[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Infantile spasms (IS) are a serious epileptic encephalopathy that occur most commonly between 2 and 14 months. The spasms occur in association with hypsarrhythmia or similar on EEG. There is often coincident psychomotor arrest or regression. Between March 2007 and May 2014, infants with IS and a compatible EEG were enrolled in a multicenter treatment trial. Participating countries were the UK, Germany, Switzerland, Australia and New Zealand. Infants were randomised to receive either hormonal therapy and vigabatrin or hormonal therapy alone. A second stage randomization allowed hormonal treatment to be allocated as either prednisolone or tetracosactide depot. Minimum doses were: vigabatrin 100 mg/kg/day, prednisolone 40 mg per day, or IM tetracosactide depot 0.5 mg on alternate days. Hormonal treatment was continued for 2 weeks and then weaned over 2 weeks. Vigabatrin was continued for 3 months and then weaned over a month. The early primary outcome measure was cessation of spasms on and between days 14 and 42. Analysis is by intention to treat. 377 children were enrolled and early clinical outcome data will be available on 376 (1 case withdrew). 186 were allocated hormonal therapy and vigabatrin and 191 were allocated hormonal therapy alone. We will report on the primary clinical outcome and serious adverse clinical events. Developmental outcome at 18 months of age will be reported in a subsequent paper. To date this is by far the largest treatment study of infantile spasms ever undertaken.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Archives of Disease in Childhood
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We aimed to investigate the relationship between movement disorders, changes on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and vigabatrin therapy in children with infantile spasms.
Retrospective review and brain MRI analysis of children enrolled in the International Collaborative Infantile Spasms Study (ICISS) who developed a movement disorder on vigabatrin therapy. Comparisons were made with controls within ICISS who had no movement disorder.
Ten of 124 infants had a movement disorder and in eight it had developed on vigabatrin therapy. Two had a movement disorder that resolved on dose-reduction of vigabatrin, one had improvement on withdrawing vigabatrin, two had resolution without any dose change, and in three it persisted despite vigabatrin withdrawal. The typical brain MRI changes associated with vigabatrin therapy were noted in two infants. Ten control infants were identified. Typical MRI changes noted with vigabatrin were noted in three controls.
It is possible that in two out of eight cases, vigabatrin was associated with the development of a movement disorder. In six out of eight cases a causal relationship was less plausible. The majority of infants treated with vigabatrin did not develop a movement disorder. MRI changes associated with vigabatrin do not appear to be specifically related to the movement disorder.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2013 · Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Infantile spasms is a severe infantile seizure disorder. Several factors affect developmental outcome, especially the underlying etiology of the spasms. Treatment also affects outcome. Both age at onset of spasms and lead time to treatment (the time from onset of spasms to start of treatment) may be important. We investigated these factors.
Developmental assessment using Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales (VABS) at 4 years of age in infants enrolled in the United Kingdom Infantile Spasms Study. Date of or age at onset of spasms was obtained prospectively. Lead time to treatment was then categorized into five categories. The effects of lead time to treatment, age of onset of spasms, etiology, and treatment on developmental outcome were investigated using multiple linear regression.
Age of onset ranged (77 infants) from <1 to 10 months (mean 5.2, standard deviation 2.1). Lead time to treatment was 7 days or less in 11, 8-14 days in 16, 15 days to 1 month in 8, 1-2 months in 15, >2 months in 21 and not known in 6. Each month of reduction in age at onset of spasms was associated with a 3.1 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.64-5.5, p = 0.03] decrease, and each increase in category of lead time duration associated with a 3.9 (95% CI 7.3-0.4, p = 0.014) decrease in VABS, respectively. There was a significant interaction between treatment allocation and etiology with the benefit in VABS in those allocated steroid therapy being in children with no identified etiology (coefficient 29.9, p=0.004).
Both prompt diagnosis and prompt treatment of infantile spasms may help prevent subsequent developmental delay. Younger infants may be more at risk from the epileptic encephalopathy than older infants.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To examine the underlying etiology of infantile spasms from the United Kingdom Infantile Spasms Study (UKISS), using the pediatric adaptation of ICD 10.
Infants were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial or a parallel epidemiologic study. Etiological information included history, examination, and investigations. The infants were classified as proven etiology, if a neurologic disease was identified; as no identified etiology, if no neurologic disease was identified; and as not fully investigated, if a major piece of information was missing. Proven etiology was subclassified using the pediatric adaptation of ICD 10. The results were then examined to identify further methods of classification.
Of 207 infants, 127 (61%) had proven etiology, 68 (33%) had no identified etiology, and 12 (6%) were not fully investigated. Etiologies were prenatal in 63, perinatal in 38, postnatal in 8, and 18 other. The most common etiologies were: hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) 21 (10%), chromosomal 16 (8%), malformations 16 (8%), stroke 16 (8%), tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) 15 (7%), and periventricular leukomalacia or hemorrhage 11 (5%). The remaining 32 etiologies were all individually uncommon. Response to treatment is given for individual etiologies.
Our method of classification allows the reporting of results by individual diseases, disease groups, or categories and is structured and clear. It avoids the use of poorly defined terms such as symptomatic and cryptogenic. It can adapt to new neurologic diseases, such as gene defects, and can be used for comparison of different groups of infants, thereby aiding meta-analysis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Infantile spasms is the name given to a difficult to treat, severe infantile epilepsy with high morbidity. The United Kingdom Infantile Spasms Study (UKISS) showed that absence of spasms on days 13 and 14 after randomisation was more common in infants allocated hormonal treatments than vigabatrin. At 12-14 months, those with no identified aetiology allocated hormonal treatment had better development. However, epilepsy outcome was not affected by treatment allocated. It is not known if the difference in development persists as the infants grow.
Infants in UKISS were followed up blind to treatment allocation by telephone at a mean age of 4 years using the Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales (VABS) and an epilepsy questionnaire.
9 of 107 enrolled infants had died. 77 were traced and consented to take part. The median (quartile) VABS scores were 60 (42, 97) for the 39 allocated hormonal treatment and 50 (36, 67) for the 38 allocated vigabatrin (Mann-Whitney U=575; p=0.091; median difference (95% CI): 8 (-1 to 19)). For those with no identified aetiology, VABS scores were 96 (52, 102) for the 21 allocated hormonal treatment and 63 (37, 92) for the 16 allocated vigabatrin (U=98.5; p=0.033; median difference (95% CI): 14 (1 to 42)).The proportions in each treatment group with epilepsy were similar.
For all 77 infants, development and epilepsy outcomes were not significantly different between the two treatment groups. The better development seen at 14 months in those with no identified aetiology allocated hormonal treatment was seen again at 4 years in this study.
Full-text · Article · May 2010 · Archives of Disease in Childhood
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Infantile spasms is a severe infantile seizure disorder that is difficult to treat and has a high morbidity. Absence of spasms on days 13 and 14 after randomisation is more common in infants allocated hormone treatments than in those allocated vigabatrin. We sought to assess whether early control of spasms is associated with improved developmental or epilepsy outcomes.
Infants enrolled in the United Kingdom Infantile Spasms Study (UKISS) were randomly assigned hormone treatment (n=55) or vigabatrin (n=52) and were followed up until clinical assessment at 12-14 months of age. We assessed neurodevelopment with the Vineland adaptive behaviour scales (VABS) at 14 months of age on an intention to treat basis.
Of 107 infants enrolled, five died and 101 survivors reached both follow-up assessments. Absence of spasms at final clinical assessment (hormone 41/55 [75%] vs vigabatrin 39/51 [76%]) was similar in each treatment group (difference 1.9%, 95% CI -18.3% to 14.4%; chi(2)=0.05; p=0.82). Mean VABS score did not differ significantly (hormone 78.6 [SD 16.8] vs vigabatrin 77.5 [SD 12.7]; difference 1.0, 95% CI -4.9 to 7.0; t(99)=0.35, p=0.73). In infants with no identified underlying aetiology, the mean VABS score was higher in those allocated hormone treatment than in those allocated vigabatrin (88.2 [17.3] vs 78.9 [14.3]; difference 9.3, 95% CI 1.2 to 17.3; t(95)=2.28, p=0.025).
Hormone treatment controls spasms better than does vigabatrin initially, but not at 12-14 months of age. Better initial control of spasms by hormone treatment in those with no identified underlying aetiology may lead to improved developmental outcome.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2005 · The Lancet Neurology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Infantile spasms, which comprise a severe infantile seizure disorder, have a high morbidity and are difficult to treat. Hormonal treatments (adrenocorticotropic hormone and prednisolone) have been the main therapy for decades, although little evidence supports their use. Vigabatrin has been recorded to have a beneficial effect in this disorder. We aimed to compare the effects of vigabatrin with those of prednisolone and tetracosactide in the treatment of infantile spasms.
The United Kingdom Infantile Spasms Study assessed these treatments in a multicentre, randomised controlled trial in 150 hospitals in the UK. The primary outcome was cessation of spasms on days 13 and 14. Minimum doses were vigabatrin 100 mg/kg per day, oral prednisolone 40 mg per day, or intramuscular tetracosactide depot 0.5 mg (40 IU) on alternate days. Analysis was by intention to treat.
Of 208 infants screened and assessed, 107 were randomly assigned to vigabatrin (n=52) or hormonal treatments (prednisolone n=30, tetracosactide n=25). None was lost to follow-up. Proportions with no spasms on days 13 and 14 were: 40 (73%) of 55 infants assigned hormonal treatments (prednisolone 21/30 [70%], tetracosactide 19/25 [76%]) and 28 (54%) of 52 infants assigned vigabatrin (difference 19%, 95% CI 1%-36%, p=0.043). Two infants allocated tetracosactide and one allocated vigabatrin received prednisolone. Adverse events were reported in 30 (55%) of 55 infants on hormonal treatments and 28 (54%) of 52 infants on vigabatrin. No deaths were recorded.
Cessation of spasms was more likely in infants given hormonal treatments than those given vigabatrin. Adverse events were common with both treatments.