95% CI: 1.03 to 21.31, for 1996-1999 and 2000-2003, respectively, compared with pre-1996; P trend = 0.08). This trend was apparent regardless of the definition of TDR used. The total estimated proportion of individuals with TDR varied between 10.3% and 15.5% according to which definition was used.
Evidence was found for the rise of TDR over time. A specific definition of what constitutes TDR rather than a simple list of mutations is needed.
No preview · Article · Jan 2006 · JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes